When states provide funding for groups considered by some to be terrorist, they rarely acknowledge them as such. Civilization is based on a clearly defined and widely accepted yet often unarticulated hierarchy. Violence done by those higher on the hierarchy to those lower is nearly always invisible, that is, unnoticed. When it is noticed, it is fully rationalized. Violence done by those lower on the hierarchy to those higher is unthinkable, and when it does occur it is regarded with shock, horror, and the fetishization of the victims.
As with "terrorism" the concept of "state terrorism" is controversial. If States abused their power, they should be judged against international conventions dealing with war crimes , international human rights law , and international humanitarian law. The use of force by states is already thoroughly regulated under international law".
State terrorism has been used to refer to terrorist acts committed by governmental agents or forces. This involves the use of state resources employed by a state's foreign policies, such as using its military to directly perform acts of terrorism. He argues that "the use of terror tactics is common in international relations and the state has been and remains a more likely employer of terrorism within the international system than insurgents. In this analysis, state terrorism exhibited as a form of foreign policy was shaped by the presence and use of weapons of mass destruction , and the legitimizing of such violent behavior led to an increasingly accepted form of this behavior by the state.
For example, taking and executing civilian hostages or extrajudicial elimination campaigns are commonly considered "terror" or terrorism, for example during the Red Terror or the Great Terror. The connection between terrorism and tourism has been widely studied since the Luxor massacre in Egypt. The attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon on September 11, , were the symbolic epicenter, which marked a new epoch in the use of civil transport against the main power of the planet. State sponsors have constituted a major form of funding; for example, Palestine Liberation Organization , Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine and other groups considered to be terrorist organizations, were funded by the Soviet Union.
Other major sources of funding include kidnapping for ransoms, smuggling including wildlife smuggling ,  fraud, and robbery. The Financial Action Task Force is an inter-governmental body whose mandate, since October , has included combating terrorist financing. Terrorist attacks are often targeted to maximize fear and publicity, usually using explosives or poison. Communications occur through modern telecommunications , or through old-fashioned methods such as couriers. There is also concern about terrorist attacks employing weapons of mass destruction.
Terrorism is a form of asymmetric warfare , and is more common when direct conventional warfare will not be effective because forces vary greatly in power. The context in which terrorist tactics are used is often a large-scale, unresolved political conflict. The type of conflict varies widely; historical examples include:.
Responses to terrorism are broad in scope. They can include re-alignments of the political spectrum and reassessments of fundamental values. The term " counter-terrorism " has a narrower connotation, implying that it is directed at terrorist actors. According to a report by Dana Priest and William M. Arkin in The Washington Post , "Some 1, government organizations and 1, private companies work on programs related to counterterrorism, homeland security and intelligence in about 10, locations across the United States. America's thinking on how to defeat radical Islamists is split along two very different schools of thought.
Republicans, typically follow what is known as the Bush Doctrine, advocate the military model of taking the fight to the enemy and seeking to democratize the Middle East. Democrats, by contrast, generally propose the law enforcement model of better cooperation with nations and more security at home. The civilian population is the center of gravity—the deciding factor in the struggle Civilian deaths create an extended family of enemies—new insurgent recruits or informants——and erode support of the host nation.
Sometimes, the more force is used, the less effective it is The more successful the counterinsurgency is, the less force can be used and the more risk must be accepted Sometimes, doing nothing is the best reaction. Terrorism research, also called terrorism and counter-terrorism research, is an interdisciplinary academic field which seeks to understand the causes of terrorism, how to prevent it as well as its impact in the broadest sense.
There are several academic journals devoted to the field. One of the agreements that promote the international legal anti-terror framework is the Code of Conduct Towards Achieving a World Free of Terrorism that was adopted at the 73rd session of the United Nations General Assembly in Its main goal is to implement a wide range of international commitments to counter terrorism and establish a broad global coalition towards achieving a world free of terrorism by The Code was signed by more than 70 countries.
Mass media exposure may be a primary goal of those carrying out terrorism, to expose issues that would otherwise be ignored by the media. Some consider this to be manipulation and exploitation of the media. The Internet has created a new channel for groups to spread their messages.
