Manual Kundalini. Das Erbe der Nath-Yogis (German Edition)

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The Incarnality of Being: She is black or dark-blue vermillion, with 3 faces with 3 eyes each, and four-armed, holding a thunderbolt, the arrow shot from the bow of Kama, fire, and making the gesture of granting boons and dispelling fear. She is seated upon a red lotus. Petals The ten petals are dark-blue or black, like heavily laden rainclouds, with the syllables dda, ddha, nna, ta, tha, da, dha, na, pa, and pha upon them in a dark-blue colour.

They correspond to the vrittis of spiritual ignorance, thirst, jealousy, treachery, shame, fear, disgust, delusion, foolishness and sadness. Function Manipura is considered the centre of dynamism, energy, willpower and achievement Itcha shakti. It is associated with the power of fire, and digestion. It is also associated with the sense of sight, and the action of movement. Manipura is "the center of etheric-psychic intuition: Through meditating on Manipura, one is said to attain the siddhi, or occult power, to create and destroy the world. Association with the body The position of Manipura is stated as being either behind the navel or the solar plexus.

Sometimes, when it is located at the navel, a secondary chakra called Surya sun chakra is located at the solar plexus, whose role is to absorb and assimilate prana from the sun. Being related to the sense of sight, it is associated with the eyes, and being associated with movement, it is associated with the feet. In the endocrine system, Manipura is said to be associated with the pancreas, and the outer adrenal glands; the adrenal cortex.

These glands create important hormones involved in digestion, converting food into energy for the body, in the same way that Manipura radiates prana throughout the body. Practices In kundalini yoga, different practices for arousing and balancing the energies of Manipura include various asanas which work on that part of the body, pranayama, Uddiyana bandha exhaling and pulling back and up of the abdomen and diaphragm respectively and agnisara kriya practicing jalandhara bandha, and moving the abdomen in and out , as well as the practice of Nauli stomach churning , and a pranayama called the union of prana and apana, where the lower and higher winds are made to unite together.

Comparisons with other systems In the Vajrayana Highest Tantra traditions, the navel wheel is extremely important as being the seat of the 'red drop'. It is triangular, red, with 64 petals or channels that extend upwards. Inside of it is the short syllable 'Ah'. Meditation on this syllable is the key component of the practice of Tummo, or inner heat, where the subtle winds are made to enter the central channel, and rise up to the top of the channel, in an experience akin to that of 'raising the kundalini' in Hindu terminology, melting the subtle white drop in the crown, and causing the experience of great bliss.

This practice is considered the first and most important of the 6 yogas of Naropa. The lower Dantian exists in the region of the stomach. It's function is to convert sexual jing energy into Qi energy a concept similar to Indian Prana. Within the system of the Sufi Lataif-e-sitta, there are a number of Lataif on the torso, but they are not distributed vertically, like chakras, but have some to the left and some to the right.

The nafs, or lower self, is a centre situated below the navel. Western occultists make different kabbalistic associations with Manipura. For some, it relates to the sephira of Hod and Netzach, Netzach being that quality of energy to overcome different obstacles, and Hod being the tendency to control and break down energy into different forms, the two being contending and balancing forces, like the forces of anabolism and catabolism in the human body.

Hod and Netzach are associated with the left and right legs and feet of the body [4]. Tantric Grounds and Paths [4] Leonara Leet. On the psychic level, this center of force inspires the human being to love, be compassionate, altruistic, devoted and to accept the things that happen in a divine way. In Sanskrit the word anahata - means unhurt, un-struck and unbeaten. Anahata Nad refers to the Vedic concept of unstruck sound, the sound of the celestial realm.

Description Location The Anahata chakra is positioned in the central channel behind the spine at the heart region, with its kshetram or superficial activation site actually in the heart region between the two breasts. Inside of it is a smoke-coloured region that is made from the intersection of 2 triangles, creating a shatkona. The Shatkona is a symbol used in Hindu yantra that represents the union of both the male and feminine form. More specifically it is supposed to represent Purusha the supreme being , and Prakriti mother nature, or causal matter.

