PDF Sams Teach Yourself Django in 24 Hours

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Although this website will be basic, it will be the basis for future hours to build on as you are guided through the various aspects of the Django framework. Let's begin the process of creating a working website by creating a Django project. A Django project is a collection of settings that define a specific instance of Django.

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These settings include things such as database configuration, URL configuration, and other options that you will learn about as the hours tick by. Creating a Django project is relatively simple to do from the command prompt. In this section, you create a project called iFriends. Caution - Because the project will act as a Python package, avoid using a project name that conflicts with any existing built-in Python packages. The documentation for built-in Python packages can be found at http: Note - There is no need to put your project code in a directory in the web server's document base.

The Django framework will be responsible for executing the code. In fact, it is a much better idea to store the code somewhere outside the web server's root.

That way your code will be protected from being accessed directly from a web browser. The startproject command first creates a directory called iFriends, and then it stores the basic set of Python files that are needed to begin the project in the iFriends directory.

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The startproject command creates the following files:. The basic purpose of these files is to set up a Python package that Django can use to define the website's structure and behavior. We will discuss these files a bit more in this hour and in subsequent hours as the website gets increasingly complex. After you have created the Django project, you should be able to start the development server to test it.

The development server is a lightweight web server that is included with the Django project. It lets you develop and test your website without having to deal with all the configuration and management issues of a production web server. Note - The manage. If no critical errors are encountered, you are notified that the development sever is running at http: If the development server starts properly and you haven't changed the debug setting , you should see a page similar to the one shown in Figure 2. Note - You can tell the development server to use a different port than if that port is already being used by adding the port to the command line.

The following example shows the syntax for configuring the development server to run on port After you have verified that you can start and stop the development server, it is time to configure access to the database. This section takes you through the process of creating and configuring access to the database that will be used in the sample project. Note - Django can dynamically serve web pages without using a database to store information. However, one of the best aspects of Django is its ability to implement database-backed websites.

Configuring the database involves three major steps. The first is to create the database and assign rights. The second is to modify the settings. The third step is to synchronize the Django project with the database to create the initial tables necessary for the Django engine. Django supports several different types of database engines. The project used in this book uses a MySQL database.


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This section assumes that you have already installed, configured, and started a database engine and that it is accessible from the development server. This section takes you through the steps of creating the database, creating an admin user, and granting rights from your SQL database command console. This step will be critical for some of the other Try it Yourself sections. Note - If your database engine has a graphical interface that allows you to manage databases and users, you can use that interface as well to create the database and admin user and to assign rights.

After the database has been created and a user account set up for Django, you need to configure the settings. Each Django project has its own settings. Django uses the following settings in the settings. The following section takes you through the steps to modify the settings in the settings. If the database is on a remote server or is running on a nondefault port, these options need to be set accordingly. After you have configured access to the database in the settings.

Django's synchronization process creates the tables necessary in the database to support your project. This section guides you through the steps to synchronize the Django project to the database. During the process, Django creates the default tables and prompts you to input the name, email address, and password for a website administration account.

The username and password you specify allow you to access the Django authentication system. The database now has the appropriate tables configured to allow Django to use its authentication, content, session, and site frameworks correctly. After you have configured and synchronized the database, you can begin installing applications in it. Installing applications is simply a matter of creating an application directory, defining a model, and then activating the application so that Django can access it in the database.

The first application you will create is an application called People, which will be used to keep track of the individuals who use the website. The startapp command creates a People directory within the iFriends directory and then populates it with the following files:. The files in the application directory define how information for the application will be stored and accessed in the database. They also define how information in the model will be viewed when accessed from the website. After the application has been created, you need to create a model for the data that will be stored in the application.

A model is simply a definition of the classes, attributes, and relationships of objects in the application. To create a model, you need to modify the models. To define the model, you need to define one or more classes. Each class represents an object type in the database.

In this section, you create the class Person in the People model by modifying the Python script, models. Initially, the script is blank. This section takes you through adding the Python code to define classes in the model. The syncdb command creates the necessary tables in the iFriends database for the People application.

The model is now active, and data can be added to and retrieved from the database using Django at this point.

Sams Teach Yourself Django in 24 Hours

This section briefly describes how to use the Django shell interface and database API to quickly add a single Person object to the People table. The database API is a set of Python methods that allow you to access the project database from the data model. Open the Django shell, and follow these steps to add yourself as a Person object in the People model of the iFriends database. A Person object has now been created in the iFriends database. We will discuss accessing the database and using the database API in more depth later. This section discusses configuring the URLConf file to define how installed applications are accessed from the web.

The parsed request is translated into a specific Python function that is executed in the views. The default location is the name of the project's root directory. Note - In the preceding code snippet, iFriends. After you have configured the URLConf file, you need to add the views to the application. The application's views are stored as functions in the views.

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When the Django server receives an URL request, it parses the request based on the patterns that are contained in the URLConf file and determines which function to execute to generate the web view. This section guides you through the steps of creating an index view stub for the People application in the iFriends project. After the view is created, you start the development server and view the web page that is generated. In this hour, you created a Django project called iFriends. You configured access to a MySQL database for the project.

You created an application called People , added a Person class, and populated the database with one Person object. Step-by-step instructions carefully walk you through the most common Django tasks. Notes and tips point out shortcuts and solutions. Creating the Website Framework Hour 1: Understanding Django 7 Hour 2: Creating Your First Website 19 Hour 3: Implementing the Website Interface Hour 5: Using Data from the Database in Views 81 Hour 6: Configuring Web Page Views Hour 7: Adding Forms to Views Hour Utilizing Generic Views Hour Implementing a Full-Featured Website Hour Managing Site Users Hour Adding Website Security Hour Managing Sessions and Cookies Hour Customizing Models in the Admin Interface Hour Implementing Advanced Website Components Hour Implementing Middleware Hour Internationalization and Localization Hour Creating Sitemaps Hour Implementing Multiple Websites Hour Configuring Caching Hour Deploying Django Appendixes Appendix A: Django Resources Appendix B: