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The project of the book is a defense of the Christian philosophy against alchemy and scepticism. By the Christian philosophy, Mersenne means, so far as I can see, something like the Aristotelian philosophy of the schools. It should be noted here that what came to be called the mechanical philosophy did not really exist at this time, at least not as a coherent and organized program. In late August , a group of three disputants whom I shall call the Gang of Three put up posters inviting people to a public disputation. On those posters were fourteen anti-Aristotelian theses, mainly against the Aristotelian physics of matter and form and in favor of an atomist conception of physics.

Claus Zittel and Wolfgang Detel Berlin: The full references are given there. This section is largely drawn from that essay. Esprits Modernes those theses and refute Aristotle. Close to a thousand people gath- ered at the chosen site, the palace of the late Queen Margurite, the late ex-wife of the assassinated king Henri IV. However, the Parlement of Paris got wind of the event, and before it happened, prevented the Gang of Three from holding it. After the crowd dis- pursed, the Gang of Three were arrested, tried, and, with advice from the Faculty of Theology of the University of Paris the so- called Sorbonne , sentenced to banishment from Paris, on pain of corporal punishment.

As a consequence of the deliberations, the Parlement declared formally that it was forbidden to speak against the approved authors, particularly Aristotle3. Mersenne was completely in agreement with the judgment. About the denial of matter and form, he wrote: It is very easy to overturn all of these opinions, and I find it astonishing that they were so bold as to advance these propositions in a Christian city, since if there is nei- 56 ther form nor matter, man has neither a body nor a soul, which is contrary to the beliefs of the Catholic faith4.

Thus, insofar as their views are false and inconsistent with the Catholic faith, they should be rejected. Some Philosophical Questions phy of Aristotle. He goes on to say that: The Alchemist remarks to the Christian Philosopher that the philosophy of Aristotle had itself been condemned by the Church at one time The Alchemist brings up a condemnation in Paris in ; actually, unbeknownst to Mersenne and his contemporaries, it had been condemned numerous times in Paris in the thirteenth century. And if the Church can depart from Aristotelian doctrine, than so can others, it would seem.

Background source materials Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, , p. For Mersenne and his like-minded contem- poraries, belief is not a question of conscience, but of politics: It is obvious here why the Church should be interested in pre- venting heresy, but why should the state be involved, as it was in the case of the Gang of Three and the disputation of ? The story is complicated, and I can only suggest it here There are some very special reasons why people were suspicious of new ideas and heterodox opinions in France in the s, on the eve of the Scientific Revolution.

Cambridge University Press, Diefendorf, Beneath the Cross: Oxford University Press, Though there were skirmishes between Huguenots and Catholics from the early sixteenth century, an outright civil war between the two parties began in early Bloody wars and civic violence continued for more than thirty years, as armies led by royalty and nobility loyal to the Catholic Church fought those who had adopted the Protestant faith.

It is hard to overestimate the violence of these religious wars, and the viciousness of the hostility between the different sides. An extreme, but not atypical example of the kind of violence the dispute provoked can be found in the infamous St. At the end of the three days of horror, roughly three thousand people lay dead.

The reign of Henri IV, starting in the early s, was a respite from the violence and instability of the earlier part of the century. The religious wars were officially ended with the Edict of Nantes in April , which established Catholicism as the official religion in France, while guaranteeing the Huguenots certain rights. Henri then set about 60 rebuilding Paris and a country that had been torn apart by war.

Stability had still not entirely returned in August , when the three disputants announced their refutation of Aristotle, or a year later when Mersenne published his book. In the mids there were, no doubt, people still alive in Paris who had experienced the violence of St. The historical experience of the wars of religion in the sixteenth century and the events that followed in the early seventeenth century led the members of the Parlement, the doctors of the Faculty of Theology, and thinkers like Mersenne to the inescapable conclusion that difference in belief breeds violence.

In this context, the new anti-Aristotelian philosophies seemed every bit as dangerous to the public welfare as the heresies of Luther and Calvin. In these circumstances, it is no wonder that the freedom to philosophize was problematic. In an age in which intellectual innovation had led to such disastrous consequences, intellectual conservatism must have looked enormously attractive.

With Mersenne we have a case against the freedom to philoso- phize. At this point I would like to turn to three seventeenth-century defenders of freedom of thought, Bacon, Descartes, and Spinoza. It is the story of a group of English sailors, blown off course in the South Pacific, who land on a remarkable island, which its inhabitants call Bensalem.

Bacon describes it in loving detail. Oxford University Press, , pp. But it is clear that the society of Bensalem is one in which what we would call science is central. Its members have honor, priviledge, and wealth. Some Philosophical Questions In the New Atlantis, Bacon takes great pains to explain that the New Testament was given directly to the inhabitants of Bensalem, and that they are without question Christians.

It is interesting, and significant here that they received the Bible directly, and are thus not poluted by the accretions of Church Fathers and Church Councils; though Christians, the inhabitants of Bensalem are definitely not Roman Catholics! This theme is found in other aspects of the fable.

But there is another point as well. The kind of science that Bacon out- lines in the Instauratio Magna and the Novum Organum quite clearly sets itself against the traditional Aristotelianism of the schools. Indeed, that seems to be one of the central points of the entire New Atlantis: Esprits Modernes enteenth-century Europe! In this way, Bacon attempted to neutralize the political implications of his great instauration by showing that the new science that he had hoped to found was completely consistent with the Christian society in which he and his contemporaries lived.

But the argument of the New Atlantis does have its limitations. One might object here, and rightly so, I think, that it is much easier to get the lion and the lamb to lie together peacably on a canvas, when you are manipulating the image, than it is to get them to do so in real life. Secondly, it is important to realize here that if the New Atlantis is read as an argument for the freedom to philosophize, it is only an argu- ment for the freedom to philosophize in the Baconian manner. In the New Atlantis, Bacon is clearly sensitive to the way in which the new philosophies can disturb society.

Cambridge University Press, , pp. In a very deep way, I think, Bacon would agree with Mersenne about the possible dangers of free expression. Descartes is aware that novelty in philosophy is not always good, and that it can lead weak minds to heresy and athe- ism, and that it can possibly destabilize the state. In the Letter to Dinet he writes: Well-trodden and familiar pathways are always safer than new and unknown ones, and this maxim is particularly relevant because of theology.

For the experience of many years has taught us that the traditional and common philosophy is consistent with theology, but it is uncertain whether this will be true of the new philosophy. For 65 this reason some people maintain that the new philosophy should be prohibited and suppressed at the earliest opportunity, in case it should attract large numbers of inex- perienced people who are avid for novelty, and thus gradually spread and gain momen- tum, disturbing the peace and tranquility of the Schools and the universities and even bringing new heresies into the Church First of all, he claims, he always avoids theological questions.

Writing again in the letter to Dinet, he notes: References are to the standard text of Oeuvres de Descartes, ed. Charles Adam and Paul Tannery, new edition 11 vols. Since Cottingham et al. Again, there is no need to fear that my opinions will disturb the peace of the Schools. On the contrary, philosophers already take sides against each other on so many controversies that they could hardly be more at war than they are now. Indeed, the best way of establishing peace between them, and curbing the heresies that spring up every day out of these debates, is to secure the acceptance of true opinions, such as I have proved mine to be.

For the clear perception of these truths will eliminate eve- rything that could fuel doubt and controversy Since it has no 66 theological consequences, it cannot lead to heresy, atheism, or the social disorder associated with heterodox opinion. However else- where, Descartes is quite eager to show that his thought is a positive support for religion, and for the Roman Catholic religion in par- ticular, indeed, a better support than the philosophy commonly taught in the schools.

But most interesting and striking is the account of the Eucharist that Descartes gave in the Fourth Replies. But if the essence of body is extension, and if, as Descartes wants, there are no forms, how can this be explained? This allows them to appear unchanged, while in substance they have changed. Descartes was very, very proud of his account. All these matters are so neatly and correctly explained by means of my principles that I have no reason to fear that anything here will give the slightest offence to ortho- 67 dox theologians; on the contrary I am confident that I will receive their hearty thanks for putting forward opinions in physics which are far more in accord with theology than those commonly accepted Indeed, Descartes suggests, the reason that many have aban- doned Catholicism for other heretical theological views is precisely the implausibility of the scholastic account in terms of real accidents.

Such as his own, for example. In this way Descartes offers a kind of double argument for allow- ing him the freedom to philosophize. On the one hand, he argues that his own philosophy is neutral on theological questions, and is so clear that it could not possibly cause any controversy.