Often this is represented as Shiva Shakti. The deity of this region is Vayu, who is smoke coloured, four-armed, holding a kusha and riding upon an antelope, the animal of this chakra. Anahata 28 Seed mantra The seed syllable is the mantra 'Yam', dark-grey in colour. Within the bindu or dot above the syllable resides the deity Isha Lord in an all pervading form , who is either shining white or blue in colour, with either 1 or 5 faces, 3 eyes on each face, with either 2, 4 or 10 arms, clad in a tiger skin, holding a trident and a drum, or making gestures of granting boons and dispelling fear.

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His shakti is Kakini, who is shining yellow or rose in colour. She has a number of variations, having either 1, 3 or 6 faces, 2 or 4 arms, and holding a variety of implements, occasionally a sword, shield, skull and trident. She is seated on a red lotus. Petals The twelve petals are vermillion coloured, and upon them are inscribed the syllables kam, kham, gam, gham, ngam, cham, chham, jam, jham, nyam, tam and tham in sanskrit. They match the vrittis of lust, fraud, indecision, repentance, hope, anxiety, longing, impartiality, arrogance, incompetence, discrimination and defiance.

Function Anahata is considered the seat of the Jivatman, and Para Shakti. In the Upanishads, this is described as being like a tiny flame that resided inside the heart. Anahata is so called because it is in this place that sages hear that sound Anahata — Shabda which comes without the striking of any two things together. It is associated with the element of air, the sense of touch, and with actions of the hands. Anahata is associated with the ability to make decisions outside of the realm of karma. In Manipura and below, man is bound by the laws of karma, and the fate he has in store for him.

In Anahata, one is making decisions, 'following your heart', based upon one's higher self, and not from the unfulfilled emotions and desires of lower nature. It is also associated with love and compassion, charity to others, and forms of psychic healing. Meditation on this chakra is said to bring about the following siddhis, or occult powers; he becomes a lord of speech; he is dearer than the dearest to women; his senses are completely under control; and he can enter at will into another's body.

It contains 3 consecutive regions, a vermillion sun region, within which is a white moon region, within which is a deep-red fire region, and within this is the red wish-fulfilling tree, kalpa taru, which symbolizes the ability to manifest whatever you wish to happen in the world. Hrit chakra is occasionally identified as Surya Sun chakra [3] , which again is situated below the heart, and sometimes slightly to the left. It's role is to absorb energy from the sun, and to provide heat to the body and other chakras, in particular to Manipura, to which it provides the Agni or fire element.

Hrit chakra, just below Anahata, is the seat of the wish-fulfilling tree. Anahata Associations with the body Anahata is located near the region of the heart. Because of its association with touch, it is associated with the skin, and because of its association with actions of the hands, it is associated with the hands.

In the endocrine system, Anahata is associated with the thymus gland, located in the chest. This gland produces white blood cells, that combat disease, and bring equilibrium to the body. The functioning of the thymus is greatest before puberty and is impaired by the appearance of sex hormones in the blood stream from puberty onwards. It is purified through the process of bhakti devotion. Comparisons with other Systems Tibetan Buddhism The heart wheel in Tibetan Buddhism is the location of the indestructible red and white drop.

At the time of death, all the subtle winds of the body dissolve and enter into this drop, which then leaves the body into the Bardo, intermediate stage, and then into rebirth.

The heart wheel in this model is circular, white, and has 8 petals or channels that reach downwards. These channels divide into 3, the mind wheel, speech wheel, and body wheel, and go to 24 places in the body, after which they divide into 3 again, and then into , producing channels which spread out throughout the whole body. In the lower tantras, mantra recitation is done from the heart. At first, a mantra is recited verbally, then mentally, and then inside of the heart a tiny moon disc and a flame is imagined, from which the sound of the mantra is heard ringing out.

