Butler was later replaced toward the end of Jackson's presidency. In , the Texas Revolution began when pro-slavery American settlers in Texas fought the Mexican government for Texan independence. By May , they had routed the Mexican military, establishing an independent Republic of Texas.
The new Texas government legalized slavery and demanded recognition from President Jackson and annexation into the United States. Jackson was hesitant in recognizing Texas, unconvinced that the new republic could maintain independence from Mexico, and not wanting to make Texas an anti-slavery issue during the election. The strategy worked; the Democratic Party and national loyalties were held intact, and Van Buren was elected president. Jackson failed in his efforts to open trade with China and Japan and was unsuccessful at thwarting Great Britain's presence and power in South America.
The presidential election demonstrated the rapid development and organization of political parties during this time period. The Democratic Party's first national convention, held in Baltimore, nominated Jackson's choice for vice president, Van Buren. Clay was, like Jackson, a Mason, and so some anti-Jacksonians who would have supported the National Republican Party supported Wirt instead. Its stock was mostly held by foreigners, he insisted, and it exerted an unfair amount of control over the political system.
Jackson used the issue to promote his democratic values, believing the Bank was being run exclusively for the wealthy. Jackson stated the Bank made "the rich richer and the potent more powerful. Its only power would be to issue bills of exchange. Thomas Hart Benton, now a strong supporter of the President despite the brawl years earlier, gave a speech strongly denouncing the Bank and calling for open debate on its recharter. Webster led a motion to narrowly defeat the resolution.
Shortly afterward, the Globe announced that Jackson would stand for reelection. Despite his misgivings about the Bank, he supported a plan proposed in late by his moderately pro-Bank Treasury Secretary Louis McLane , who was secretly working with Biddle, to recharter a reformed version of the Bank in a way that would free up funds which would in turn be used to strengthen the military or pay off the nation's debt. This would be done, in part, through the sale of government stock in the Bank.
Over the objections of Attorney General Roger B. Taney , an irreconcilable opponent of the Bank, he allowed McLane to publish a Treasury Report which essentially recommended rechartering the Bank. Clay hoped to make the Bank an issue in the election, so as to accuse Jackson of going beyond his powers if he vetoed a recharter bill. He and Webster urged Biddle to immediately apply for recharter rather than wait to reach a compromise with the administration. On January 6, Biddle submitted to Congress a renewal of the Bank's charter without any of the proposed reforms.
Biddle's recharter bill passed the Senate on June 11 and the House on July 3, Many moderate Democrats, including McLane, were appalled by the perceived arrogance of the bill and supported his decision. Van Buren, is trying to kill me. But I will kill it. It attacked the Bank as an agent of inequality that supported only the wealthy. At Biddle's direction, the Bank poured thousands of dollars into a campaign to defeat Jackson, seemingly confirming Jackson's view that it interfered in the political process.
Clay proved to be no match to Jackson's ability to resonate with the people and the Democratic Party's strong political networks. Democratic newspapers, parades, barbecues, and rallies increased Jackson's popularity. Jackson won the election by a landslide, receiving 54 percent of the popular vote and electoral votes. Clay received 37 percent of the popular vote and 49 electoral votes.
Wirt received only eight percent of the popular vote and seven electoral votes while the Anti-Masonic Party eventually declined. In , Jackson attempted to begin removing federal deposits from the bank, whose money-lending functions were taken over by the legions of local and state banks that materialized across America, thus drastically increasing credit and speculation. He replaced McLane with William J. Signalling his intent to continue battling the Bank, he replaced Duane with Taney.
The moves were intended to force Jackson into a compromise. At first, Biddle's strategy was successful, putting enormous pressure on Jackson. When people came to him complaining, he referred them to Biddle, saying that he was the man who had "all the money. Biddle's strategy backfired, increasing anti-Bank sentiment. In , those who disagreed with Jackson's expansion of executive power united and formed the Whig Party , calling Jackson "King Andrew I," and named their party after the English Whigs who opposed seventeenth century British monarchy.
