What is happening here is the most beautiful thing I have ever seen in a theatre. For twenty years we have been calling for revolution, and we think that the proof of our success would be the moment the revolution began. But it must be remembered: The revolution must go on; that is the crux of the matter in Arrabal , Trans. On account of their dire financial situation, the troupe asked the Festival team to secure free lodgings for the forty members.
On the other hand, the Living, like the Festival, did not have a legal status, but was represented by Julian Beck who signed in his name on behalf of the company. In the interview with Schechner, Beck remembers:. Why did we continue this capitalist thing? We kept saying Paradise Now was our contribution to the revolution. Even though we knew we were caught in the same trap that the rest of the world is caught in. The Drama Review Besides, for the last two years, the Festival had made its own revolution by, notably, opening up its programme to arts other than theatre, and to young artists.
Vilar did not anticipate the controversy which he was to face in July.
Like the members of the Living who kept saying Paradise Now was their contribution to the revolution, the Festival team believed that maintaining the event was also their contribution against authoritarianism. When Beck underlined in the paradox of their participation, Vilar, that same year, concluded the press conference in which he took stock of the 22 nd Festival by saying that if his Festival had been a commercial enterprise, he would have resigned: There is no question of that, either now or last summer.
There is at least one theatre company chief who has understood this, my friend Julian Beck. They would however resume the performances the following day. On July 20 th , The Living Theatre threatened not to perform Antigone if free extra tickets were not given to people who had not booked the show that was already sold out. The play was eventually performed. The arguments put forward by Vilar were firstly about security, since the venue could host only a limited number of people and, secondly, about respect for those who had paid for their seats.
Vilar opposed the ban and when a court bailiff came to prevent the performance of the 26 th from taking place, the festival team argued their case and Paradise Now did take place Chronologie. On July 27 th , the Becks met with Henri Duffaut who asked them to substitute their creation with another play.
That evening, the company went to meet the inhabitants of Louis Gros, a working class quarter of Avignon, and explained their desire to play free of charge for the population; on the next day, The Living Theatre issued an eleven point declaration to announce their decision to leave the Festival. Paradoxically, in spite of what could be considered as their political shortcomings, The Living Theatre did succeed theatrically as they did revolutionize the theatrical form: To reflect public changes, art forms regenerate themselves.
Artists keep questioning the relevance of traditional aesthetic patterns to represent the public and the private or, in other words, the national and personal concerns of their contemporaries. In , the year Hans-Thies Lehmann published in Germany his seminal Postdramatic Theatre , Emile Copfermann passed away, leaving behind him a book which turned out to be one of the early ancestors of the postdramatic theory.
The American troupe did clean the mirror to create an original theatrical pattern removed from the modern tradition in the hope of eventually transforming the world. In his January 18 th , letter to Paul Puaux, Beck included a description of what their collective play Paradise Now would be:. The Living has chosen the theme of Paradise Now because we are anxious to balance the five plays now in our repertory, all of which deal with the horror of contemporary civilization, with a more hopeful and optimistic work, a work of joy, presenting something toward which the spectator-participant can reach as opposed to something which makes him recoil in terror ….
The form of the work is based on the thesis that society will not change until the form or the culture changes. Therefore we seek fresh ways of being. Paradise Now was thus a prelude to the public revolution, a preparation for the Revolutionary Man that is the New Man who, thanks to his enlightening theatre experience, will engage in the non-violent struggle to change society.
If the company gave up on free theatre until , it was because the audience was not ready, and misbehaved during the show, as the founders told Pierre Biner This very well-reviewed show, winner of the Critics Prize Best original French play , premiered in November and was a hit of the French theatrical season. It offers much more than a love declaration, the portrait of a love so true that it seems invented, so well-reinvented that it seems even truer. He is also a screen actor. Discussion with the artistic teams of the shows will follow each performance.
During their visits, Festival artists will offer master classes for Princeton students related to their current theatrical productions. Masse plans to direct several student-acted plays. He will teach a new performing and playwriting course in French leading to the creation of a full-length play. Rambert will also lead a master class for students in the Program in Theater. He has directed more than 50 full-length productions of canonical and new works of French theater since arriving at Princeton in , and has hosted several prominent theater artists.
