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He wrote his second novel, The Beautiful and Damned , a naturalistic chronicle of the dissipation of Anthony and Gloria Patch. The Fitzgeralds expected to become affluent from his play, The Vegetable.


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The distractions New York prevented Fitzgerald from making progress on his third novel. During this time his drinking increased. He was an alcoholic, but he wrote sober. Literary opinion makers were reluctant to accord Fitzgerald full marks as a serious craftsman. His reputation as a drinker inspired the myth that he was an irresponsible writer; yet he was a painstaking reviser whose fiction went through layers of drafts.

The chief theme of Fitzgerald? Another major theme was mutability or loss. As a social historian Fitzgerald became identified with the Jazz Age: It was an age of miracles, it was an age of art, it was an age of excess, and it was an age of satire,? Echoes of the Jazz Age. Seeking tranquility for his work the Fitzgeralds went to France in Raphael, but the marriage was damaged by Zelda?

The Great Gatsby marked a striking advance in Fitzgerald? In Paris Fitzgerald met Ernest Hemingway, then unknown outside the expatriate literary circle with whom he formed a friendship based largely on his admiration for Hemingway? Fitzgerald made little progress on his fourth novel, a study of American expatriates in France provisionally titled?

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Nonetheless, the general view of his affluence is distorted. Fitzgerald was not among the highest-paid writers of his time; his novels earned comparatively little, and most of his income came from magazine stories. Scott and Zelda Fitzgerald did spend money faster than he earned it; the author who wrote so eloquently about the effects of money on character was unable to manage his own finances. The Fitzgeralds returned to America in the fall of Fitzgerald made a second unsuccessful trip to Hollywood in Her autobiographical novel generated considerable bitterness between the Fitzgeralds, for he regarded it as pre-empting the material that he was using in his novel-in-progress.

Fitzgerald completed his fourth novel, Tender Is the Night. Published in , his most ambitious novel was a commercial failure, and its merits were matters of critical dispute. Set in France during the s, Tender Is the Night examines the deterioration of Dick Diver, a brilliant American psychiatrist, during the course of his marriage to a wealthy mental patient.

The period is known as? Ill, drunk, in debt, and unable to write commercial stories, he lived in hotels in the region near Asheville, North Carolina.


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  • He received his only screen credit for adapting Three Comrades , and his contract was renewed for a year. Fitzgerald worked as a freelance scriptwriter and wrote short-short stories for Esquire.

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    He began his Hollywood novel, The Love of the Last Tycoon , in and had written more than half of a working draft when he died of a heart attack in Graham? Zelda Fitzgerald perished at a fire in Highland Hospital in Scott Fitzgerald died believing himself a failure. The obituaries were condescending, and he seemed destined for literary obscurity. The first phase of the Fitzgerald resurrection?

    By he had achieved a secure place among America? The Great Gatsby , a work that seriously examines the theme of aspiration in an American setting, defines the classic American novel. John Steinbeck received the Nobel Prize for Literature in He was born in Salinas, California. His native region of Monterey Bay was later the setting for most of his fiction.

    From his mother, a teacher, Steinbeck learned to love books. Between and , he studied marine biology at Stanford University, but did not take a degree — he always planned to be a writer. Several of his early poems and short stories appeared in university publications. After spending a short time as a labourer and reporter in New York City for the American. The novel depicts a farmer, Joseph Wayne, who receives a blessing from his pioneer father, John Wayne, and goes to build himself a new farm in a distant valley. Joseph develops his own beliefs of death and life, and to bring an end to a drought, he sacrifices himself on a stone, becoming "earth and rain".

    Steinbeck did not want to explain his story too much and he knew beforehand that the book would not find readers. However, the theme of the book — the story of King Arthur and the forming of the Round Table — remained well hidden from the critics. The strike of nine hundred migratory workers is led by Jim Nolan, devoted to his cause. The novel was an account of the adventures and misadventures of workers in a California cannery and their friends.

    The events take place on the Tiflin ranch in the Salinas Valley, California. The first two sections of the story sequence, "The Gift" and "The Great Mountains", were published in the North American Review in , and the third section, "The Promise," did not appear in Harpers until A movie version, for which Steinbeck wrote the screenplay, was made in Steinbeck adapted it also into a three-act play, which was produced in George Milton and Lennia Small, two itinerant ranchhands, dream of one day owning a small farm.

    George acts as a father figure to Lennie, who is large and simpleminded. Lennie loves all that is soft, but his immense physical strength is a source of troubles and George is needed to calm him. The two friends find work from a farm and start saving money for their future. Lenny accidentally kills her and escapes into the hiding place, that he and George have agreed to use, if they get into difficulties. George hurries after Lenny and shoots him before he is captured by a vengeful mob but at the same time he loses his own hopes and dreams of better future. When the book appeared, it was attacked by US Congressman Lyle Boren who characterized it as "a lie, a black, infernal creation of twisted, distorted mind".

    Later, when Steinbeck received his Nobel Prize, the Swedish Academy called it simply "an epic chronicle. Fleeing publicity followed by the success of The Grapes of Wrath , Steinbeck went to Mexico in to film the documentary Forgotten Village. He finds a valuable pearl which changes his life, but not in the way he did expect. Kino sees the pearl as his opportunity to better life.

    Thereafter his tragedy is legendary in the town. The director Elia Kazan met Steinbeck when the author had separated from Gwyn and was drinking heavily. Their most famous film project, East of Eden , covered the last part of the book. James Dean made his debut in the film. Kazan originally wanted Marlon Brando to play the role of Cal.

    Lost Generation | Great Writers Inspire

    Dean received an Academy Award nomination for Best Actor. In the centre of the saga, based partly on the story of Cain and Abel, is two families of settlers, the Trasks and the Hamiltons, whose history reflect the formation of the United States when "the Church and the whorehouse arrived in the Far West simultaneously…" The second half of the book focus on the lives of the twins, Aron and Caleb, and their conflict.

    Between them is Cathy, tiny, pretty, but an adulteress and murderess. In his lifetime, Steinbeck wrote thousands of letters, sometimes several a day. His son John wrote in his memoir that Steinbeck was too shy to talk to any of the people in the book. It continued his exploration of the moral dilemmas involved in being fully human. The book was not well received, and critics considered him an exhausted. Not even the Nobel Prize changed opinions. The New York Times asked in an editorial, whether the prize committee might not have made a better choice.

    Steinbeck took this public humiliation hard. In later years he did much special reporting abroad, dividing his time between New York and California. He went to Vietnam to report on the war, and the New York Post attacked him for betraying his liberal past. Steinbeck died of heart attack in New York in Steinbeck started the work with enthusiasm but never finished it.

    William Cuthbert Faulkner aspired to greatness, even as a small child, when he listened to tales and legends from his distinguished family? William was born in New Albany, Mississippi, but the family soon moved to Oxford. After dropping out of the university in , Faulkner took a brief job in a New York bookstore; there he met the future wife of Sherwood Anderson, Elizabeth Prall.

    Eliot and James Joyce. He also absorbed the despair of the post-war generation, and melded all these influences, first in a series of literary sketches published by the New Orleans Times Picayune and The Double Dealer a literary magazine and then in a first novel, Soldier? Faulkner meanwhile left for Europe, spending time in Italy and England but reacting most strongly to France, beginning a lifelong love affair with that country. Returning to Mississippi, Faulkner took a series of jobs while working on his second novel, Mosquitoes For him, marked the beginning of what critics have come to call?

    The impetus for this extraordinary outburst came in Sartoris , when Faulkner decided to concentrate on what he came to call his? Yoknapatawpha County; all the great novels are set there, in or around Jefferson, the county seat. The town obviously depict Oxford and its surrounding Lafayette County. As a result of this focus, Faulkner was able to create a mythic?

    The Lost Generation: Expatriate Writers of the 20th Century

    Faulkner wrote this book thinking of a little girl with muddy drawers climbing a pear tree to look in on her grandmother? The story, told in three successive first person narration by three brothers and finally through the consciousness of their black housekeeper, keeps circling back to the same issues in different voices. Documenting, in a radical new prose style, both the loss of familial love and honour and the decline of a great culture, the book caused a sensation among critics but sold poorly, as did its successor, As I Lay Dying Faulkner, desperate for money, embarked on the first of several unhappy stints in Hollywood as a scriptwriter ?

    He wrote much of his next novel, Light in August , during a trip to New York. One of his two or three greatest works, it details the deceptively simple frame story of Lena Grove, a country woman wandering the South searching for the father of her unborn child. This narrative interconnects on many levels with the one it encloses, the much longer and tragic tale of Joe Christmas, an orphan like Lena, who may or may not have black blood. The novel probes deeply into race, religion, and sexuality, and the role of memory and the past in the human consciousness.

    Four narrators, including Quentin Compson of The Sound and the Fury and his Harvard roommate, Shreve McCannon, attempt to decipher the mysteries surrounding the rise and fall of Thomas Sutpen, a self-made planter and God-like creator of Supten? Please note that our editors may make some formatting changes or correct spelling or grammatical errors, and may also contact you if any clarifications are needed.

    The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. Learn More in these related Britannica articles: This work also introduced him to the limelight, which he both craved and resented for the rest of his life. Her literary and artistic judgments were revered, and her chance remarks could make or destroy reputations. As literary editor of The New Republic from to , with a generally leftist position on cultural questions, he played a significant part in many of the literary and political battles of the Great Depression years.

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