The United Nations has created its own online counter-terrorism resource. The mass media will, on occasion, censor organizations involved in terrorism through self-restraint or regulation to discourage further terrorism. However, this may encourage organizations to perform more extreme acts of terrorism to be shown in the mass media. Pastor explains the significant relationship between terrorism and the media, and the underlying benefit each receives from the other. There is always a point at which the terrorist ceases to manipulate the media gestalt.
A point at which the violence may well escalate, but beyond which the terrorist has become symptomatic of the media gestalt itself. Terrorism as we ordinarily understand it is innately media-related. Former British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher also famously spoke of the close connection between terrorism and the media, calling publicity 'the oxygen of terrorism'.
Jones and Libicki created a list of all the terrorist groups they could find that were active between and Law enforcement took out 40 percent. Only 20 groups, 7 percent, were taken out by military force. Forty-two groups became large enough to be labeled an insurgency; 38 of those had ended by Of those, 47 percent converted to nonviolent political actors.
Only 5 percent were taken out by law enforcement. To avoid that, the rules of engagement must be conscious of collateral damage and work to minimize it. Another researcher, Audrey Cronin, lists six primary ways that terrorist groups end: The following terrorism databases are or were made publicly available for research purposes, and track specific acts of terrorism:. The following public report and index provides a summary of key global trends and patterns in terrorism around the world.
The following publicly available resources index electronic and bibliographic resources on the subject of terrorism. The following terrorism databases are maintained in secrecy by the United States Government for intelligence and counter-terrorism purposes:. Jones and Libicki includes a table of terrorist groups active between and with their status as of These data are not in a convenient machine-readable format but are available.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 16 December For other uses, see Terrorist disambiguation. Ethnic violence Militia movement Resistance movement. Designated terrorist groups Charities accused of ties to terrorism. Counter-terrorism International conventions Anti-terrorism legislation Terrorism insurance. Prehistoric Ancient Post-classical Early modern Late modern industrial fourth-gen. Blitzkrieg Deep operation Maneuver Operational manoeuvre group. Military recruitment Conscription Recruit training Military specialism Women in the military Children in the military Transgender people and military service Sexual harassment in the military Conscientious objection Counter recruitment.
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Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please do not remove this message until conditions to do so are met. This section's factual accuracy is disputed. Relevant discussion may be found on Talk: Please help to ensure that disputed statements are reliably sourced. List of designated terrorist groups , Lone wolf terrorism , and Violent non-state actor. Oxford dictionary of English 3rd ed. State Terrorism and Political Identity in Indonesia: Socio-Cultural Construction of Recognition: The corporate security professional's handbook on terrorism illustrated ed.
Retrieved 17 December The New York Times. Retrieved 11 January Terrorism is the deliberate killing of innocent people, at random, in order to spread fear through a whole population and force the hand of its political leaders. The Psychology of Terrorism Fears. Terrorism and Homeland Security. Historical Atlas of Islam. Institute for Economics and Peace. The Age of the Democratic Revolution: A Political History of Europe and America, — A critique of Jihadist and Bush media politics".
Gothic Fiction and the Invention of Terrorism: Terrorism and Modern Literature: From Joseph Conrad to Ciaran Carson.
Retrieved 10 July This Internet version contains two, mingled, indications of page numbers: Burke lengthily introduces his view on 'this present Directory government ', and then writes on page [  ]: Thousands of those Hell-hounds called Terrorists, whom they had shut up in Prison on their last Revolution, as the Satellites of Tyranny, are let loose on the people. In Defence of the Terror: Liberty or Death in the French Revolution Reprint ed. Retrieved 24 July Globalization and Violence, Vol. Globalizing War and Intervention. Nationalism, Globalism and State-Terrorism.
London and New York: Archived from the original on 27 April A Conceptual Discussion and Literature Review". Retrieved 6 September Archived 16 February at the Wayback Machine. The negotiation dynamics of four UN counter-terrorism treaties, — , p. Marshall Center Occasional Paper Series Terror in the Mind of God.
University of California Press. Federal Bureau of Investigation. Archived from the original PDF on 9 July Iraq has accused the United States of state terrorism amid signs that the war of words between the two countries is heating up. This article examines the complex relations between a violent non-state actor, the Al Qaeda network, and order in the international system.
Al Qaeda poses a challenge to the sovereignty of specific states but it also challenges the international society as a whole. This would end the argument that one man's terrorist is another man's freedom fighter For those like Professor Walzer who value the just-war tradition as a disciplined way to think about the morality of war Archived from the original on 16 April Google cached copy CS1 maint: A scholar's historical and political survey of terrorism finds that it works". The New York Times: Inside Terrorism falls into the category of 'must read,' at least for anyone who wants to understand how we can respond to international acts of terror.