In the higher tantras, the yogi attempts to dissolve the winds and drops into the central channel at the level of the heart in order to experience the Clear Light; this is one of the practices of the 6 yogas of Naropa. In the Tibetan scheme of chakras there is also included a chakra known as the Fire Wheel. Kabbalah On the kabbalistic tree of life, the central sephirah, Tiphereth, is associated with the heart region.

Sufism The Sufis manage a system of Lataif-e-sitta, that are positioned at various points on the body, and at the level of the heart there are 3 positioned horizontally. To the left of the chest is the Qalb, or heart, the Ruh, on the right hand side of the chest, and the Sirr, or secret, of the innermost heart, between the two of them. It may be purified by recitation of the names of God. The Ruh is the centre of the spirit, the breath of Allah, and when awoken it counteracts the negative pull of the nafs.

The Sirr is the secret or innermost heart, called the heart of the heart, where Allah manifests his mystery to himself. This Dantian is one of the three furnaces that transform energy in the body. The middle Dantian transforms the qi energy into shen, or spirit energy. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] Swami Satyananda Saraswati. Kundalini Tantra Woodroffe, J. Tantric Grounds and Paths Dion Fortune. Vishuddha Vishuddha chakra symbolizes the pure consciousness, and creativity.

Aether is the element associated with it. On a psychic level, it governs expression, inspiration in speech, eloquence, and perception of the archetypal models. Description Location Vishuddha is positioned at the neck region near the spine, with its ksehtram or superficial activation point in the pit of the throat.

Appearance This chakra is white with 16 purple or smoke coloured petals, and within the pericarp is a sky-blue downward pointing triangle, within which is a circular region which is white like the full-moon, representing the element of akasha or ether. This region is represented by the deity Ambara, who is white in colour, with four arms, holding a noose and a goad, making the gestures of granting boons and dispelling fear, and seated upon a white elephant. In the bindu or point above the mantra resides the deity Sadashiva, who has 5 faces and 10 arms.

The right side of his body is a white Shiva, and the left half of the body is a golden Shakti. He is holding a trident, chisel, sword, vajra, fire, a great snake, a bell, a goad, and a noose, and is making the gesture of dispelling fear. He is clad in a tiger skin. His Shakti is Shakini, who is shining white, with five faces, three eyes each, and four armed, with a bow and arrow, noose, and goad, and seated on a red lotus. See Sanskrit Phonology for details. The petals correspond to the vrittis of the mantra Ong [Aum], the Sama-mantras, the mantra Hung, the mantra Phat, the mantra Washat, the mantra Swadha, the mantra Swaha, the mantra Namak, the nectar Amrita, and then the seven musical tones.

Vishuddha Function Vishuddha chakra is known as the purification centre. Here the nectar amrit that drips down from the Bindu chakra, and is split into a pure form and a poison. In its more abstract form, it is associated with higher discrimination, and it is associated with creativity and self-expression. When Vishuddha is closed, we undergo decay and death. When it is open, negative experience is transformed into wisdom and learning. Guilty feeling is the most prominent reason for this chakra; to block the Kundalini Energy moving upwards. It is associated with the element Akasha, or ether, and the sense of hearing, as well as the action of speaking.

Meditation upon this chakra is said to bring about the following siddhis or occult powers; vision of the three periods, past, present and future; freedom for disease and old age; destruction of dangers; and the ability to move the three worlds. Lalana Chakra Closely related to Vishuddha is a minor chakra, located in the roof of the mouth, called Lalana. It has 12 red or white petals, that correspond to the vritties of respect, contentment, offense, self-control, pride, affection, sorrow, depression, purity, dissatisfaction, honor and anxiety.

Inside is a red circular moon region.

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This acts as a reservoir for the nectar amrit. When vishuddha is inactive, this nectar is allowed to run downwards into Manipura, where it is consumed, resulting in physical degeneration. Through practices such as khechari mudra, however, the nectar can be made to enter Vishuddha, where it is purified, and becomes a nectar of immortality.

Associations with the body This chakra is located in the neck and throat. Due to its association with hearing, it is related to the ears, and due to its association with speaking, it is associated with the mouth. Vishuddha is often associated with the thyroid gland in the human endocrine system. This gland is in the neck, and produces hormones essential for growth and maturation.

Comparisons with other systems The throat wheel is an important centre in the Highest Yoga traditions of Vajrayana. It is circular, red, with 16 upward pointing petals or channels. It is of particular importance for the practice of Dream Yoga. Correctly meditating upon it before going to sleep should produce lucid dreams, within which one can continue to practice yoga.

Some associate it with the hidden sephirah Da'at, where 'wisdom' and 'understanding' are balanced in the supernal realm by the aspect of 'knowledge', a tangible idea, which is then expressed, leading to the act of the creation , others associate it with the sephirah Chesed and Geburah, mercy and strength, which are sephirah intimately associated with morality, and the concept that both expansion, as expressed by Chesed, and limitation, as expressed by Geburah, are necessary for the creation of individual beings.

In terms of ethics, this is expressed by the yamas and niyamas do's and do nots of yoga. In the system of the Sufi Lataif-e-sitta there are no Lataif in the throat, but there are three in the region of the heart which are arranged horizontally and not vertically. They are the Qalb, or heart, which is the battleground between the lower forces of the Nafs and the higher forces of the Ruh, or spirit; the Ruh which is said by some to be situated on the right hand side of the chest; and Sirr, or secret, between them both in the middle of the chest. Inside of the pericarp is the Shakti Hakini, who is moon white, with 6 faces, and 6 arms, holding a book, a skull, a drum, a rosary, and making the gestures of granting boons and dispelling fears.

Above her is a downward pointing triangle, within which is a moon-white lingum. In some systems the deity Ardhanarishvara a hermaphrodite form of Shiva-Shakti, symbolising the primordial duality of subject and object, resides within the lingum. Above the triangle is another smaller triangle, within which is the bija mantra Aum.

Petals Ajna has two white petals, said to represent the psychic channels, Ida and Pingala, which meet here with the central Sushumna nadi channel before rising to the crown chakra, Sahasrara. Written upon them in white are the letters 'Ham' on the left petal, and 'ksham' on the right petal, representing Shiva and Shakti, respectively. These petals also represent the manifest and unmanifest mind, and are said by some to represent the pineal and pituitary glands.

Function Ajna translates as 'command', and is considered as the eye of intuition. When something is seen in the mind's eye, or in a dream, it is being 'seen' by Ajna. It is a bridge that links gurus with disciples, allowing mind communication to occur between two people. The sense organ and action organ associated with Ajna is the mind in both cases. Hindus believe that spiritual energy from the external environments enter their body through this gateway and hence take utmost precaution in protecting it with spiritually positive protecting forces.

The various religious marks one sees on the foreheads of men and women belonging to the Hindu faith like holy ash,namam, vermilion etc. Meditation upon Ajna supposedly grants the following siddhis or occult powers; to quickly enter anothers body at will; to become omniscient; he realizes unity with Brahman; and he has the ability to create, preserve and destroy the 3 worlds. Manas Chakra Manas chakra is responsible for sending sense perceptions to the higher chakras. It possesses 6 petals, one for each of the 5 senses, and one for sleep.

These petals are normally white, but assume the colour of the senses when activated by them, and they are black during sleep. It's function is to send sense perceptions to the higher chakras. Association with the body Ajna is associated with the third eye on the forehead.

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It is sometimes associated with the pineal gland, and sometimes with the pituitary gland. The pineal gland is actually related to a real, light sensitive 'third eye' Parietal eye found in some lizards, amphibians and fish, and regulates the circadian rhythms, while the Pituitary Gland is considered as the master gland of all endocrine glands, whose secretions control all the other endocrine glands. Practices The parietal eye very small grey oval between the regular eyes of a juvenile bullfrog Rana catesbeiana In kundalini yoga, different practices are said to stimulate the Ajna chakra, including Trataka steady gazing , Shambhavi Mudra gazing at the space between the eyebrows , and some forms of Pranayama breath exercises.