Esprits Modernes theology insofar as it gives arguments that support Catholic positions on the existence of God and the immortality of the soul, and inso- far as it gives a more plausible account of transubstantiation and the Eucharist than the school metaphysics does. Unlike Bacon, Descartes does not seem to have any qualms about making his philosophical ideas public: He is very much aware of the kinds of considera- tions that worried Mersenne, the possible disruption that new ideas can cause.

However, he thinks that he can answer those worries, that his philosophy does not present any danger of disrupting society. However, like Bacon, it is his philosophical ideas that he is defending. To the best of my knowledge Descartes never offers a general defense of the freedom of philosophizing or the freedom of expres- sions. What Descartes offers is not a general defense for freedom of philosophizing, but a defense of freedom for his philosophy, and that only within a Catholic context.

To establish, then, how far each person is free, with respect to faith, to think what he wishes, and whom we are bound to consider faithful, even though they think diffe- rent things, we must determine what faith and its fundamentals are. I have resolved to do that in this Chapter, and at the same time to separate faith from Philosophy, which was the main purpose of my whole work Spinoza begins with a discussion of Scripture.

Carl Gebhardt 4 vols. Winter, , vol. Further refe- rences will be to this edition. I am using the new and as yet unpublished translation by Edwin Curley. I am deeply grateful to him for making it available to me. Some Philosophical Questions [T]he purpose of Scripture is only to teach obedience. No one, in fact, can deny this. For who does not see that neither Testament is anything but an education in obe- dience? All these things are means, not to knowledge, but to obedience One immediate consequence of this is that we should not look to the Bible for speculative truths; its point is obedience and obedience alone.

While the Bible may embody certain assumptions about the physical world, that the earth is immobile, for example, these are not to be taken as assertions of the truth of those speculative doctrines, but only as articulations of what would have been generally assumed by contemporaries. Spinoza quickly genera- lizes this to faith and religion as well. The point of faith and religion is also obedience to God. In this way, being obedient to God seems to be identified with believing in God and revering him.

So the person who displays the best faith is not necessarily the one who displays the best 30 Ibid. In this way, religion is distinguished from philosophy. It is a short distance from this radical distinction between faith and philosophy to the conclusion that there should be no theological constraints on philosophizing. Faith, therefore, grants everyone the greatest freedom to philosophize, so that without wickedness he can think whatever he wishes about anything.

In this way, the two cannot conflict with one another, Spinoza argues: As a consequence, religion cannot put any con- straints on philosophizing: At least not in theory. But what about the state? Should the state place limits on what can be thought or said? In answering this question, Spinoza appeals 34 Ibid. Some Philosophical Questions to the same distinction between action and the pure pursuit of truth that distinguishes religion from philosophy. The state has the right and the ability to control action, according to Spinoza, but not thought and judgement: Since the judgment of free men is quite various, since each one thinks that he alone knows everything, and it cannot happen that they should all think alike and speak with one voice, people were not able to live peaceably unless each one surrendered his right to act solely according to the decision of his own mind.

Each person, therefore, surrenders only his right to act according to his own decision, but not his right to rea- son and judge. So no one can act contrary to the decree of the supreme powers without detriment to their right; but everyone, without any infringement of their right, can think, and judge, and hence also speak, provided merely that he only speaks or teaches, and defends his view by reason alone, not with deception, anger, hatred, or any intention to introduce something into the state on the authority of his own decision And so, Spinoza concludes, 71 If we attend also to the fact that the loyalty of each person to the State, like his loyalty toward God, can be known only from his works, such as lovingkindness towards his neighbor, we will not be able to doubt at all that the best state concedes to everyone the same freedom to philosophize which we have shown that faith does First, note the level of generality.

Both Bacon and Descartes offer a defense of the freedom of philo- sophizing, as does Spinoza. But for them, it is an argument for the freedom for them to philosophize. In the case of Spinoza, though, it is a very general argument: But there is an even more basic difference.

Esprits Modernes action goes far beyond anything his predecessors tried to establish. For Spinoza, religion and philosophy are not merely distinct realms of intellectual inquiry, like astronomy and psychology, which differ in subject matter, though they agree in seeking truth: Because of this, because the one has to do with obedience and action, and the other with truth and reason, contradiction is simply inconceivable from the beginning. As I noted earlier, in the letter to the Doctors of the Sorbonne that begins the Meditations, Descartes notes that there are some truths that we can know from revelation that can also be known through reasoning, in particular, the existence of God and the immortality of the soul.