For more information on the Princeton French Theater Festival and the more than events presented by the Lewis Center each year, visit arts. Steve Runk Director of Communications srunk princeton. A cholera epidemic in the overcrowded center in killed twenty thousand people. Napoleon began by enlarging the city limits beyond the twelve arrondissements established in The towns around Paris had resisted becoming part of the city, fearing higher taxes; Napoleon used his new imperial power to annex them, adding eight new arrondissements to the city and bringing it to its present size.
Over the next seventeen years, Napoleon and Haussmann transformed entirely the appearance of Paris. They completed the extension of the Rue de Rivoli , begun by Napoleon I, and built a network of wide boulevards to connect the railway stations and neighborhoods of the city to improve traffic circulation and create open space around the city's monuments. The new boulevards also made it harder to build barricades in the neighborhoods prone to uprisings and revolutions, but, as Haussmann himself wrote, this was not the main purpose of the boulevards.
These standards gave central Paris the street plan and distinctive look it still retains today. Napoleon III also wanted to give the Parisians, particularly those in the outer neighborhoods, access to green space for recreation and relaxation. He was inspired by Hyde Park in London , which he had often visited when he was in exile there. He ordered the construction of four large new parks at the four cardinal points of the compass around the city; the Bois de Boulogne to the west; the Bois de Vincennes to the east; the Parc des Buttes-Chaumont to the north; and Parc Montsouris to the south, plus many smaller parks and squares around the city, so that no neighbourhood was more than a ten-minute walk from a park.
They improved the sanitation of the city by building new sewers and water mains under the streets and built a new reservoir and aqueduct to increase the supply of fresh water. In addition, they installed tens of thousands of gaslights to illuminate the streets and monuments. They completely rebuilt the central market of the city, Les Halles , built the first railway bridge over the Seine, and also built the monumental Fontaine Saint-Michel at the beginning of the new Boulevard Saint-Michel.
They also redesigned the street architecture of Paris, installing new street lamps, kiosks, omnibus stops and public toilets called "chalets of necessity" , which were specially designed by the city architect Gabriel Davioud , and which gave the Paris boulevards their distinct harmony and look. In the late s, Napoleon III decided to liberalize his regime and gave greater freedom and power to the legislature. Haussmann became the chief target of criticism in the parliament, blamed for the unorthodox ways in which he financed his projects, for amputating four hectares from the thirty hectares of the Luxembourg Gardens in order to make room for new streets, and for the general inconvenience his projects caused to Parisians for nearly two decades.
In January , Napoleon was forced to dismiss him. A few months later, Napoleon was drawn into the Franco-Prussian War , then defeated and captured at the Battle of Sedan of September , but the work on Haussmann's boulevards continued during the Third Republic , which was established immediately after Napoleon's defeat and abdication, until they were finally finished in The first large-scale industries arrived in Paris during the reign of Napoleon. They flourished in the outskirts of the city, where buildings and land, often taken from churches and convents closed during the French Revolution, were available.
Large textile mills were built in the Faubourg Saint-Antoine and the Faubourg Saint-Denis, and the first sugar refinery using sugar beets was opened in Passy in to replace shipments of sugar from the West Indies blocked by the British blockade. In , Paris had nine hundred enterprises that employed 60, workers, but only twenty-four enterprises had more than workers.
Most Parisians were employed in small workshops. In , there were , workers in Paris in 65, enterprises, but only 7, enterprises had more than ten workers. The textile industry declined, but at mid-century Paris produced 20 percent of the steam engines and machinery in France and had the third largest metallurgy industry. New chemical plants, highly polluting, appeared around the edges of the city in Javel, Grenelle , Passy, Clichy , Belleville and Pantin. Paris emerged as an international center of finance in the midth century second only to London.
Napoleon III had the goal of overtaking London to make Paris the premier financial center of the world, but the war in hit finance hard and sharply reduced the range of the financial influence of Paris. The Rothschild banking family of France , along with other new investment banks, funded some of France's industrial and colonial expansion. Its innovations included both private and public sources in funding large projects and the creation of a network of local offices to reach a much larger pool of depositors.
