Oz is, in the first book The Wonderful Wizard of Oz , distinguished from Dorothy's native Kansas by not being civilized; this explains why Kansas does not have witches and wizards, while Oz does. Oz is roughly rectangular in shape, and divided along the diagonals into four countries: In the center of Oz, where the diagonals cross, is the fabled Emerald City , capital of the land of Oz and seat to the monarch of Oz, Princess Ozma. The regions have a color schema: In The Marvelous Land of Oz , the book states that everything in the land of the Gillikins is purple, including the plants and mud, and a character can see that he is leaving when the grass turns from purple to green, but it also describes pumpkins as orange and corn as green in that land.
Most of these regions are settled with prosperous and contented people. However, this naturally is lacking in scope for plot. Numerous pockets throughout the Land of Oz are cut off from the main culture, for geographic or cultural reasons. Many have never heard of Ozma, making it impossible for them to acknowledge her as their rightful queen. These regions are concentrated around the edges of the country, and constitute the main settings for books that are set entirely within Oz.
Other such roads featured in other works: Oz is completely surrounded on all four sides by a desert which insulates the citizens of the Land of Oz from discovery and invasion. In the first two books, this is merely a natural desert, with only its extent making it dangerous to the traveler, but in The Road to Oz it is said to turn anyone who touches it to sand. Still, it is the dividing land between the magic of Oz and the outside world, and the Winged Monkeys can not obey Dorothy's command to carry her home because it would take them outside the lands of Oz.
After such an attempt in The Emerald City of Oz , the book ends with Glinda creating a barrier of invisibility around the Land of Oz, for further protection. The first known map of Oz was a glass slide used in Baum's Fairylogue and Radio-Play traveling show, showing the blue land of the Munchkins in the east and the yellow land of the Winkies in the west. These directions are confirmed by the text of all of Baum's Oz books, especially the first, in which the Wicked Witch of the East rules over the Munchkins , and the Wicked Witch of the West rules over the Winkies.
Like traditional western maps, the Fairylogue and Radio-Play map showed the west on the left, and the east on the right. However, the first map of Oz to appear in an Oz book had those directions reversed, and the compass rose adjusted accordingly. When he realized he was copying the slide backward, he reversed the compass rose to make the directions correct. However, an editor at Reilly and Lee reversed the compass rose, thinking he was fixing an error, and resulting in further confusion.
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Another speculation stems from the original conception of Oz, which at first appeared to be situated in an American desert. If Baum thought of the country of the Munchkins as the nearest region to him, it would have been in the east while he lived in Chicago, but when he moved to California, it would have been in the west. Modern maps of Oz are almost universally drawn with the Winkies in the west and the Munchkins in the east, although west and east often appear reversed. Many Oz fans believe this is the correct orientation, perhaps as a result of Glinda's spell, which has the effect of confusing most standard compasses; perhaps resembling its similarity to the world Alice found through the looking glass in which everything was a mirror image; or perhaps just reflecting the alien nature of Oz.
Heinlein 's book The Number of the Beast he posits that Oz is on a retrograde planet, meaning that it spins in the opposite direction of Earth so that the sun seems to rise on one's left as one faces north. Oz, like all of Baum's fantasy countries, was presented as existing as part of the real world, albeit protected from civilization by natural barriers. In Tik-Tok of Oz , Baum included maps in the endpapers which definitively situated Oz on a continent with its neighboring countries.
Pattrick for the whole of the countries surrounding Oz; Pattrick proposed "Ozeria" for the whole continent,  but that name is generally unused in fan discussions , which also includes the countries of Ev, Ix, and Mo, which has also been known as Phunniland, among others. Nonestica is, according to the map, in the Nonestic Ocean.
A fair amount of evidence in the books point to this continent as being envisioned as somewhere in the southern Pacific Ocean. Palm trees grow outside the Royal Palace in the Emerald City, and horses are not native to Oz, both points of consistency with a South-Pacific location; illustrations and descriptions of round-shaped and domed Ozite houses suggest a non-Western architecture.
Conversely, Oz has technological, architectural, and urban elements typical of Europe and North America around the turn of the twentieth century; but this may involve cultural input from unusual external sources see History below. An argument against the South Pacific is that the seasons in Oz are shown as the same seasons in the United States at the same time.
Baum's creation of the Emerald City may have been inspired by the White City of the World Columbian Exposition , which he visited frequently. Its quick building, in less than a year, may have been an element in the quick construction of the Emerald City in the first book. Ruth Plumly Thompson took a different direction with her Oz books, introducing European elements such as the title character of The Yellow Knight of Oz , a knight straight out of Arthurian Legend.