Descartes does, of course, think that we can separate religion from philosophy in the sense that there is a domain of truths that can only be known by revelation, and that it is possible to do philosophy without encroaching on that domain. But for Descartes revelation and philosophy are both domains in which it is appropriate to talk of 72 truth.

Not so for Spinoza. Spinoza posits a radical discontinuity between religion and philosophy. For this reason Spinoza sees no need to isolate science from society, as Bacon does. New sci- entific discoveries may well alter the beliefs people hold, and, in that way, change the best way for inducing people to come to obey God. But the two domains, that of reason and that of faith are so radical- ly distinct from one another that science could in no way undermine faith. Some Philosophical Questions of view of an uninvolved spectator, as it were. From that transcen- dent point of view, one can make the distinction between religion, which teaches obedience, and philosophy which teaches truth.

But if one were to explain this distinction to the participants within a society, those who actually have to live with the distinction between religion and philosophy, the distinction would be seriously under- mined. As Spinoza observes, [F]aith does not require tenets which are true as much as it does tenets which are pious, i. That is to say, the efficacy that religion has to cause people to behave well toward one another is predicated on their incorrect view that what religion teaches is literally true: Spinoza acknowledges that there is a problem separating the free expression of opinion from action intended to influence the behaviour of others.

He notes in one place: That is, often the expression of an opinion has ulterior motives, to influence action, and is not a mere neutral expression of some inno- cent truth believed. In this way, the expression of a belief can cross over the line and become an action. But the problem goes even deeper than Spinoza acknow- 40 Ibid. Spinoza worries only about the person who knowingly uses a false or misleading argument to influence the behavior of another. However obvious to us the freedom of philosophizing may be, our seventeenth-century ancestors had reason to be cautious Another version will appear in the Festschrift for Richard Watson, to be publi- shed by Brill.

Many questions dis- cussed in Le Monde at the empirical level became conceptual problems in Principia. It is the case of void, elements and composite bodies, among others. Even so, most of the material of Le Monde entered, in a recognisable form, in the Principia. However, even if there is such thing as one Cartesian cosmology, the way it is constructed in Le Monde and Principia is fundamentally different.

In Le Monde we have a quite traditional cosmological approach, starting with a theory of matter and motion and proceeding to the laws of nature. See also Gaukroger, , , Garber, Esprits Modernes sion of the parts of matter and most of the second part is devoted to the construction of the physical bodies. Following a distinction made by Gaukroger2, I will show that Le Monde and Principia contain two different cosmological theories. The cosmology of Le Monde is constructed from a theory of matter while the construction in the Principles is based on highly abstract entities, bodies conceived as geo- metrical shapes endowed with properties.

Moreover, within this 76 vast project, Descartes chose to publish large parts of his earlier cos- mological speculations. But was it really the cosmology of Le Monde that entered in the big project of rewriting the textbook of the new philosophy? Many authors have discussed the Cartesian cosmology starting with Le Monde and assuming that what we can find in the second part of the Principles is more or less the same thing7. Gaukroger, , , and In a series of works, Stephen Gaukroger defends this view.

This is the Cartesian cosmology: The very idea of developing metaphysical foundations for his cosmology, the dragging force behind the Cartesian project, was the outcome of the early abandonment of Le Monde. Another suggestion for the abandonment of the early treatise was formulated by Lyne, , who claims that the possible association with atomism was even more dangerous than the apparent Copernicanism of the Cartesian cosmology.

Garber, in Gaukroger, , , A. It is the passage from a theory of heavens based on a theory of matter to a theory of heavens based on mechanics. However different the principles of construction, matter theory had been an essential ingre- dient at least for medieval and Early Modern Cosmology.

The fall of bodies and the move- ment of the planets had been explained in terms of their constituent matter. In discussing the structure of the Cosmos, the place of celes- tial bodies had been explained in terms of their nature, i.


It is a double edge description: Nevertheless, matter theory is at the very basis of the separation between the terrestrial and celestial realms and all cosmological or astronomical accounts are subsequent to it. Moreover, incorruptibili- 12 E. Similarly, the behaviour of ter- restrial bodies is a result of their nature which also means their ele- mentary composition. Not that this thing was always possible: During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries there were attempts to over- come this distinction. Telesio, Bruno, Gilbert first, and then Bacon and Descartes constructed cosmologies in which the theory of matter played a very important role However, at some point, the role of the theory of matter in a cosmological theory changed dramatically.