The censure was a political maneuver spearheaded by Clay, which served only to perpetuate the animosity between him and Jackson. Polk , declared on April 4 that the Bank "ought not to be rechartered" and that the depositions "ought not to be restored. Jackson called the passage of these resolutions a "glorious triumph.
Polk ran for Speaker of the House to replace Andrew Stevenson. The national economy following the withdrawal of the remaining funds from the Bank was booming and the federal government through duty revenues and sale of public lands was able to pay all bills. On January 1, , Jackson paid off the entire national debt, the only time in U. In , in response to increased land speculation, Jackson issued the Specie Circular , an executive order that required buyers of government lands to pay in "specie" gold or silver coins.
The result was high demand for specie, which many banks could not meet in exchange for their notes, contributing to the Panic of His destruction of the Second Bank of the United States had removed restrictions upon the inflationary practices of some state banks; wild speculation in lands, based on easy bank credit, had swept the West. To end this speculation, Jackson in had issued a Specie Circular The first recorded physical attack on a U.
He had ordered the dismissal of Robert B. Randolph from the navy for embezzlement. During a stopover near Alexandria , Randolph appeared and struck the President. He fled the scene chased by several members of Jackson's party, including the writer Washington Irving. Jackson declined to press charges. On January 30, , what is believed to be the first attempt to kill a sitting president of the United States occurred just outside the United States Capitol.
Davis , Richard Lawrence , an unemployed house painter from England, aimed a pistol at Jackson, which misfired. Lawrence then pulled out a second pistol, which also misfired. Historians believe the humid weather contributed to the double misfiring. Lawrence offered a variety of explanations for the shooting.
He blamed Jackson for the loss of his job. He claimed that with the President dead, "money would be more plenty," a reference to Jackson's struggle with the Bank of the United States and that he "could not rise until the President fell. Afterwards, the pistols were tested and retested. Each time they performed perfectly. Many believed that Jackson had been protected by the same Providence that also protected their young nation.
The incident became a part of Jacksonian mythos. Jackson initially suspected that a number of his political enemies might have orchestrated the attempt on his life. His suspicions were never proven. During the summer of , Northern abolitionists began sending anti-slavery tracts through the postal system into the South. Jackson wanted sectional peace, and desired to placate Southerners ahead of the election.
He supported the solution of Postmaster General Amos Kendall, which gave Southern postmasters discretionary powers to either send or detain the anti-slavery tracts. Jackson initially opposed any federal exploratory scientific expeditions during his first term in office. Harriman on the Red River of the North.
Jackson's predecessor, President Adams, attempted to launch a scientific oceanic exploration in , but Congress was unwilling to fund the effort. When Jackson assumed office in he pocketed Adams' expedition plans. Eventually, wanting to establish his presidential legacy, similar to Jefferson and the Lewis and Clark Expedition , Jackson sponsored scientific exploration during his second term. Jackson put Secretary of the Navy Mahlon Dickerson in charge, to assemble suitable ships, officers, and scientific staff for the expedition; with a planned launch before Jackson's term of office expired.
Dickerson proved unfit for the task, preparations stalled and the expedition was not launched until , during the presidency of Van Buren. In spite of economic success following Jackson's vetoes and war against the Bank, reckless speculation in land and railroads eventually caused the Panic of Two other Jacksonian acts in contributed to the Panic of Jackson's Specie Circular, albeit designed to reduce speculation and stabilize the economy, left many investors unable to afford to pay loans in gold and silver.
The same year there was a downturn in Great Britain's economy that stopped investment in the United States. As a result, the U. Jackson appointed six justices to the Supreme Court. His first appointee, John McLean , had been nominated in Barry's place after Barry had agreed to become postmaster general. His next two appointees— Henry Baldwin and James Moore Wayne —disagreed with Jackson on some points but were poorly regarded even by Jackson's enemies.
Both were confirmed by the new Senate. Sandford largely overshadows his career. Two new states were admitted into the Union during Jackson's presidency: Arkansas June 15,  and Michigan January 26, This was in keeping with the tradition that new states would support the party which had done the most to admit them. In , after serving two terms as president, Jackson was replaced by his chosen successor Martin Van Buren and retired to the Hermitage. He immediately began putting it in order as it had been poorly managed in his absence by his adopted son, Andrew Jackson Jr. Although he suffered ill health, Jackson remained highly influential in both national and state politics.