Glinda the Good Witch of the South is later revealed to be the most powerful of the four, although later Oz books reveal that the Wicked Witch of the West was so powerful, even Glinda feared her. After Dorothy's house crushes the Wicked Witch of the East , thereby liberating the Munchkins from bondage, the Good Witch of the North tells Dorothy that she the Witch of the North is not as powerful as the Wicked Witch of the East had been, or she would have freed the Munchkins herself. During the first scene in Oz in The Wonderful Wizard of Oz , the Good Witch of the North Locasta or Tattypoo explains to Dorothy that Oz still has witches and wizards, not being civilized, and goes on to explain that witches and wizards can be both good and evil, unlike the evil witches that Dorothy had been told of.
Baum tended to capitalize the word "Witch" when referring to the Witches of the North, South, East or West, but did not do so when referring to witches in general. For example, in the aforementioned first scene of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz , Locasta or Tattypoo thanks Dorothy for killing the "Wicked Witch of the East", and introduces herself as "the Witch of the North", with the word "Witch" capitalized in both cases.
However, when she goes on to tell Dorothy that "I [the Witch of the North] am a good witch, and the people love me", the word "witch" is not capitalized. White is the traditional color of witches in Oz. The Good Witch of the North wears a pointed white hat and a white gown decorated with stars, while Glinda, the Good Witch of the South called a "sorceress" in later books , wears a pure white dress. Dorothy is taken for a witch not only because she had killed the Wicked Witch of the East, but because her dress is blue and white checked.
Ozma, once on the throne, prohibits the use of magic by anyone other than Glinda the Good, the Wizard of Oz , and herself — as, earlier, the Good Witch of the North had prohibited magic by any other witch in her domains. There are different kinds of animals living in Oz.
According to Baum, all animals in Oz have the ability to speak because it is a "fairy" kingdom. When asked by his readers why Dorothy's dog Toto did not speak, Baum insisted that he had the ability to, but did not choose to speak, but he finally does so in Tik-Tok of Oz. There is a multitude of other races living in the land of Oz, many of which only appear once.
Among the known races are:. Outside of them are many other strange races who are often found living in the wilderness of Oz. Despite the overlordship of Ozma, many of the communities live autonomously. Oz has great tolerance for eccentricity and oddness. Many characters in Oz are animated objects. The Dainty China Country is entirely filled with creatures made of china, who would freeze into figurines if removed.
The China Princess lives in fear of breaking because she would never be as pretty again, even if repaired. Many other characters are highly individual, even unique members of a species. Many such people from the outer worlds find refuge in Oz, which is highly tolerant of eccentricity. The history of Oz prior to The Wonderful Wizard of Oz often called the prehistory of Oz as it takes place before Baum's "histories" is often the subject of dispute, as Baum himself gave conflicting accounts.
In The Wonderful Wizard of Oz , the title character recounts that he was a ventriloquist and a circus balloonist from Omaha , and during one flight the rope for his parachute vent became tangled, preventing him from descending until the next morning, and he awoke to find that he was floating over a strange land. When he landed, the people thought he was a great wizard because of his ability to fly. He did not disabuse them of this notion, and with his new power over them, he had them build a city with a palace in the center of Oz.
He also ordered them to wear green glasses so it would appear to be made entirely of emeralds. He lived in this way until the arrival of Dorothy in the first book. In The Marvelous Land of Oz the prehistory was changed slightly. This was Baum's reaction to the popular Broadway extravaganza Baum adapted from his book, The Wonderful Wizard of Oz , in which the Wizard took the role of the main antagonist and the Wicked Witch of the West was left out.
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The Wizard, however, had been more popular with his readers than he thought. In Ozma of Oz , he omitted any mention of the Wizard's having usurped the throne of Ozma's father,  but the largest changes occurred in the next book. In the preface to Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz , Baum remarks that the Wizard had turned out to be a popular character with the children who had read the first book and so he brought the Wizard back.
The balloon part of his story was unchanged, except for the detail added by Ozma, that the people probably saw his initials on his balloon and took them as a message that he was to be their king. She relates that the country was already named Oz a word which in their language means "great and good" , and that it was typical for the rulers to have names that are variations of Oz King Pastoria being a notable exception to this rule.
Ozma elaborates further, saying that there were once four Wicked Witches in Oz, who leagued together to depose the King, but the Wicked Witches of the North and South were defeated by Good Witches before the Wizard arrived in Oz. According to this version, the King at the time was Ozma's grandfather. This version of prehistory restores the Wizard's reputation,  but adds the awkwardness of both Ozma and her father having been born in captivity.