Archived from the original on 8 June On the Spartacus Educational web site. Uncovering the Politics of the Poppy illustrated, reprint ed. They prefer to use terms like "martyrdom Time , 26 September Like other guerrillas and suicide bombers, they prefer the term "freedom fighters". United States Institute of Peace. Retrieved 11 December Seto The Morality of Terrorism Includes a list in The Times published on 23 July , which were described as Jewish terrorist actions, including those launched by Irgun, of which Begin was a leading member. Archived from the original on 5 February Archived copy as title link CS1 maint: Column 72, "However, Jomo Kenyatta, Nelson Mandela and Menachem Begin —to give just three examples—were all denounced as terrorists but all proved to be successful political leaders of their countries and good friends of the United Kingdom.
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UN reforms receive mixed response BBC website "Of all groups active in recent times, the ANC perhaps represents best the traditional dichotomous view of armed struggle. Once regarded by western governments as a terrorist group, it now forms the legitimate, elected government of South Africa, with Nelson Mandela one of the world's genuinely iconic figures.
Retrieved 7 January Retrieved 23 November McCabe 25 August Queen's University Belfast School of Law. Archived from the original PDF on 1 December Archived from the original on 30 December Retrieved 9 January Manohar Parrikar — Times of India". Columbia University Press, The History of Terrorism: From Antiquity to al Qaeda. University of California Press, From the Fenians to Al Qaeda". Archived from the original on 3 December Retrieved 1 December Terrorism and homeland security: Who Becomes a Terrorist and Why: Journal of Forensic Sciences.
Social and religious motivations behind terrorism in Chechnya": Archived from the original on 19 September Archived from the original PDF on 21 December Archived from the original PDF on Archived from the original on 1 October The terrorists appear to be deliberately homing in on the few remaining places where Israelis thought they could socialize in peace.
Why Terrorist Groups Endure". Archived from the original on 22 March Europe's longest-enduring terrorist group. A fascist hero in democratic Kiev. NewYork Reviev of Books. The Shining Path, a faction of Peruvian militants, has resurfaced in the remote corners of the Andes. The war against the group, which took nearly 70, lives, supposedly ended in In the s, the rebels were infamous for atrocities like planting bombs on donkeys in crowded markets, assassinations and other terrorist tactics.
Car bomb in South Africa kills 16". The outlawed anti-apartheid group the African National Congress has been blamed for the attack He said the explosion was the "biggest and ugliest" terrorist incident since anti-government violence began in South Africa 20 years ago. Homegrown terrorism is a devil of a problem". Pennsylvania State University, A failed state or a clever gambler? Almost everyone Stern interviewed said they were doing God's will, defending the faithful against the lies and evil deeds of their enemies. Retrieved 22 March Southern Poverty Law Center.
Is There a Causal Connection? A passenger on the flight, Heath Schofield, explained the suspicions: There were just two people in the whole crowd who looked like they didn't belong there. Archived from the original PDF on 12 May Archived from the original on February 21, Retrieved August 10, International Studies Association, Atlanta.
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The Foreign Policy of State Terrorism". The Dynamics of Governmental Violence and Repression". Hypocrisy, Lawlessness, and the Rape of Iraq. Our Brave New World. Summary of What Makes a Terrorist: Economics and the Roots of Terrorism - Alan B. Summary of War of Necessity, War of Choice: Where I'm Coming From: The Year In Review. Imam Zaid Shakir -Author. The Green Movement in Iran. Israel and the Struggle over the International Laws of War. Colonial Mentality in Africa. The West's Last Chance. Obama's Radical Transformation of America: Laws, Outlaws, and Terrorists. The Abominations of the Obama-Nation.
Detected fallacies in President George W. Summary of The Fall of the House of Bush: The Torturer in the Mirror. Killing the Golden Geese. Illustrations and essays about the state of the world in the new millennium. Summary of Marching Toward Hell: Provide For The Common Defense: Nonviolent Response to Terrorism. Bushworld - Maureen Dowd. Shariah Relationship between Religion and Politics in Islam. Summary of Dead Certain: The Presidency of George W.
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