The Paris Bourse or stock exchange emerged as a key market for investors to buy and sell securities. It was primarily a forward market, and it pioneered the creation of a mutual guarantee fund so that failures of major brokers would not escalate into a devastating financial crisis. Speculators in the s, who disliked the control of the Bourse, used a less regulated alternative, the "Coulisse".
However it collapsed in the face of the simultaneous failure of a number of its brokers in — The Bourse secured legislation that guaranteed its monopoly, increased control of the curb market, and reduced the risk of another financial panic. He abdicated on 4 September, with the Third Republic proclaimed that same day in Paris. On 19 September, the Prussian army arrived at Paris and besieged the city until January During the siege, the city suffered from cold and hunger.
Cats, rats, dogs, horses, and other animals were killed for food, even Castor and Pollux, the two elephants of the zoo, as well as the elephant at the Jardin des Plantes. The Prussians briefly occupied the city and then took up positions nearby. A revolt broke out on 18 March , when radicalized soldiers from the Paris National Guard killed two French generals. Government officials and the army withdrew quickly to Versailles, and a new city council, the Paris Commune , dominated by anarchists and radical socialists, was elected and took power on March The Commune tried to implement an ambitious and radical social program, but held power for only two months.
Between May 21 and 28, the French army reconquered the city in bitter fighting in what became known as the " Bloody Week. Their military commander, Louis Charles Delescluze , committed suicide by dramatically standing atop a barricade on May Army casualties from the beginning of April through the Bloody Week amounted to dead and 6, wounded. Nearly 7, Communards were killed in combat or summarily executed by army firing squads afterwards.
They were buried in the city cemeteries and in temporary mass graves. Of the 45, prisoners taken after the fall of the Commune, most were released, but 23 were sentenced to death, and about 10, were sentenced to prison or deportation to New Caledonia or other prison colonies. All the prisoners and exiles were amnestied in and and most returned to France, where some were elected to the National Assembly.
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After the fall of the Commune, Paris was governed under the strict surveillance of the conservative national government. The government and parliament did not return to the city from Versailles until , although the Senate returned earlier to its seat in the Luxembourg Palace. It was not finished until , but quickly became one of the most recognizable landmarks in Paris. Radical Republicans dominated the Paris municipal elections of , winning 75 of the 80 municipal council seats.
In , they changed the name of many of the Paris streets and squares: The walls of the Tuileries Palace were still standing. In , it had the ruins pulled down. The most memorable Parisian civic event during the period was the funeral of Victor Hugo in The Arc de Triomphe was draped in black. After several changes during the 19th century, it was secularised again in on the occasion of Victor Hugo's funeral. At the end of the century, Paris began to modernise its public transport system to try to catch up with London.
The first metro line was begun in between the Porte Maillot and the Porte de Vincennes. It was finished in time for the Universal Exposition. Two new bridges were built over the Seine. In the late 19th and early 20th century, Paris became the birthplace of modern art and public cinema projections. Auguste Renoir rented space at 12 Rue Cartot in to paint his Bal du moulin de la Galette , which depicts a dance at Montmartre on a Sunday afternoon. Maurice Utrillo lived at the same address from to , and Raoul Dufy shared an atelier there from to In this building, Picasso painted one of his most important masterpieces, Les Demoiselles d'Avignon.
Several noted composers, including Erik Satie , also lived in this neighborhood. Most of the artists left after the outbreak of World War I, the majority of them to take up residence in the Montparnasse quarter. Henri Matisse's two versions of The Dance signified a key point in his career and in the development of modern painting. In late 19th- and early 20th-century Paris, wealth was growing rapidly, and it became increasingly concentrated.
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Paris from to was a "rentier society". These were "dream machines" that set the world standard for consumption of fine products by the upper classes as well as the rising middle class. He became owner in and transformed it into the first modern department store in Paris with high-volume buying, low profit margins, seasonal sales, discounts, advertising, a mail-order catalog, and entertainment and prizes for customers, spouses and children. The French gloried in the national prestige brought by the great Parisian stores.