Thenceforward, no one in Oz would ever age, get sick, or die. After becoming a fairyland, Oz harbored many Witches, Magicians, and Sorcerers until the time when Ozma made magic illegal without a permit.
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In yet another inconsistency, it is implied that Ozma was the fairy left behind by Queen Lurline to rule the country, contradicting the story where she was Pastoria's daughter. This is later confirmed in Glinda of Oz:. While this explains why no one dies or ages, and nevertheless there are people of differing ages in Oz, it is completely inconsistent with the earlier versions of the prehistory. Maguire, author of Wicked addresses this inconsistency by saying that the people of Oz believe that Ozma is reincarnated—that her spirit was left behind by Lurline, but her body is reborn to different mortal queens.
This version relates that Ozma was given to the king of Oz as an adoptive daughter, for he was old and had no children.
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He found a remote land and separated it from the rest of the world, along with putting the enchantments of eternal spring and talking animals Volkov's version doesn't include any forms of immortality. However, he failed to notice that the land already contained people since he was a giant, already suffering from nearsightedness in his advanced age, and the people in the Magic Land were much shorter than in other places , but, upon discovering the fact, decided that removing the enchantments would be unnecessary. Instead, he ordered the people to keep away from his castle.
Eventually, Dorothy Gale and her whole house are blown into Oz from Kansas by a tornado. In an attempt to get back to her home, she journeys to the Emerald City. Along the way, she meets the Tin Woodman , the Cowardly Lion , and the Scarecrow , all of whom accompany her. Once there, they become the first people to gain an audience with the Wizard since he went into seclusion, although he disguises himself because Dorothy now has the Wicked Witch of the East's magic silver shoes, and he is afraid of her. The Wizard sends Dorothy and her party to destroy the Wicked Witch of the West and in exchange promises to grant her request to be sent home.
Surprisingly, Dorothy "destroys" the Witch by throwing a pail of water on her, causing her to melt. Defeated, the Wizard reveals to the group that he is in fact not a real wizard and has no magical powers, but he promises to grant Dorothy's wish and take her home himself in his balloon. He leaves the Scarecrow in his place to rule Oz. Finally, it is discovered that the wizard had given the daughter of the last king of Oz, Princess Ozma, to the old witch Mombi to have her hidden away. Mombi had turned Ozma into a boy named Tip, whom she raised. When all of this is revealed Tip is turned back into Ozma and takes her rightful place as the benevolent ruler of all of Oz.
Ozma successfully wards off several attempts by various armies to overthrow her. To prevent any upheaval of her rule over Oz, she outlaws the practice of all magic in Oz except by herself, the returned and reformed wizard, and by Glinda, and she has Glinda make all of Oz invisible to outsiders. Ozma remains the ruler of Oz for the entire series. Some political analysts have claimed that Oz is a thinly disguised socialist utopia , though some Baum scholars disagree.
This is a revision of the original society: Since Oz is ruled by a monarch , benevolent though she may be, Oz is closer in nature to an absolute monarchy than a communist or Marxist state. The society grew steadily more utopian, in that its peace and prosperity were organized, but from the first book, it was a stupendously wealthy country, in contrast to Kansas's crop failures, droughts, and mortgages—just as it also is colorful to contrast with Kansas's gray. However, this book was not written by Baum, but by John R. Neill, Baum's second successor. Further, the concept of the "ozlection" was not in Neill's manuscript for the book, but was added by an editor at Reilly and Lee, the publisher.
At times the rulers of Oz's territories have grander titles than would normally be customary, but this is done mostly for the satisfaction of the incumbents. The ruler of the Quadling Country is Glinda the Good. The Royal Flag of Oz is based on the map of the Land of Oz; the four colors represent the four countries, and the green star represents the Emerald City. Oz is mostly a peaceful land and the idea of subversion is largely unknown to its people. Most military positions are only formal.
This has caused many problems, such as in The Marvelous Land of Oz when the Emerald City which was only guarded by an elderly doorman and one soldier who was the entire Army of Oz at the time was easily conquered by the Army of Revolt led by General Jinjur. This army was in turn overwhelmed by another army of girls led by Glinda. Security of Oz is mostly maintained by magic such as Glinda's spell making Oz completely invisible. Oz also has a natural barrier in the form of a desert that surrounds the land: The Nome King has tried to conquer Oz on several occasions.