A physical body is a moveable, inertial part of matter endowed with mass, dimensions and a position in absolute space. With those ingredients, Newton succeeded in constructing a strategy for the reconstruction of the physical universe. The result was a theory of the heavens and Earth in which the main questions of cosmology were answered. Meanwhile, the disentangling of mechanics and matter theory provided some of the long lasting prob- lems of cosmology: Steven Gaukroger has recently formulated an attempt to illustrate and explain these changes. He has compared the cosmology of Francis Bacon with the Cartesian Le Monde and showed significant differences in the use of 14 E.

Esprits Modernes matter theory. If for Bacon the celestial and terrestrial motions are based on a theory of matter, for Descartes, they are described by mechanics. Moreover, the role of the theory of matter shifted from being a foundational theory to being subsequent to a dynamical theory. The alleged reason to refer to Le Monde is the account about the laws of nature. Instead of giving a new account of the laws, Descartes offers a summary of a previous unpublished treatise on the subject What follows, however, is a very interesting account of Le Monde.

However, there is no mention of the first six chapters of Le Monde, concerning the perception and nature of light and the phenomena mentioned in the summary. Instead, in the Discours, Descartes presents his treatise as centred around and even beginning with his imaginary experiment of reconstruction of a new world. Moreover, the reasons for disguising his discourse in such a peculiar form are no longer the same with the ones given in Le Monde.

In the unpublished treatise, the construction of a new world is pre- sented as a device to make the exposition clearer Here what we have is a different claim: It is more similar with a reduction: The answer is that we can 17 AT VI, See AT VI, Esprits Modernes understand a chaotic world made of matter deprived of any of its traditional qualities. Moreover, there is nothing simpler to understand than extended matter To this he adds the laws of nature as nec- essary truths to hold in any possible world.

Celestial bodies, heavens, Earth and planets were formed through the action of the laws upon the initial extended matter. The next step of the resume involves the description of the celestial bodies and an account of the main phenomena met on Earth. In conclusion, we have an account structured in the following way: Or is it rather more similar with the later Principia? The cosmology of Le Monde Notoriously enough, Le Monde begins with an account on the nature of light, followed by a theory of elements.

Reading backwards from the later Principia we can find interesting differences between the part dedicated to a theory of elements and the second part dealing with extended mat- ter. However, as has been shown before, there is no need to assume that what we have in the imaginary construction of Le Monde is the extended substance of Principia, matter as extension Indeed, Descartes does not make any reference in to the extended sub- stance and the equivalence between matter and extension.

What we have in the imaginary construction of Le Monde is an entirely different approach from what will be later the second part of Principia, based on different conceptions regarding imagination, and the role of observation and sense perception. First of all, it is important to remember that the very first chap- 83 ter of the unfinished treatise opens with a sort of critique of the sense perception as a source of knowledge. As has been shown before, this account is not a sceptical argument25 but the very basis of the construction. The starting point of Cartesian cosmology is the fundamental difference between the nature of the material world and our perceptual image of it.

The object of physics is not the object of our sense perception Our knowledge is not similar with a mirror but with a system of signs Even though the senses are often mis- taken, there is no reason to doubt all perceptions and eliminate exper- iments or observations from physics. The world 24 See Lyne, Verbeek, in Gaukroger, ed. Esprits Modernes of material objects looks different but I can find a correspondence between the way it looks and the way it is. The analogy with the sys- tem of signs words is used to argue precisely this point. Our sens- es are mistaken in a very precise way: Therefore, the nature and structure of light is extremely important.

It shows not only one of the main ingredients in the construction of the world, but the rules of translation. Light is made of tiny particles in motion; and this very motion is called light or heat according to the effects of collisions between the particles of light and the extremities of my perceptual organs Similarly, the motion of microscopic particles accounts for processes like burning or passing through a medium etc.

Here, the case of light is the limiting case of the whole project that aimed to explain all natural phenomena in terms of matter in motion. However, and here we can find the original character of Le Monde, the particularities of this mechanical philosophy lie in its apparently non- mechanical elements.

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It is worth noting that there are three kinds of arguments for the existence of elements: There is no need to accept the existence of void since one can make sense of the phenomena oth- erwise, with a theory of elements. Instead, the main idea is that the postulation of void is a hypothesis with a high- er degree of arbitrariness than the adoption of a theory of elements.