Comparisons with other systems In Tibetan buddhism, this chakra is at the end of the central channel, which in their system runs up the body to the top of the head, and then over and down to the forehead, where it terminates. The 2 side channels then continue onwards towards the 2 nostrils, and end there.

This centre is frequently depicted in artwork as the 'third eye', and is used in various meditations. In Qigong, the highest Dantian is located in this position. This is one of 3 'furnaces' that converts the different sorts of energy in the body. In this Dantian, the spiritual shen energy is converted into wuji, the infinite space of void [5] Within the system of Lataif-e-sitta there exists a Lataif known as Khafi, or arcane subtlety, in this same position, and is related to mystical intuition. In the Kabbalah, there are 2 sephiroth located on the 6th level, associated with the left and right eye.

They are called Chokmah, wisdom, and Binah, understanding, and it is at these points that the 2 side pillars of mercy and severity terminate, while the central pillar carries on rising to kether, the crown. Kundalini Tantra Shyam Sundar Goswani. Tantric Grounds and Paths Andy James. The Mystical Qabalah Sahasrara Sahasrara, placed above the head crown, with petals. In Hindu literature, it is known "the supreme center of contact with God". Sahasrara Description Location Sahasrara is either located at the top of the head in that one area, or a little way above it see Sahasrara system of minor chakras below.

Appearance Sahasrara is described with 1, multi-coloured petals which are arranged in 20 layers each of them with 50 petals. The pericarp is golden, and inside of it is a circular moon region, inside of which is an downward pointing triangle. Function Sahasrara chakra symbolizes detachment from illusion; an essential element in obtaining supramental higher consciousness of the truth that one is all and all is one. Often referred as thousand-petaled lotus, it is said to be the most subtle chakra in the system, relating to pure consciousness, and it is from this chakra that all the other chakras emanate.

Meditating on this point is said to bring about the siddhis, or occult powers, of transforming into the divine, and being able to do whatever one wishes. Sahasrara system of minor chakras In some schemes of chakras, there are actually several chakras that are all closely related at the top of the head.

Rising from Ajna, we have the Manas chakra on the forehead, which is closely associated with Ajna. Above Manas there are Bindu Visarga at the back of the head, Mahanada, Nirvana, which is located on the crown, Guru, and then Sahasrara proper, located above the crown. Bindu Visarga Bindu Visarga is located at the back of the head, in a place where many Brahmins keep a tuft of hair.

It is symbolised by a crescent moon on a moonlit night, with a point or bindu above it. This is the white bindu, with which yogis try to unite the red bindu below, and it is the source of the divine nectar or amrit which falls down to vishuddhi for distribution throughout the entire bodily system. This white drop is considered the essence of sperm, while the red bindu is considered the essence of the menstrual fluid. This chakra is sometimes known as the Indu, Chandra or Soma chakra.

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In other descriptions, it is located on the forehead, white, with 16 petals, corresponding to the vrittis of mercy, gentleness, patience, non-attachment, control, excellent- qualities, joyous mood, deep spiritual love, humility, reflection, restfulness, seriousness, effort, controlled emotion, magnanimity and concentration. It represents the primal sound from which emanates all of creation. Nirvana This chakra is located on the crown of the head. It is white in colour and possesses white petals.

It marks the end of the sushumna central channel. It is responsible for different levels of concentration, dharana, dhyana and savikalpa samadhi. Guru The guru chakra is located above the head, just below Sahasrara proper. It contains a circular moon region, within which is a downward pointing triangle containing a jewelled altar with the crescent moon below and circular bindu above.

Inside the bindu is the seat, upon which are the gurus footstools, upon which are the Gurus feet. This position is considered very important in Tibetan Tantric practices of deity yoga, where the guru or deity is often visualised above the crown, and then bestowing blessings below for example in the Vajrasattva purification meditation.