Zola represented it as a symbol of the new technology that was both improving society and devouring it. The novel describes merchandising, management techniques, marketing, and consumerism. The Grands Magasins Dufayel was a huge department store with inexpensive prices built in in the northern part of Paris, where it reached a very large new customer base in the working class. In a neighborhood with few public spaces, it provided a consumer version of the public square.
It educated workers to approach shopping as an exciting social activity, not just a routine exercise in obtaining necessities, in the same way as the bourgeoisie did at the famous department stores in the central city. Like the bourgeois stores, it helped transform consumption from a business transaction into a direct relationship between consumer and sought-after goods.
Its advertisements promised the opportunity to participate in the newest, most fashionable consumerism at reasonable cost. The latest technology was featured, such as cinemas and exhibits of inventions such as X-ray machines that could be used to fit shoes and the gramophone. Increasingly after , the stores' work force became feminized, opening up prestigious job opportunities for young women. Despite the low pay and long hours, they enjoyed the exciting complex interactions with the newest and most fashionable merchandise and upscale customers.
In the second half of the 19th century, Paris hosted five international expositions that attracted millions of visitors and made Paris an increasingly important center of technology, trade, and tourism. The Expositions celebrated the cult of technology and industrial production, both through the impressive iron architecture in which the exhibits were displayed and the almost demonic energy of machines and installations in place.
The classification system of Bordeaux wines was developed especially for the Exposition. The Paris International Exposition in , also hosted by Napoleon III, was held in an enormous oval exhibit hall metres long and metres wide in the Champ de Mars. The Bateaux Mouches excursion riverboats made their first journeys on the Seine during the Exposition.
Alexander Graham Bell displayed his new telephone, Thomas Edison presented his phonograph , and the head of the newly-finished Statue of Liberty was displayed before it was sent to New York to be attached to the body. The Exposition attracted thirteen million visitors. The Universal Exposition of , which also took place on the Champ de Mars, celebrated the centenary of the beginning of the French Revolution. The most memorable feature was the Eiffel Tower , meters tall when it opened now with the addition of broadcast antennas , which served as the gateway to the Exposition.
Other popular exhibits included the first musical fountain, lit with colored electric lights, changing in time to music. The Universal Exposition of celebrated the turn of the century. It also took place at the Champ de Mars and attracted fifty million visitors. Inside the exhibit hall, Rudolph Diesel demonstrated his new engine, and the first escalator was on display.
The Exposition coincided with the Paris Olympics , the first time that the Olympic games were held outside of Greece. It also popularised a new artistic style, Art nouveau , to the world. The outbreak of the First World War in August saw patriotic demonstrations on the Place de la Concorde and at the Gare de l'Est and Gare du Nord as the mobilized soldiers departed for the front. The French government moved to Bordeaux on 2 September, and the great masterpieces of the Louvre were transported to Toulouse.
Early in the First Battle of the Marne , on September 5, , the French army desperately needed reinforcements. General Galieni, the military governor of Paris, lacked trains. He requisioned buses and, most famously, about Paris taxicabs that were used to carry six thousand troops to the front at Nanteuil-le-Haudouin , fifty kilometers away.
Each taxi carried five soldiers following the lights of the taxi ahead, and the mission was accomplished within twenty-four hours. The Germans were surprised and were pushed back by the French and British armies. The number of soldiers transported was small, but the effect on French morale was enormous; it confirmed the solidarity between the people and the army. The city was bombed by German heavy Gotha bombers and by Zeppelins. The Parisians suffered epidemics of typhoid and measles ; a deadly outbreak of Spanish influenza during the winter of killed thousands of Parisians.
In the spring of , the German army launched a new offensive and threatened Paris once more, bombing it with the Paris Gun. On 29 March , one shell struck the Church of Saint-Gervais and killed 88 persons. Sirens were installed to warn the population of impending bombardments.
The Germans were pushed back once again, and the armistice was declared on 11 November Life in Paris was difficult during the war: Consumer co-operatives sprang up and municipalities developed communal gardening spaces. Coal was critically short in the unusually cold winter of The outer neighborhoods of the city, particularly the 13th, 14th, 15th and 18th arrondissements, became centers of the defense industry, producing trucks, cannons, ambulances, and munitions.