In a letter to Mersenne written around the same period, one can find this position explicitly formulated. This is the sponge model of a body, a powerful tool kept in place in the second part of Principles as well. In general, all physical bodies or parts of matter are mixtures of elements.

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There are three kinds of elements, classified according with their sizes and speeds There are considerable differences between this description and the traditional theory of elements. In a sense, they are just parts of the same matter, with specific sizes and speeds. Meanwhile, the whole cosmological construction is fairly traditional.

Although all terrestrial bodies are made of a mixture of elements, there are regions of the universe and bodies made of pure elements: Esprits Modernes Moreover, the argument for the cosmic separation between regions according to their elemental composition is again of a traditional kind: The different nature of the celestial bodies dictates their behaviour. It is true that, as has been noted by Gaukroger, the dynamics of the heavens is, in a way, determined more by mechanical considerations involving motion and forces than by their matter, developed in the second part of the treatise.

However, the whole first part of Le Monde is fairly clear about the importance of a theory of elements for the construction and order of the world. Although the differences between elements might be ultimately reduced to differences in size, shape and motion, still these differences impose fundamental distinctions between elements. The particles of light can take any shape it is necessary to fill the gap between the particles of air.

Moreover, although material, the particles of light do not resist motion or collisions XI, Both distinctions emphasise the traditional character of the theory of elements. The requirements of an 32 The reason why there are precisely three elements is not entirely clear.

One expla- nation is given by Gaukroger, , p. Descartes needs three kinds of elements because he needs to account for three kinds of processes in his physical optics: There are three elements because it is impossible to account for a motion in the plenum with less than three kinds of particles. The whole vortex-based construction is fundamentally based on the theory of elements.

In a fairly traditional way, we can say that the Sun and stars are each in the centre of their vortex because they are made of light, which can pass through the fluid air. Similarly, the whole celestial motion can be reduced to a sort of hydrodynamics because of a peculiar theory of elements saying that there are fluid heavens carry- ing around few solid bodies There are numerous peculiar elements of this construction: What is the status of the whole construction? Is it a theoretical construction of our object of knowledge, described so far through empirical means?

Or is it a justification of what has been said so far? From the point of view of the theory of elements, the imaginary construction of the new world is supposed to account for the way they come into being. Gaukroger has noted an interesting difference between the way Descartes and Newton treated fluids. For Newton and Galileo fluids in general and ether in particu- lar were treated as resisting media; Descartes thinks of the fluid which carries the bod- ies along. See Gaukroger, , At the very first moment of creation, the universe is an undivided extended and impenetrable body.

How this first division and the redistribution of motion are sup- posed to work is not entirely clear. There is certain arbitrariness in defining these parts: There is much to be said about this process and its flaws but this is beyond the point of this paper. The Principles of Philosophy: It is true that Principia is a textbook and has the appropriate structure of a textbook in philosophy.

More interesting is the construction and place of Part II, The principles of material things. Here we find some of the mate- rial of Le Monde: Meanwhile, also in Part II of the Principles there are metaphysical issues like the existence of extended substance, the infinity of the Universe and the questions of individ- uation and identity. It is an interesting example of natural philosophy as part of a larger scheme including physics and metaphysics As such, it provides a basis for cosmology.

But this time there is no theory of matter in the traditional sense or, rather, what is presented as a theory of matter is not a theory of elements anymore. Instead, what we have are abstract entities, parts of matter called bodies whose properties are not that they are made of earth, air or fire but simply geometrical prop- erties: However, the structure of the second part of Principia is very sim- ilar with the structure of Le Monde.

It starts with an argument against the testimony of senses. This time, what we have here is the scepti- cal deconstruction familiar from the Meditations, together with a sum- mary of the argument for the existence of bodies. Then, the follow- 40 Des Chene, , Esprits Modernes ing principles are concerned with the problem of individuation41 and identity over time. The main question is how an intelligible division of matter can be constructed in such a way as to account for indi- vidual bodies.

But the first step is the demonstration of equivalence between matter and extension Therefore, the bodies are firstly and mostly geometrical shapes endowed with some properties, motion included The objects of physics and cosmology are geometrical shapes in motion and no longer elements or particles as in Le Monde.

