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They can be summarised under the following headings: Instead, it would assume a role in international politics similar to the ones ascribed to traditional great powers by realists. The strategy of 'Wider West' entails working toward the gradual, possibly parallel and Downloaded by [Institutional Subscription Access] at Germany would remain fully embedded within these institutions, and, in addition, the reach of these institutions would be expanded, thereby gaining some protection from the potential trouble spots on Germany's eastern borders.

According to a third grand strategy, 'Carolingian Europe', the organising concept for German foreign policy should be continued concentration on creating an ever 'deeper' political and economic union with all its willing neighbours in the European Union. This 'hard core' of the European Union would probably consist of Germany, France, Luxemburg, the Netherlands, Belgium and, possibly, Austria, thereby encompassing almost all of the old Carolingian Empire.

Moreover, in adopting such a strategy the core states would push for treaty provisions or treaty interpretations that would allow them to proceed with integration even if the others were either not ready or not willing to go along. Most importantly, it would include Russia as a full member with equal rights. Finally, Germany could opt for 'Mitteleuropa' by trying to extend its influence eastward unilaterally, that is, mostly without, and possibly even against, its Western allies.

As a result, Germany would try to create separate institutions with the neighbouring states in central Europe. If one relates these five grand strategies to the five schools of thought discussed previously one can draw a clearer picture of both the current spectrum of foreign policy opinion in Germany and the broad options that are considered to be a desirable or undesirable and b more or less likely in terms of mere feasibility see Table I.

To be sure, there are differences of opinion among the schools on how the strategy should be spelled out in detail. Among internationalists, for instance, this option would have to go hand-in-hand with a radical transformation of NATO from a military alliance to a system of collective security, which would have to include Russia eventually. For normalisation nationalists, on the other hand, it would be acceptable only if it allowed for a certain 'de-Westernisation' of German identity. These differences notwithstanding, there is agreement even among these two extremes in German foreign policy discourse that the key challenge for Germany is to come to better terms with its eastern neighbours while at the same time staying on good terms with its neighbours to the west.

Second, with the possible exception of the normalisation nationalists, there is a widespread consensus stretching from Eurosceptics to internationalists that 'Mitteleuropa' and, even more, 'World Power' are both highly unlikely and highly undesirable. This leaves the strategies 'Wider West', 'Carolingian Europe' and 'Gesamteuropa' as the more realistic spectrum of options to choose from - which is another way of saying that, based on the country's current discourse, German foreign policy will indeed continue the multilateralist orientation of the old Federal Republic, given that these strategies vary only with regard to two dimensions, the geographical area in which Germany should concentrate its integrationist ambitions and the extent of these ambitions.

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While on current evidence this does not foreshadow any fundamental shift in Germany foreign policy, it may signal that some adjustments in the more ambitious integrationist designs of Germany's European policy may loom ahead. In the past few years Chancellor Kohl has repeatedly pointed out that Downloaded by [Institutional Subscription Access] at We have very good, cordial and friendly relations with the United States, France, Britain and Russia'. Unsurprisingly, his European policy is accordingly geared at binding Germany still faster.

In a way, his is a declaration of 'total peace'. One of his likely rivals in the next elections, the SPD's Gerhard Schroder, explicitly rejects the reference to 'war and peace': We must not have a bad conscience about Europe. To say we want it because we don't trust ourselves unsettles people. In both words and deeds Germany continues to steer the course of multilateralism and integration. After he had passed the Sirens, Ulysses, in Homer's Odyssey, was advised that 'two ways will lie before you, and you must choose between them as you think fit, though I will tell you both'.

One would lead him to the 'Moving Rocks', from where no ship had escaped before. The other course would lead between the two cliffs of Scylla and Charybdis. Although Germany's menu of choices looks more benevolent than that, only fools would say that the choice is an easy one. HarperCollins, , p. The earliest reference to the image of Gulliver as unification approached was made by the German correspondent of the Economist, see J.

Carr, 'When the Wall Comes Down. An early list of seven 'cardinal sins' of German foreign policy behaviour after unification is provided by W. Paterson had already alluded to a 'semi- Downloaded by [Institutional Subscription Access] at Paterson has, however, subsequently 'bid goodbye' to this image W.