In The Land Of Oz by Howard Jacobson
In the end of the book it was said that there are three privates all in all, and it is unknown how many—if any—officers were left at home during Ozma's travel to Ev. The private seen in the book, named Omby Amby , is later promoted to Captain General. But these attempts are always successfully thwarted in the end, usually by Ozma or by forces sympathetic to her. The Land of Oz as portrayed in the classic MGM musical movie of , is quite different from that portrayed in Baum's books.
The most notable difference is that in the film the entire land of Oz appears to be dreamed up by Dorothy Gale thus making it a dream world , although, Dorothy earnestly corrects the adults at the end that she was indeed there, and an image of Dorothy's falling farmhouse returning to earth is presented. The apparent message is that one should appreciate one's home, no matter how dull it may look or uninteresting its surroundings may be, for having a home and a family is not something that should be taken for granted.
This contrasts sharply with the books, in which Dorothy and her family are eventually invited to move to Oz due to a bank foreclosure on the farm, showing both that Oz is a real place, and that it is a utopia compared to the prairies of Kansas. There are many other small differences between the books and the movie. For example, when Dorothy arrives in Munchkinland the Munchkins are seen wearing colorful costumes, but in the book Munchkins are said to only wear blue as blue is the official dominant color of the east.
The first witch Dorothy meets in Oz in the book is the Good Witch of the North , a minor character that only had one other appearance in Baum's books but is an important figure of Oz nonetheless. In the movie this character is conflated with that of Glinda , who is the Good Witch of the South and does not make an appearance until the very end of Baum's story.
The character of Glinda in the books dresses in all white silk, as white is the traditional color for good witches, whereas in the film she is seen in pink. It is also worthy of note that the Dorothy of the books is only a little girl who is no older than twelve-years-old. However, she is mature and very resourceful, only crying when faced with ultimate despair, whereas the older Dorothy of the movie portrayed as a twelve-year-old by sixteen-year-old Judy Garland spends several portions of the film crying and being told by others what to do, however her fear was overshadowed by the Cowardly Lion's.
This is more consistent with Thompson's portrayal of Dorothy—Baum is known for his strong and independent female characters. The Wicked Witch of the West also changes significantly between books and movie. In the books no mention is ever made of her skin color, whereas in the movie she is green without explanation, although the Winkies she has enslaved and turned into soldiers are also green.
In the book it is implied but not stated that she dresses in yellow, as yellow is the official dominant color of the Winkie Country where she rules, whereas in the movie she dresses entirely in black. In the book she is portrayed as having only one eye, which is so powerful it could see distant objects like a telescope, but in the movie she uses a crystal ball to watch Dorothy and her friends from afar. The Wizard of Oz does not resort to anywhere near as much trickery in the movie as the book. In the book he entertains each member of Dorothy's party on a different day, and takes a different form for each; appearing as a giant green head, a beautiful fairy, a great beast, and a levitating ball of fire.
In the movie he takes only one of these forms—that of the giant green head. The nature of the Emerald City is changed in the film. In the book, the city is not actually all green, but everyone is forced to wear green tinted spectacles ostensibly to protect their eyes from the glory and splendor of the luxurious city , thus making everything appear green. In the film, the city is actually all green. The architecture of the Emerald City in the movie uses a much more contemporary Art Deco style than Baum could have imagined.
In the book, a giant green wall studded in glittering emeralds surrounds the entire city, whereas in the movie there is only a gate opening. This was because full color motion pictures were still a relatively new technology in , and MGM wanted to show off the visually dazzling process. Shiny red shoes were more impressive in a color motion picture compared to silver ones. In his revisionist Oz novels Wicked: Maguire's Oz is not Baum's utopia, but a land troubled by political unrest and economic hardship. One political issue in Maguire's novels is the oppression of the Animals Maguire distinguishes speaking Animals from non-speaking animals by the use of initial capital letters.
There are many religious traditions in Maguire's Oz, including Lurlinism which regards the Fairy Lurline as Oz's creator , Unionism, which worships the Unnamed God, and the pleasure faiths which had swept Oz during the time that the witches were at Shiz. An example of the pleasure faiths were tic-toc where creatures were enchanted to tell secrets or the future and run by clockwork , and sorcery. Maguire's presentation of Oz's geography is also tinged with politics. A large political prison, Southstairs, exists in caverns below the Emerald City.
Gillikin, home of Shiz University, has more industrial development than other parts of Oz. Munchkinland is Oz's breadbasket and at one point declares its independence from the rule of the Emerald City. Quadling Country is largely marshland, inhabited by the artistic and sexually free Quadlings.