Jackson continued to denounce the "perfidy and treachery" of banks and urged his successor, Van Buren, to repudiate the Specie Circular as president. As a solution to the panic, he supported an Independent Treasury system, which was designed to hold the money balances of the government in the form of gold or silver and would be restricted from printing paper money so as to prevent further inflation. During the delay, no effective remedy had been implemented for the depression. Van Buren grew deeply unpopular. The Whigs' campaign style in many ways mimicked that of the Democrats when Jackson ran.
They depicted Van Buren as an aristocrat who did not care for the concerns of ordinary Americans, while glorifying Harrison's military record and portraying him as a man of the people. Jackson campaigned heavily for Van Buren in Tennessee. No nominee was chosen, and the party chose to leave the decision up to individual state electors. Harrison won the election, and the Whigs captured majorities in both houses of Congress.
Jackson was encouraged because Tyler had a strong independent streak and was not bound by party lines. Jackson strongly favored the annexation of Texas , a feat he had been unable to accomplish during his own presidency. While Jackson still feared that annexation would stir up anti-slavery sentiment, his belief that the British would use Texas as a base to threaten the United States overrode his other concerns.
Walker of Mississippi, acting on behalf of the Tyler administration, which also supported annexation, Jackson wrote several letters to Texas President Sam Houston , urging him to wait for the Senate to approve annexation and lecturing him on how much being a part of the United States would benefit Texas.
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A treaty of annexation was signed by Tyler on April 12, , and submitted to the Senate. When a letter from Secretary of State Calhoun to British Ambassador Richard Pakenham linking annexation to slavery was made public, anti-annexation sentiment exploded in the North and the bill failed to be ratified.
Van Buren decided to write the "Hamlet letter," opposing annexation. This effectively extinguished any support that Van Buren might previously have enjoyed in the South. If the plan failed, Jackson warned, Texas would not join the Union and would potentially fall victim to a Mexican invasion supported by the British. He then pointed directly at a startled Polk, telling him that, as a man from the southwest and a supporter of annexation, he would be the perfect candidate. Polk called the scheme "utterly abortive," but agreed to go along with it.
Dallas was selected for vice president. Jackson convinced Tyler to drop his plans of running for re-election as an independent by promising, as Tyler requested, to welcome the president and his allies back into the Democratic Party and by instructing Blair to stop criticizing the president. Jackson died at his plantation on June 8, , at the age of 78, of chronic dropsy and heart failure.
When the messenger finally came, the old soldier, patriot and Christian was looking out for his approach. He is gone, but his memory lives, and will continue to live. Jackson had three adopted sons: Theodore, an Indian about whom little is known,  Andrew Jackson Jr. Lyncoya died of tuberculosis on July 1, , at the age of sixteen. The Jacksons also acted as guardians for eight other children. Andrew Jackson Hutchings was Rachel's orphaned grand nephew. They came to live with the Jacksons after the death of their father.
Emily was married to Andrew Jackson Donelson, who acted as Jackson's private secretary and in ran for vice president on the American Party ticket. The relationship between the President and Emily became strained during the Petticoat affair, and the two became estranged for over a year. They eventually reconciled and she resumed her duties as White House hostess. It was the only time in history when two women simultaneously acted as unofficial First Lady. Sarah took over all hostess duties after Emily died from tuberculosis in Jackson used Rip Raps as a retreat.
Jackson's quick temper was notorious. Brands notes that his opponents were terrified of his temper: His close associates all had stories of his blood-curdling oaths, his summoning of the Almighty to loose His wrath upon some miscreant, typically followed by his own vow to hang the villain or blow him to perdition.
Given his record—in duels, brawls, mutiny trials, and summary hearings—listeners had to take his vows seriously. On the last day of his presidency, Jackson admitted that he had but two regrets, that he "had been unable to shoot Henry Clay or to hang John C. Jackson also had an unruly shock of red hair, which had completely grayed by the time he became president at age He had penetrating deep blue eyes. Jackson was one of the more sickly presidents, suffering from chronic headaches, abdominal pains, and a hacking cough. Much of his trouble was caused by a musket ball in his lung that was never removed, that often brought up blood and sometimes made his whole body shake.