As factory workers were drafted and sent to the front, their places were taken by women as well as , colonials from Africa and Indo-China who were closely watched by the government. Antiwar voices existed, but did not represent a strong base. While the government stressed efficiency and maximizing supplies for the army, the working class was largely committed to a traditional sense of consumer rights, whereby it was the duty of the government to provide the basic food, housing and fuel for the city.
Hoarding and profiteering were evils that citizens should organize to combat. After the war, unemployment surged, prices soared, and rationing continued; Parisian households were limited to grams of bread per day and meat only four days a week. A general strike paralysed the city on 21 July The future leader of Vietnam, Ho Chi Minh , worked in Paris from to , studying nationalism and socialism.
The old fortifications surrounding the city were useless and torn down in the s. They were replaced by tens of thousands of low-cost seven-story public housing units that were filled by low-income blue-collar workers who mostly voted socialist or communist. In the s, they would be replaced by refugees from Algeria. The result was a bourgeois central city surrounded by a radicalized ring.
That Exposition proved a disappointment in comparison with the city's previous successful international projects. Paris was the birthplace of new artistics movements such as Dadaism and Surrealism.
They demonstrated an early instance of Negritude values intermingled with race-uplift concerns. The worldwide Great Depression hit home in and brought with it hardships and a more somber mood in Paris. The population declined slightly from its all-time peak of 2. The arrondissements in the centre lost as much as twenty percent of their population, while the outer neighborhoods gained ten percent.
The low birth rate of Parisians was compensated by a new wave of immigration from Russia, Poland, Germany, eastern and central Europe, Italy, Portugal and Spain. Despite the tensions, the city hosted yet another world's fair in , in this case with the very long title Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne "International Exposition of arts and technology in modern life".
The pavilions of the Soviet Union, crowned by a hammer and sickle, and of Germany, with an eagle and swastika on its summit, faced each other in the center of the exhibition. Instead of a spirit of Paris proclaiming international harmony, the juxtaposition of these two foreign pavilions, trying to outdo each other in political grandiloquence, was a reminder that by the late s, besides its other problems, the city was overshadowed by threatening international rivalries.
The French defense plan was purely passive; the French army simply waited for the Germans to attack. On 31 August, the French government began to evacuate 30, children from Paris to the provinces, the population was issued gas masks, and bomb shelters were constructed in the city squares. The major works of art of the Louvre and other museums were also evacuated to the Loire Valley and other locations, and the architectural landmarks were protected by sandbags. The Germans attacked France on 10 May They bypassed the Maginot Line and advanced all the way to the English Channel before heading toward Paris.
Paris was flooded with refugees from the battle zone. On 12 June, Paris was declared an open city. During the Occupation , the French Government moved to Vichy, and the flag of Nazi Germany flew over all the French government buildings. Signs in German were placed on the main boulevards, and the clocks of Paris were reset to Berlin time. For the Parisians, the occupation was a series of frustrations, shortages and humiliations.
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A curfew was in effect from nine in the evening until five in the morning; at night, the city went dark. Rationing of food, tobacco, coal and clothing was imposed from September Every year, the supplies grew scantier and the prices higher. A million Parisians left the city for the provinces, where there was more food and fewer Germans. French press and radio contained only German propaganda. Jews were forced to wear the yellow Star of David badge and were barred from certain professions and public places.
On 16—17 July , 12, Jews, including 4, children and 5, women, were rounded up by the French police on orders of the Germans. The first demonstration against the Occupation took place by Paris students on 11 November As the war continued, clandestine groups and networks were created, some loyal to the Communist Party, others to General de Gaulle in London. They wrote slogans on walls, organized an underground press, and sometimes attacked German officers and soldiers. Reprisals by the Germans were swift and harsh. Paris was not bombed as often or as heavily as London or Berlin, but the factories and railway yards in the outer parts of the city and suburbs were frequent targets.
A night raid on the La Chapelle railway station in the 18th arrondissement on April killed between and persons and destroyed hundreds of buildings. The Allies landed at Normandy on 6 June and two months later broke the German lines to advance toward Paris. As the Allies advanced, strikes organised by the Resistance disrupted the railways, police and other public services in the city.
