This may be in-patient hospital care or out-patient consultation at specialist centers or day hospitals. It includes care, diagnosis, therapy, rehabilitation and certain preventive care, as well as health promotion, health education and prevention of illness whose nature makes it appropriate to handle at this level. Specialized care guarantees the continuity of integrated patient care once the capabilities of primary care have been exhausted and until matters can be returned to that level.
Insofar as patient condition allows, specialized care is offered in out-patient consultation and in day hospitals. As of , Spain recognizes fifty distinct medical specialties. The largest number of these are nursing professionals; that is also the profession with the highest percentage of women. The following table is a breakdown of some of the INE statistics.
No exact breakdown is available to indicate what number of these might be related to mental health and psychotherapy or clinical psychology. It defines "healthcare center" centro sanitario as the organized combination of technical means and installations in which trained professionals, identified by their official certification or professional qualification, undertake basic health care activities with the purpose of improving people's health.
These may be integrated into one or more health services, which constitute its healthcare portfolio. Certain healthcare centers centros sanitarios are referred to as consultorios , a term roughly equivalent to British English "surgery" or American English "doctor's office. A health center centro de salud , distinct from the smaller "healthcare center" centro sanitario in Spain's SNS is main physical and functional structure devoted to coordinated global, integral, permanent and continuing primary care, based in a team of health care professionals and other professionals who work there as a team.
Health centers basically practice the general medicine or family medicine , providing a unity of care in which a specialist in community and family medicine is responsible to provide preventive care, health promotion, diagnosis and basic treatment on an outpatient basis. Specialized centers are healthcare centers where different health care professionals provide services to particular group identified by common pathologies, age, or other common characteristics.
Specialized health care establishments are private centers that provide a suite of health care products, ranging from medicines to sophisticated prostheses. These establishments are grouped by specialty and, on that account, must have accredited or certified technical personnel.
Among these establishments are:. A hospital is a health care establishment that provides inpatient care and specialized and other care, providing such services as are needed in its geographical area. A hospital can be a single structure or a hospital complex, even including branch buildings off of its main campus; it can also integrate any number of specialized centers.
A similar concept to a hospital is a clinic. Some of these clinics include very up-to-date operating theaters capable of providing minimally invasive surgery , and "hospitalization zones" where patients can recuperate on an inpatient basis. In large Spanish cities, there are numerous clinics. These are the facilities that are normally used by health care professionals whose medical societies cover it: The General Health Law of establishes that the level of specialized care provided in hospitals and their dependent specialty centers will focus care on complex health problems.
Hospital centers will develop, besides their functions strictly related to health care, functions of health promotion, prevention of illnesses and investigation and teaching, in accord with the programs of each area of health, with the object of complementing their activities with those developed by the primary care network. As elsewhere in the world, the size of hospitals in Spain is often gauged by the number of "installed beds" camas instaladas.
This is the number of hospital beds with fixed locations; at any given time, some beds may be out of commission. General hospitals treat a broad range of pathologies and typically provide services including surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, and pediatrics. Other hospitals are more specialized. The following list includes most of the common types of specialized hospitals in Spain, but is not intended to be exhaustive. Spanish government-run healthcare administrations sign health care contracts conciertos sanitarios with privately run entities that provide health care services.
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They are regulated by the provisions of the General Health Law and the current rules of government contracting. The patrimonial dependency dependencia patrimonial of a hospital or other health care facility is the individual or other juridical entity that owns, at least, the building occupied by the facility. There are also a few cases where patrimony is shared by two or more public entities on a consortium basis. The National Catalog of Hospitals contains information about the patrimonial dependency of hospitals, summarized as follows; hospital complexes are each counted here as a single hospital: The National Catalog of Hospitals gives the following breakdown of types of hospitals.
Health care centers, principally hospitals and specialty centers, have high technology capabilities used primarily to perform better patient diagnoses. The following breakdown of such facilities is based on the National Catalog of Hospitals. Article 7 of the Law of Cohesion establishes the catalog of services of the National Health System, with the object of guaranteeing the basic and common conditions for an adequate level of integrated, continuous health care.
Health care services include prevention, diagnosis, therapy and rehabilitation, as well as promotion and maintenance of citizens' health. Primary care services constitute the majority of the services of the SNS; this is true of health promotion and education, prevention of illness, hands-on health care, health maintenance, recuperation, rehabilitation, and social work.
The following catalog demonstrates preventive activities, health promotion and education, family care and community care as performed in primary care centers. At times, patients will require specialized health care services. These may be provided in external consultations, day hospitals, or on an inpatient basis.
Examples of specialized services are intensive and critical care , anesthesia , defibrillation , but also some forms of hemotherapy , rehabilitation, and even nutrition, diet, post-partum treatment, and family planning, especially assisted reproductive technology. Specialized treatment can also be involved in detecation, prescription and implementation of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, especially those related to prenatal diagnosis in risk groups, diagnosis by imaging, interventionist radiology , hemodynamics , nuclear medicine , neurophysiology , endoscopy , lab tests, biopsies , radiotherapy , radiosurgery , renal lithotripsy , dialysis , techniques of respiratory therapy , organ transplants and other tissue and cell transplants.
Emergency medicine is health care provided in cases where emergency care is needed. Emergency medicine is practiced both in healthcare facilities and at the site of work accidents , traffic accidents , etc. Emergency medicine is a hour-a-day service provided, in particular, by physicians and other medical professionals in hospital emergency rooms , but also in ambulances , medical evacuation helicopters , etc. Pharmaceutical services include medications and health products are provided to patients according to their clinical needs, in precise doses and over an adequate period at the least cost possible.
Medications are dispensed by pharmacies, each of which is headed by a licensed pharmacist. Exceptions to this requirement are cosmetics, dietetic products, dental products and other sanitary products, as well as drugs classified as advertising, homeopathic medicines, and articles and accessories advertised to the general public and where the purchaser pays the full price that is, no money comes from SNS-related sources. Spanish patients make a copayment when they acquire pharmaceuticals.
The distribution of the cost is as follows: Orthoprosthetic services can be permanent surgically implanted prostheses , external prostheses, special orthoses and prostheses including hearing aids and earmolds for children up to age 16 suffering from bilateral hearing impairments.
The health care transport infrastructure transports people who are ill, accident victims, or otherwise in need of medical attention. It includes ambulances , as well as air ambulances: For most purposes, of course, ground transport is preferred, but sometimes distances or the difficulty of reaching particular locations make air transport more practical. In recent years, this population has been increasing slowly but progressively. In the last decade, the increase has been largely through immigration: These numbers count only citizens and legal immigrants.
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The health care system must also provide services for thousands of illegal immigrants and for the many tourists who visit Spain each year. This structure is typical of a modern demographic regimen , with an evolution toward an aging population and a declining birth rate. This means that Spain has to expect an increase in use of the services that are targeted at older adults. This effect is further exacerbated by a steadily increasing life expectancy.
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. Surgical hospitals Medical-surgical hospitals Maternity hospitals Children's hospitals Maternity and Children's hospitals materno-infantil Psychiatric hospitals Hospitals for illnesses of the thorax Oncological hospitals Ophthalmic hospitals Traumatological and rehabilitation hospitals Psycho-physical rehabilitation hospitals Geriatric and longterm care hospitals Leprological and dermatological hospitals.
Text of the law, in Spanish. Article 2, section Trece. Checked on March 18, Journal of European Social Policy. Environment and Planning C: Archived from the original on Retrieved from " https: Medical and health organisations based in Spain Public services of Spain Universal healthcare Publicly funded health care. Pages using Timeline Wikipedia articles in need of updating from October All Wikipedia articles in need of updating Articles containing Spanish-language text.
Spanish nationality law
This law has been reformed on 17 December , 23 December , 2 November , and most recently 2 October The approval of article 11 of the constitution was somewhat controversial, mostly due to the possible confusion it would cause with the term " nationalities ", in reference to those communities or regions in Spain with a special historical and cultural identity,  a term that had been used in the second article of the constitution. Another point of constitutional conflict was that the creation of European Union citizenship gave all nationals of EU member the same basic rights in all member States, including the right of active and passive suffrage in municipal elections.
The constitution was reformed to allow this. Spanish legislation regarding nationality establishes two types of nationality: According to article 17 of the Spanish Civil Code, Spaniards by origin are: Foreign minors under the age of 18 acquire Spanish nationality by origin upon being adopted by a Spanish national.
All other individuals that acquire Spanish nationality, other than by which is specified above, are "Spaniards not by origin". Article 20 of the Spanish Civil Code, established that the following individuals have the right to apply lit.
Spanish nationality by option must be claimed within two years after their 18th birthday or after their "emancipation", regardless of age. Spanish nationality by option does not confer "nationality by origin" unless otherwise specified i.
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Spanish nationality can be acquired by naturalisation, which is given only at the discretion of the government through a Royal Decree, and under exceptional circumstances, for example to notable individuals. Any individual can also request Spanish nationality after a period of continuous legal residence, as long as he or she is 18 years or older, or through a legal representative if he or she is younger.
The law required applicants to apply within three years from 1 October , provide evidence of their Sephardi origin and some connection with Spain, and pass examinations on the Spanish language and Spanish culture. A Resolution in May also exempted those aged over By July the government of Spain had registered about 4, applications who had begun the proceedings. A hundred, from various countries, had been granted citizenship, with another expected within weeks.
The Spanish government was taking months to decide on each case. Spanish nationality can be lost under the following circumstances: In addition, Spaniards "not by origin", will lose their nationality if: People who lose Spanish nationality can recover it if they become legal residents in Spain. Since the nationality law automatically grants Spanish nationality to people born of a Spanish parent, a person born outside Spain to a parent of Spanish birth and nationality who uses the citizenship of the other country exclusively since birth is said to "recover" their Spanish nationality should they apply for it.
In recognition of the "injustice produced by the exile" of thousands of Spaniards, the law allowed their descendants to obtain Spanish nationality by origin, specifically for: The law also granted Spanish nationality by origin to those foreign individual members of the International Brigades who had defended the Second Spanish Republic in the Spanish Civil War. In , they were granted Spanish nationality "not by origin", which implied that they had to renounce their previous nationality—Spanish nationals "by origin" cannot be deprived of their nationality, and therefore, these individuals can also retain their original nationality.
By virtue of this law, if an individual, whose father or mother had been originally Spanish and born in Spain, and who had previously acquired Spanish nationality "not by origin" by option art. The period wherein the Spanish nationality could be acquired by the Law of Historical memory started on 27 December , and was concluded on 26 December Even though the Ministry of Foreign Affairs has not yet released the final count, and it is still reviewing applications, , individuals had applied for Spanish nationality through this law by 30 November The measure, championed by the centre-right government of Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy, grants dual citizenship rights for Sephardic Jews, those descended from Jews expelled from Spain in Dual citizenship is permitted for all Spaniards by origin, as long as they declare their will to retain Spanish nationality within three years of the acquisition of another nationality.
This requirement is waived for the acquisition of the nationality of an Iberoamerican country, Andorra, the Philippines, Equatorial Guinea or Portugal, and any other country that Spain may sign a bilateral agreement with. Foreign nationals who acquire Spanish nationality must renounce their previous nationality, unless they are natural-born citizens of an Iberoamerican country, Andorra, the Philippines or Equatorial Guinea.