Jackson was a Freemason , initiated at Harmony Lodge No. He was the only U. His Masonic apron is on display in the Tennessee State Museum. An obelisk and bronze Masonic plaque decorate his tomb at the Hermitage. Jackson remains one of the most studied and controversial figures in American history. Historian Charles Grier Sellers says, "Andrew Jackson's masterful personality was enough by itself to make him one of the most controversial figures ever to stride across the American stage.
He has been lauded as the champion of the common man, while criticized for his treatment of Indians and for other matters. Trying to sum up the contradictions in his subject, he wrote:. Andrew Jackson, I am given to understand, was a patriot and a traitor. He was one of the greatest generals, and wholly ignorant of the art of war. A brilliant writer, elegant, eloquent, without being able to compose a correct sentence or spell words of four syllables.
The first of statesmen, he never devised, he never framed, a measure. He was the most candid of men, and was capable of the most profound dissimulation. A most law-defying law-obeying citizen. A stickler for discipline, he never hesitated to disobey his superior. Jackson was criticized by his contemporary Alexis de Tocqueville in Democracy in America for flattering the dominant ideas of his time, including the mistrust over the federal power, for sometimes enforcing his view by force and disrespect towards the institutions and the law:.
Far from wishing to extend the Federal power, the President belongs to the party which is desirous of limiting that power to the clear and precise letter of the Constitution, and which never puts a construction upon that act favorable to the government of the Union; far from standing forth as the champion of centralization, General Jackson is the agent of the state jealousies; and he was placed in his lofty station by the passions that are most opposed to the central government. It is by perpetually flattering these passions that he maintains his station and his popularity.
General Jackson is the slave of the majority: General Jackson stoops to gain the favor of the majority; but when he feels that his popularity is secure, he overthrows all obstacles in the pursuit of the objects which the community approves or of those which it does not regard with jealousy. Supported by a power that his predecessors never had, he tramples on his personal enemies, whenever they cross his path, with a facility without example; he takes upon himself the responsibility of measures that no one before him would have ventured to attempt.
He even treats the national representatives with a disdain approaching to insult; he puts his veto on the laws of Congress and frequently neglects even to reply to that powerful body. He is a favorite who sometimes treats his master roughly. In the 20th century, Jackson was written about by many admirers. Remini paints a generally favorable portrait of Jackson. As such it has inspired much of the dynamic and dramatic events of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries in American history— Populism , Progressivism , the New and Fair Deals, and the programs of the New Frontier and Great Society.
This new man was no longer British. He no longer wore the queue and silk pants. He wore trousers, and he had stopped speaking with a British accent.
Andrew Jackson Biography
Jackson's initiatives to deal with the conflicts between Indians and American settlers has been a source of controversy. Starting mainly around , Jackson came under attack from some historians on this issue. Howard Zinn called him "the most aggressive enemy of the Indians in early American history" and "exterminator of Indians. Because both Jefferson and Jackson were slave owners, as well as because of Jackson's Indian removal policies, many state party organizations have renamed the dinners.
Brands argues that Jackson's reputation suffered since the s as his actions towards Indians and African Americans received new attention. He also claims that the Indian controversy overshadowed Jackson's other achievements. Noting shifting attitudes on different national issues, Brands notes that he was often hailed during his lifetime as the "second George Washington," because, while Washington had fought for independence, Jackson confirmed it at New Orleans and made the United States a great power. Over time, while the Revolution has maintained a strong presence in the public conscience, memory of the War of , including the Battle of New Orleans, has sharply declined.
Brands argues that this is because once America had become a military power, "it was easy to think that America had been destined for this role from the beginning. Still, Jackson's performance in office has generally been ranked in the top half in public opinion polling. Jackson has appeared on U. Most recently, his image has appeared on the U. Jackson has appeared on several postage stamps.