Higher levels Within Sahasrara, there are yet more levels of subtlety [1]. Within the triangle begin a series of ever higher levels of consciousness; ama-kala, the first ring of visarga, nirvana-kala, nirvana shakti, which contains the second ring of visarga. From here, kundalini becomes shankhini, with 3 and a half coils. The first coil of shankhini wraps around supreme bindu, the second coil of shankhini wraps around the supreme nada, the third coil of shankhini wraps around shakti, and the half-coil of shankhini enters into sakala shiva, beyond which is parama shiva.

Ama-kala Ama-kala is the experience of samprajnata samadhi. Visarga This is symbolised by two dots, one of which is inside ama-kala, and the other of which is below supreme bindu, which represents the transition from samprajnata samadhi to the oneness of asamprajnata samadhi. Nirvana-kala Here kundalini absorbs even the experience of samadhi, through the power of supreme control nirodhika fire. Nirvana-shakti Here kundalini passes into the supreme void, which is the experience of asamprajnata or nirvikalpa samadhi, and becomes shankhini.

Kundalini then wraps around and absorbs the supreme bindu, which is the void, the supreme nada, and shakti, and then unites with and absorbs shiva, before finally being absorbed into paramashiva, which is the final stage of nirvikalpa samadhi. It is sometimes related to the pineal gland and sometimes to the pituitary gland. Comparisons with other systems The crown wheel is important within the Highest Yoga traditions of Buddhist Vajrayana. It is triangular, with 32 petals or channels that point downwards, and within it resides the white drop or white bodhicitta. Through meditation, the yogi attempts to unite this drop with the red bodhicitta in the navel, and to experience the union of emptiness and bliss.

At the time of death, a yogi can direct his consciousness up the central channel and out of this wheel in order to be reborn in a Pure Land, where they can carry on their tantric practices, or they can transfer their consciousness into another body or a corpse, in order to extend their lives. In the West, it has been noted by many such as Charles Ponce' in his book Kabbalah. Within the Sufi system of Lataif-e-sitta there is a Lataif called Akfha, the 'most arcane subtlety', which is located on the crown.

It is the point of unity where beatific visions of Allah are directly revealed.


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Awaken your untapped energy [2] Geshe Kelsang Gyatso. In the Uttara Mimamsa or vedanta branch of Hindu philosophy, even though it is not discussed in great detail in the Bhagavad Gita, Lord Krishna says to Arjun that ahamkara must be removed - in other words, it should be subordinated to the lord.

The reason for this is that the Self is not cannot be present when one is in a state of ahamkara. Ahamkara is one of the four parts of the antahkarana inner organ described in Hindu philosophy. The other three parts are Buddhi, Citta and Manas. Philosophical implications To have an understanding of this term means that we have a powerful tool for understanding the nature and behaviour of ourselves and of others.

The Vedic philosophy taught that when one's mind was in a state of ahamkara, one was in a state of subjective illusion, where the mind had bound up the concept of one's self with a created thing. The created thing is usually a phenomenon which can be thought of as external to the self. It could be a tangible, concrete material thing - e.

The ego is involved in constructing the illusion. In both cases, the mind has created a state of illusion, but it seems very real to the person in that state, and objectivity and reality are obscured. This deeply illusory state is what can often cause people to do the strangest, oddest things, sometimes evil, and often quite out of character.

All humans could - and usually do at some time or other in their lives - suffer from this.

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This is because it identifies only with a small part of the creation the body and rejects everything else as "not me"; it becomes subject to a series of afflictions such as: In the solitude of my prison cell I have come to the bitter recognition that I have sinned gravely against humanity. As Commandant of Auschwitz I was responsible for carrying out part of the cruel plans of the "Third Reich" for human destruction.

In so doing I have inflicted terrible wounds on humanity. I caused unspeakable suffering for the Polish people in particular. I am to pay for this with my life. May the Lord God forgive one day what I have done. The endocrine system is an information signal system like the nervous system. Hormones are substances chemical mediators released from endocrine tissue into the bloodstream that attach to target tissue and allow communication among cells.