On August 19, the resistance networks gave the orders for a general uprising in the city. Its forces seized the prefecture of police and other public buildings in the heart of the city. General Leclerc 's French 2nd Armored Division and the American 4th Infantry Division entered the city on August 25 and converged in the centre, where they were met by delirious crowds. The German commander of Paris, Dietrich von Choltitz , ignored an order from Adolf Hitler to destroy the monuments of the city and surrendered it on 25 August.
The division, men and vehicles, marched through Paris "on its way to assigned attack positions northeast of the French capital. The wear and tear of decades of neglect were painfully obvious in smoke-blackened stone facades, cracked and untended stucco, and peeling paintwork in post-World War II Paris. However, by the mids, Paris had been repaired and refurbished on a scale that echoed the age of Haussmann.
The Liberation of Paris and the end of the war did not end the hardships of the Parisians. Rationing of bread continued until February , and coffee, cooking oil, sugar and rice were rationed until May Housing in Paris was old and run-down. In , thirty-five percent of Paris apartment buildings had been built before Eighty-one percent of Paris apartments did not have their own bathroom, and fifty-five percent did not have their own toilet, yet housing was expensive and in short supply.
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The population of Paris did not return to its level until and grew to 2,, by , including , immigrants, mostly from Algeria, Morocco, Italy and Spain. The exodus of middle-class Parisians to the suburbs continued. The population of the city declined during the s and s 2,, in , 2. With France badly hurt by the war, the question was whether Paris could recover its world stature.
By the s, Parisians on all sides feared that the city was "losing its star-quality attractiveness and prestige. The politics of Paris remained turbulent throughout the s and early s. Communist-led demonstrators battled the police in the streets in and The struggle for the independence of Algeria and the resistance of French residents of Algeria, led to numerous bombings in and and deadly violent confrontations in Paris between demonstrators and the police. The deeply-divided postwar Fourth Republic collapsed in , and a new Constitution was adopted.
In May , Paris experienced student uprisings on the Left Bank: The fashionable musical styles were be-bop and jazz , led by Sydney Bechet and trumpet player Boris Vian. Paris designers, led by Christian Dior , made Paris once again the capital of high fashion. Paris had not had an elected mayor since the French Revolution.
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Napoleon Bonaparte and his successors had personally chosen a prefect to run the city. The first mayoral election in was won by Jacques Chirac , the former prime minister. Chirac served as mayor of Paris for eighteen years, until , when he was elected president of the French Republic. He was succeeded as mayor by another candidate of the right, Jean Tiberi.
The first President of the Fifth Republic, Charles De Gaulle, constructed a new central produce market at Rungis to replace the picturesque but antiquated market of Les Halles. The most famous project of all, the "Grand Louvre", included the expulsion of the Ministry of Finance, the reconstruction of large parts of the museum, an underground gallery, and the addition of a glass pyramid by I. Pei in the courtyard. Beginning in the s, several suburbs banlieues of Paris, especially those in the north and east experienced deindustrialisation , as factories closed or moved farther out.
At the same time, some neighbourhoods within the city of Paris and the western and southern suburbs successfully shifted their economic base from traditional manufacturing to high-value-added services and high-tech manufacturing, giving these neighbourhoods the highest per-capita incomes in France and among the highest in Europe. In the first part of the 21st century, the vitality of the Paris economy made it an important financial centre and influential global city. Tourism was an important part of the Paris economy. In , the city of Paris welcomed There were , visitors from Japan, a decrease from previous years, while there was a growth of 20 percent in the number of visitors from China , and the Middle East , The Paris region received Fashion and luxury goods also made an important contribution to the Paris economy.
According to one study produced in , Paris was the third most economically powerful city in the world among the 35 major cities in the study, ranking behind London and New York. The study ranked Paris first in terms of quality of life, and accessibility; third in cultural life, sixth in terms of economy, and seventh in research and development. This study concluded that Paris ranked as the third global city for accountancy and management consultancy, network connectivity, and airline connections, and was fifth in terms of insurance.
The socialists and their allies dominated city politics for the next thirteen years: The two mayors made social issues and the environment a priority. To discourage automobile traffic, the city administration increased parking fees and added new restrictions on driving in the city.