He first appeared on an two-cent stamp, which is commonly referred to by collectors as the Black Jack due to the large portraiture of Jackson on its face printed in pitch black. Memorials to Jackson include a set of four identical equestrian statues by the sculptor Clark Mills: That statue controversially identifies him as one of the "presidents North Carolina gave the nation," and he is featured alongside James Polk and Andrew Johnson , both U.
Jackson and his wife Rachel were the main subjects of a historical novel by Irving Stone , The President's Lady , which told the story of their lives up until Rachel's death. The novel was the basis for the film of the same name starring Charlton Heston as Jackson and Susan Hayward as Rachel. Jackson has been a supporting character in a number of historical films and television productions. Jackson is the protagonist of the comedic historic rock musical Bloody Bloody Andrew Jackson with music and lyrics by Michael Friedman and book by Alex Timbers.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other people named Andrew Jackson, see Andrew Jackson disambiguation. Portrait by Ralph E. Jacksonian — Democratic-Republican Before Congressional Gold Medal Thanks of Congress. Battle of New Orleans. United States presidential election, United States presidential election, and Andrew Jackson presidential campaign, Presidency of Andrew Jackson.
First inauguration of Andrew Jackson. National debt of the United States. List of federal judges appointed by Andrew Jackson. List of memorials to Andrew Jackson. As this was prior to the adoption of the Twenty-Fifth Amendment in , a vacancy in the office of Vice President was not filled until the next ensuing election and inauguration.
Northern Ireland Tourist Board. Archived from the original on October 25, Retrieved April 11, Archived from the original on January 27, Retrieved June 29, Archived from the original on June 27, Retrieved April 23, State Library of North Carolina. Archived from the original on June 18, Retrieved July 20, Archived from the original on August 7, Retrieved April 12, Biographical Directory of the U. Archived from the original on December 18, Retrieved April 13, Archived from the original on September 12, Retrieved on 22 March Retrieved June 25, Lillian Goldman Law Library.
Archived from the original on December 6, Retrieved July 11, Major-General 2d Division, Tennessee. Retrieved June 27, Retrieved July 3, Retrieved July 1, Beverley Tucker, , pp. Archived from the original on July 17, Retrieved March 13, Archived from the original on January 16, Retrieved January 15, Archived from the original on January 29, Calhoun, 7th Vice President — ".
Archived from the original on March 3, Retrieved May 7, Archived from the original on January 12, Archived from the original on March 23, Retrieved June 1, Archived from the original on June 28, National First Ladies Library. Retrieved February 15, Archived from the original on January 1, The American Presidency Project. Archived from the original on March 11, Retrieved March 14, Some Precedents and Notable Events". The Revolution took a toll on the Jackson family.
All three boys saw active service. One of Andrew's older brothers, Hugh, died after the Battle of Stono Ferry, South Carolina in , and two years later Andrew and his other brother Robert were taken prisoner for a few weeks in April While they were captives a British officer ordered them to clean his boots. The boys refused, the officer struck them with his sword and Andrew's hand was cut to the bone. Because of his ill treatment Jackson harbored a bitter resentment towards the British until his death. Both brothers contracted smallpox during their imprisonment and Robert was dead within days of their release.
Later that year Betty Jackson went to Charleston to nurse American prisoners of war. Shortly after she arrived Mrs. Jackson fell ill with either ship fever or cholera and died. Andrew found himself an orphan and an only child at fourteen. Jackson spent most of the next year and a half living with relatives and for six of those months was apprenticed to a saddle maker. After the war Jackson taught school briefly, but he didn't like it and decided to practice law instead. In , when he was seventeen, he went to Salisbury, North Carolina where he studied law for several years. He was admitted to the North Carolina Bar in September and the following spring began his public career with an appointment as prosecuting officer for the Superior Court in Nashville, Tennessee, which at that time was a part of the Western District of North Carolina.
In June Tennessee was separated from North Carolina and admitted to the Union as the sixteenth state. Jackson was soon afterward elected the new state's first congressman. The following year the Tennessee legislature elected him a U. After his resignation Jackson came home and served for six years as a judge on the Tennessee Supreme Court.