Hormones regulate many functions of an organism, including mood, growth and development, tissue function, and metabolism. The field of study that deals with disorders of endocrine glands is endocrinology, a branch of internal medicine. The endocrine system is made up of a series of ductless glands that produce chemicals called hormones. A number of glands that signal each other in sequence is usually referred to as an axis, for example, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

Typical endocrine glands are the pituitary, thyroid, and adrenal glands. Features of endocrine glands are, in general, their ductless nature, their vascularity, and usually the presence of intracellular vacuoles or granules storing their hormones. In contrast, exocrine glands, such as salivary glands, sweat glands, and glands within the gastrointestinal tract, tend to be much less vascular and have ducts or a hollow lumen. Male on the left, female on the right. For example the kidney secretes endocrine hormones such as erythropoietin and renin. Stimulates maturation of ovarian follicles in ovary In males: Stimulates maturation of seminiferous tubules In males: Stimulates spermatogenesis In males: Stimulates production of androgen-binding protein from Sertoli cells of the testes Luteinizing hormone LH Gonadotrophs In females: Stimulates ovulation In females: Stimulates formation of corpus luteum In males: Stimulates testosterone synthesis from Leydig cells interstitial cells Prolactin PRL Lactotrophs Beta-endorphin From cells Effect Stimulates thyroxine T4 and triiodothyronine T3 synthesis and release from thyroid gland Stimulates iodine absorption by thyroid gland Stimulates milk synthesis and release from mammary glands Mediates sexual gratification Posterior pituitary lobe neurohypophysis Secreted hormone From cells Oxytocin Vasopressin antidiuretic hormone Effect Abbreviation ADH or AVP Magnocellular neurosecretory cells Uterine contraction Lactation letdown reflex Parvocellular neurosecretory neurons Increases water permeability in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct of nephrons, thus promoting water reabsorption and increasing blood volume Oxytocin and anti-diuretic hormone are not secreted in the posterior lobe, merely stored.

Histamine ECL cells stimulate gastric acid secretion Endothelin X cells Smooth muscle contraction of stomach [2] Duodenum Secreted hormone From cells Effect Secretin S cells Secretion of bicarbonate from liver, pancreas and duodenal Brunner's glands Enhances effects of cholecystokinin Stops production of gastric juice Cholecystokinin I cells Release of digestive enzymes from pancreas Release of bile from gallbladder hunger suppressant Liver Secreted hormone Insulin-like growth factor or somatomedin Primarily Angiotensinogen and angiotensin Thrombopoietin Pancreas Abbreviation IGF From cells Effect Hepatocytes insulin-like effects regulate cell growth and development Hepatocytes vasoconstriction release of aldosterone from adrenal cortex dipsogen.

Pancreatic polypeptide [4] [4] Inhibit release of glucagon Suppress the exocrine secretory action of pancreas. Relatively small effect compared to androgens from testes In females: Convert endometrium to secretory stage Make cervical mucus permeable to sperm. Inhibit immune response, e. Inhibit immune response, towards the fetus. Support fetal production of adrenal mineralo- and glucosteroids. Other effects on mother similar to ovarian follicle-progesterone Estrogens mainly Estriol Also Primarily Effects on mother similar to ovarian follicle estrogen Human chorionic gonadotropin HCG Syncytiotrophoblast promote maintenance of corpus luteum during beginning of pregnancy Inhibit immune response, towards the human embryo.

Adipocytes Major endocrine systems The human endocrine system consists of several integrated systems that operate via feedback loops. Several important feedback systems are mediated via the hypothalamus and pituitary. Hypofunction of endocrine glands can occur as a result of loss of reserve, hyposecretion, agenesis, atrophy, or active destruction. Hyperfunction can occur as a result of hypersecretion, loss of suppression, hyperplastic or neoplastic change, or hyperstimulation. Endocrinopathies are classified as primary, secondary, or tertiary. Primary endocrine disease inhibits the action of downstream glands.

Secondary endocrine disease is indicative of a problem with the pituitary gland. Tertiary endocrine disease is associated with dysfunction of the hypothalamus and its releasing hormones. As the thyroid, and hormones have been implicated in signaling distant tissues to proliferate, for example, the estrogen receptor has been shown to be involved in certain breast cancers. Endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine signaling have all been implicated in proliferation, one of the required steps of oncogenesis.

However, there are also other modes, i. Autocrine Autocrine signaling is a form of signaling in which a cell secretes a hormone or chemical messenger called the autocrine agent that binds to autocrine receptors on the same cell, leading to changes in the cells. Paracrine Paracrine signaling is a form of cell signaling in which the target cell is near the signal-releasing cell. Juxtacrine juxtacrine signaling is a type of intercellular communication that is transmitted via oligosaccharide, lipid, or protein components of a cell membrane, and may affect either the emitting cell or the immediately adjacent cells.

It occurs between adjacent cells that possess broad patches of closely opposed plasma membrane linked by transmembrane channels known as connexons. The gap between the cells can usually be between only 2 and 4 nm. Unlike other types of cell signaling such as paracrine and endocrine , juxtacrine signaling requires physical contact between the two cells involved.

Juxtacrine signaling has been observed for some growth factors, cytokine and chemokine cellular signals References [1] Colorado State University - Biomedical Hypertextbooks - Somatostatin http: J Smooth Muscle Res 41 1: N Engl J Med. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. J Surg Res 45 6: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology 6: From Cells to Systems.


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  8. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. The word Tantra also applies to any of the scriptures called "Tantras" commonly identified with the worship of Shakti. Tantra is that Asian body of beliefs and practices which, working from the principle that the universe we experience is nothing other than the concrete manifestation of the divine energy of the Godhead that creates and maintains that universe, seeks to ritually appropriate and channel that energy, within the human microcosm, in creative and emancipatory ways.

    Robert Brown notes that the term tantrism is a construction of Western scholarship and that: It is not a concept that comes from within the religious system itself, although it is generally recognized internally as different from the Vedic tradition. This immediately makes it suspect as an independent category. These goals may be spiritual, material or both. Some versions of Tantra require the guidance of a guru. These include yoga, to actuate processes that will "yoke" the practitioner to the divine.

    Also important are visualizations of deity, and verbalisation or evocation through mantras, which may be construed as seeing, listening internally, and singing power into a stronger state within the individual, resulting in an ever-increasing awareness of cosmic vibration through daily practice. Identification with and internalisation of the divine is enacted, through a total identification with deity, such that the aspirant "becomes" the Ishta-deva or meditational deity.

    Its purpose is to achieve complete control of oneself, and of all the forces of nature, in order to attain union with the cosmos and with the divine. Long training is generally required to master Tantric methods, into which pupils are typically initiated by a guru. Yoga, including breathing techniques and postures asana , is employed to subject the body to the control of the will. Mudras, or Hindu tantra gestures; mantras or syllables, words and phrases; mandalas and yantras, which are symbolic diagrams of the forces at work in the universe, are all used as aids for meditation and for the achievement of spiritual and magical power.

    During meditation, the initiate identifies herself or himself with any of the numerous Hindu gods and goddesses representing cosmic forces. The initiate visualizes them and takes them into her or his mind and so she or he unites with them, a process likened to sexual courtship and consummation. Also, in left-handed Tantra Vamachara , ritual sexual intercourse is employed as a way of entering into the underlying processes and structure of the universe. The primary sources of written Tantric lore are the agama, which generally consist of four parts, delineating metaphysical knowledge jnana , contemplative procedures yoga , ritual regulations kriya , and ethical and religious injunctions charya.

    Read e-book online The Innate Mind: Foundations and the Future PDF. This can be the 3rd quantity of a three-volume set at the Innate brain. Read e-book online Melanchthon: Philip Melanchthon — , humanist and colleague of Martin Luther, is better identified for his academic reforms, for which he earned the name Praeceptor Germaniae the instructor of Germany. His such a lot influential kind of philosophical writing used to be the tutorial oration, and this quantity, first released in , offers a wide and wide-ranging collection of his orations and textbook prefaces translated into English.

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