The Vinkus Maguire's name for Winkie Country is largely open grassland, populated by semi-nomadic tribes with brown skin. The musical Wicked , based on Maguire's first Oz novel, portrays an Oz slightly closer to the version seen in Baum's novels and the film. The oppression of the Animals is still a theme, but the geographical and religious divisions portrayed in Maguire's novel are barely present.
In both the book and musical, several characters from the traditional Oz stories are present with different names. Glinda is originally called Galinda, but changes her name. Alexander Melentyevich Volkov was a Russian author best known for his translation of The Wizard of Oz into Russian, and for writing his own original sequels, which were based only loosely on Baum's.
Volkov's books have been translated into many other languages, and are better known than Baum's in some countries. The books, while still aimed at children, feature many mature political and ethical elements. The look is affectionated, but clear-eyed. Although written in the '80s, much of the book holds true today. In one area it has certainly changed and that is Australian cuisine and dining; they are much more sophisticated and worldly, well beyond the ubitquitous BBQed chicken and chips A travel book but more In one area it has certainly changed and that is Australian cuisine and dining; they are much more sophisticated and worldly, well beyond the ubitquitous BBQed chicken and chips experienced by Jacobson.
Many of the attitudes remain the same, though. A fascinating book for ex-pats of other lands living in Oz, and for brave and honest Australians themselves. May 29, Gabby rated it it was ok. Somehow I was expecting a bit more from Mr Jacobson or maybe the odd years since he completed the trip and wrote about it haven't been kind to it. Found the length a bit excessive, as afterwards I couldn't really think of anything that really stood out.
To me it was a bit like this: Sniffy brit author with expat sniffy wife travel all the way around Straya by various means and makes wry observations about strayans doing strayan things. Oh yeh and there's the usual thing about cultural and ra Somehow I was expecting a bit more from Mr Jacobson or maybe the odd years since he completed the trip and wrote about it haven't been kind to it. Oh yeh and there's the usual thing about cultural and racial issues too. Tedious reading that is neither insightful nor entertaining. Way too much Howard Jacobson and far too little Australia.
I wasn't expecting a travel guide a la Frommers or Lonely Planet nor a political commentary or cultural history.
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That said, neither did I anticipate, let alone want, repetition of mundane cocktail party or backyard barbecue chatter. My recommendation is that you skip this book entirely and read Bill Bryson's Travels in a Sunburnt Country instead. May 31, Brian Horn added it. Should be a mandatory read for any Australian,. Both love the two countries the people and their quirks. My first encounter with Australia was identical to his and had me in hysterics!! Jul 10, Maria McArdle rated it liked it Shelves: Humorous and highly atmospheric. You can almost smell the gum trees, see the wildlife and feel the burning heat.
The author and his wife take and tackle the rough roads and some of the even rougher 'locals' in their stride as they travel deep into the Australian outback. Visiting cities on their way, the reader is given glimpses into the historical development, highs and lows of society.
If you want an armchair tour of Oz this is it! Aug 23, Jyv rated it did not like it Shelves: Apparently, this books was supposed to be funny so they claimed on the back cover. It was mind-numbingly boring. I read three chapters and found my eyes were constantly glazing over. I scanned a bit more, dipping into further chapters, hoping it would be more interesting, but was rewarded with more tedium. You get through half the book before he leaves Western Australia.
Sydney got a couple of pages, Melbourne a paragraph - none of it in the least interesting. I couldn't help but th Apparently, this books was supposed to be funny so they claimed on the back cover. I couldn't help but think that the book would've been far better had his wife written it. Jul 23, da-wildchildz rated it it was ok. It has been ages since I read a travelogue and I have itchy feet. Picked up In the Land of Oz Give, hoping it would be an insightful trip to Australia and calm the wanderlust. However, it turned out to be a bunch of dated drivel.
Jun 12, Ruth Chippendale rated it liked it. I wanted to read a travelogue of these remoter parts of Australia prior to a possible trip, and I embarked on this book without realising it is now quite old describing a trip done in and probably out-of-date. Nevertheless I persevered and enjoyed the read, it may well push me to try some of Howard Jacobson's novels which I have not yet read.
Jul 10, The Jewish Book Council added it. A fascinating read which has made me wish I could get out there and explore more myself. Jan 03, Rose rated it really liked it. Even though this book dates back to travel in the 80's it is interesting and lively. While I wondeer how much has changed, it is a fun look into Australia and impressive for the immense territory covered and the images and personalities conveyed.