Jackson's military career, which had begun in the Revolution, continued in when he was elected major general of the Tennessee militia. In , after several devastating campaigns against Native Americans in the Creek War, he was finally promoted to major general in the regular army. Jackson also later led troops during the First Seminole War in Florida. General Jackson emerged a national hero from the War of , primarily because of his decisive defeat of the British at the Battle of New Orleans.
It was during this period he earned his nickname of "Old Hickory. When he got there he was told to disband his men because they were unneeded. General Jackson refused and marched them back to Tennessee. Because of his strict discipline on that march his men began to say he was as tough as hickory and the nickname stuck. All his life Jackson was a loyal friend and a fierce enemy. This was never more true than during his years in politics at the national level beginning with the presidential election.
Jacksonians often referred to the election as the "Stolen Election" because while Jackson swept the popular vote hands down, he did not have enough electoral votes to automatically win the presidency. Therefore the election had to be decided by the House of Representatives. Crawford of Georgia who were respectively speaker of the house, secretary of state, and secretary of the treasury.
Adams was horrified at the thought of Jackson becoming president. The patrician New Englander thought this parvenu from the west was a badly educated bumpkin with little preparation for high office. Because Clay's opinion of Jackson was similar, the Kentuckian threw his support to Adams on the first ballot and Adams was elected. Jackson never forgave either one of them, especially after Adams named Clay his secretary of state in what seemed to be a payoff for Clay's votes. In the years leading up to the election Jackson and his followers continually criticized the Adams administration.
Jackson took the position he was the people's candidate and never lost an opportunity to point out that the people's choice in had been disregarded by the elite. This tactic proved successful and Jackson defeated Adams in the election and four years later defeated Clay in the election of Loss of the "Stolen Election" was not the only thing Jackson held against Adams.
During the campaign the Adams camp charged Jackson and his wife with adultery. The claims grew out of naivete on the Jacksons' part. Jackson had achieved the rank of major general an officer in the military who is above a brigadier general of the Tennessee militia a small military force that is not part of the regular army. He and his militia were ordered to overpower the Creek Indians in Alabama, who had massacred white settlers at Fort Mims.
During this battle Jackson's men recognized his toughness and strong will by nicknaming him "Old Hickory. The British attacked on January 8, , and were easily defeated. More than two thousand British soldiers were killed, while only thirteen Americans were lost in battle.
Jackson became a national hero overnight, for he had given Americans confidence in their ability to defend their new freedom. When the war ended, Jackson returned to his plantation.
However, he soon resumed military duty to successfully overpower Indian forces along the southern frontier of Spanish Florida. He quit after serving only a few months. His accomplishments served to increase Jackson's popularity throughout the country. Meanwhile his friends in Tennessee began talking about the possibility of making him a presidential candidate. First, he was elected to the U. Senate in October The following year, four candidates sought the presidency, each representing a different section of the country: Jackson of Tennessee, William H.
It was a close election, and the House of Representatives had to decide the winner. When John Quincy Adams was chosen president, Jackson was convinced the election was fixed and that there was a "bargain" between Adams and Clay.
Jackson, Andrew | NCpedia
For the next four years Jackson's supporters attacked the Adams administration with the accusation of a "corrupt bargain. In the election of Jackson won an overwhelming victory. Calhoun — of South Carolina joined forces behind Jackson. Jackson and his supporters soon became known as the Democratic Party.
Supporters of Adams and Clay were now called National Republicans. The two argued over the important constitutional question of the nature of the Union. Calhoun strongly believed in a state's doctrine official statement of nullification, or the right of a state to undo any federal law that disagreed with the state's views.
Jackson strongly believed nullification was wrong and could weaken the Union. Calhoun wound up resigning before the end of his term. The presidential contest of revolved around the important political issue of the national bank, or the bank controlled by the national government. Jackson believed the Second Bank of the United States established in was unconstitutional, or that it disagreed with the nation's rules.
Also, Jackson maintained that the Bank had failed to establish a sound and uniform currency, or money that could be used across the country. When the Bank applied to Congress to continue its work, Jackson vetoed rejected the bill.