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The image of Ulysses in the context of Germany's European policy was first used by R. Structure, Strategy, and Institutional Roles', in R. Harvard University Press, , p. A close reading of foreign policy speeches by German foreign policy makers, especially those of Chancellor Kohl's generation, would show that it is particularly widespread here, although any decision maker would be cautious in explicitly using the image of Germany being bound to a mast.

Bundesministerium der Verteidigung, , esp. See also the statement of T. Garton Ash that Germany 'would be behaving differently from most large states in history' if it were not to seek an upgrading of its military power. He was not, however, predicting that Germany would actually do so; T. For a French persepctive along similar lines see A.

Hoffmann und Campe, On the trade-off between autonomy and security see K.

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Grieco, 'Understanding the Problem of International Cooperation: The Contemporary Debate New York: Columbia University Press, , p. Altfeld, 'The Decision to Ally: The general expectation that Germany would stick to the multilateral orientation of the old FRG was and continues to be widespread among German academics, whether or not they subscribe to realist arguments in general.

For an early sample see R. Wolf, 'Das neue Deutschland - eine 'Weltmacht'? Beck, , pp. Haftendom, 'Im Anfang waren die Alliierten. Leske und Budrich, , pp. Nationale Interessen in internationalen Beziehungen Opladen: Senghaas, 'Was sind der Deutschen Interessen? Suhrkamp Verlag, , pp.

For more recent examples see K. Senghaas, 'Deutschland ist ein "Handelsstaat". Goodman, 'Mars or Minerva? Westdeutscher Verlag, , pp. For the underlying liberal argument, see A.

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Moravcsik, 'Taking Preferences Seriously: Columbia University Press , pp. Reich, The German Predicament Ithaca: Cornell University Press, Although the empirical analysis is limited to the period to the arguments made can easily be extended in all areas covered to subsequent developments. The International Institute for Strategic Studies, , pp. Presse- und Informationsamt der Bundesregierung, No. This statement was also incorporated in the 'Two-plus-Four' treaty. Innenansichten der Einigung Berlin: Siedler Verlag, , pp.

Elbe, Ein runder Tisch mit scharfen Kanten. Der diplomatische Weg zur deutschen Einheit Baden-Baden: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, , pp.

Das Deutsche Reich vor der Einigung - Deutscher Bund und Flickenteppich ● Gehe auf xecykisypife.tk

On the US's interest in keeping a strong Bundeswehr, see P. Rice, Germany Unified and Europe Transformed. Harvard University Press, , pp. According to the German newspaper Die Welt, defence planners in Bonn thought that a reduction to , troops would be acceptable, see 'Nur noch , Soldaten', Die Welt, 10 Feb. For a glimpse at the decision-making process preceding this agreement see K. Stock, 'Wie geht es weiter mit der Bundeswehr? Defence experts of the opposition Social Democrats have long been arguing that even lower numbers are acceptable based on a calculation on 'money and risk', see '"Deutschland hat alle Voraussetzungen erwachsen zu werden".

While stressing that he was not speaking as a NATO official, he emphasised that he was glad to be able to say 'what I could not say as general secretary'; see K. On the historical roots and present significance of the high degree of integration of the Bundeswehr see A. Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft , pp. For an extended and controversial discussion of these and other issues relating to the debate about German 'renationalisation' see also J. Frankreich und das vereinte Deutschland', Europa Archiv, Vol. Gordon, A Certain Idea of France. Princeton University Press, , ch.

Wickert, Und Gott schuf Paris Hamburg: Hoffmann und Campe, , p. Mitterrand had hinted at his intention to remove French troops as early as February , for an inside account see Teltschik, op. On the background to this decision see A. Abwicklung eines deutschlandpolitischen Reliktes oder Instrument einer neuen Dimension der Zusammenarbeit? On the significance of the 'Council on Defence and Security' see P.

For background on the origins and development of the initiative see K. Europa-Union Verlag, , pp.

The Foreign Policy of the Federal Republic of Germany: Still a Civilian Power?

A good summary of US views is provided by P. London, Frank Cass, , p. The European Union and the dream of a common foreign policy based on the present Libya intervention. Developments in Russian Foreign Policy: Implications of Vladimir Putins Article: Obstacles to a common European Foreign Policy. A Case Study on the Intervention in Libya. The elusive quest for security continues - The European Union's foreign policy and it's implications to transatlantic relations. Request a new password via email. The European Union and the dream of a common foreign policy based o Does the Kurdistan Regional Government have a Fore The US foreign policy after the Cold War.


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