Difficult as it is to construct this partition, it involves a strategy entirely different from the one of Le Monde. Starting from equating space and matter, Descartes proposes a model of physical bodies defined through the surface, shape, quantity of motion, determinatio or conatus and so on All these properties are special properties in the way they can be quantized As a result, the physical bodies are abstract parts of matter defined in a highly abstract way with the means of mathematics47 mainly geometry but, arguably, geometry is not always enough and 90 with the help of the laws of nature.

They take part in collisions through which motion is redistributed and sometimes the whole body changes. As such they are subject of a cosmological account: See for example Des Chene, , Garber, We can see how the theory of matter was already replaced by something much closer to mechanics. Even in Part III, when Descartes reintroduces the theory of ele- ments, its form and status are no longer the same. Interesting enough is the summary of what is already demonstrated in Part II and what we cannot know through the deductive path of natural philosophy.

We also know that there is a global conservation law concerning motion. Although the basic principles of cos- mology are accessible to pure thought, for the details we need obser- vations and hypotheses Therefore, the theory of elements follows an entire part of empirical considerations concerning the composi- tion and behaviour of celestial fluids, stars and planets Then, the exposition of the theory of elements starts with the kind of evolu- 91 tionary approach of Le Monde. This time, the initial state of the world is not a block universe, but an infinite extension equally divided in an infinite number of equal parts See also Larmore, in Gaukroger, Esprits Modernes of the initial parts of matter into three forms of matter or three ele- ments.

Descartes gives no names to his elements in the Principia: Moreover, this time the three forms of matter are the constituents of all the bodies of the universe. Nothing is left of the tendency of an element to remain so; instead, we have the infinite divisibility of matter and the geometrical distinctions between bodies or particles whose shapes can change from one moment to the other. The static sponge model had prevailed.

In conclusion what we have in the Principia is a cosmological theory organised on a structure which, from the seventeenth-century point of view must have been very peculiar. Its main steps are: Conclusion Apparently we have the same universe: The same plenum and the same vortex theory to account for the motions and behaviour of celestial bodies. However, a closer look at the structure of Le Monde and Principia philosophiae shows substantial differences. I have tried to demonstrate that most of the differences can be understood in terms of the objects of the theory.

What we have in Le Monde is a rather traditional cosmological account in terms of matter theory with some new elements of mechanics. In Principia the situation is different. The account of the evolution of the universe and the behaviour of celestial bodies is no longer made in terms of matter theory.

Instead, part II of Principia marked the rewriting of the conceptual structure of natural philosophy in terms of new abstract entities, bodies, defined through their mathematical properties. They are the objects of the new physics and the new cosmology. Descartes and Newton, in S. Philosophy, Mathematics and Physics, , ; 5. Gaukroger et alii, , ; 7. Philosophy, Mathematics and Physics, ; An Intimate Relation, , ; Descartes and Regius, in Gaukroger, Schuster, Sutton, , ; De la vision, AT VI, Je remercie ici mon ami H.

Utar tamen hic aliqua comparatione. Plerique Philosophi, qui putant gravitatem lapidis esse qualitatem realem, a lapide distinctam, putant se satis intelligere, quo pacto ista qualitas possit movere lapidem versus centrum terrae, quia se putant habere ejus rei experientiam manifestam. Ego vero, qui mihi per- suadeo nullam esse talem qualitatem in rerum natura, nec proinde ullam ejus in huma- no intellectu veram ideam, existimo illos uti idea quam in se habent substantiae incor- poreae, ad istam gravitatem sibi repraesentandam; adeo ut nobis non sit difficilius intel- ligere, quomodo mens moveat corpus, quam istis aliis quomodo talis gravitas lapidem deorsum ferat.

Nec refert quod istam gravitatem dicant non esse substantiam; revera enim illam instar substantiae concipiunt, quandoquidem existimant ipsam esse realem, et per aliquam potentiam nempe Divinam absque lapide posse existere. Unde manifeste concluditur, nullas substantias incor- poreas proprie esse extensas. Hoc vbique non admitto. Videris enim hic infinitatem Dei in eo ponere, quod vbique existat; cio opinioni non assentior: Rodis-Lewis et de F. III du Concile est: His method had been famous even before the first book he published.

Regulae ad directionem ingenii1. However, for us both his claims to an infallible method and the fame of the method are sources of many questions: Paris, , and will be abbreviated as follows: Esprits Modernes My purpose in this paper is to show that there is only one method, and that it is coming from the ancient geometers2.

But before answering to the questions about the nature and the role of the method in Cartesian philosophy, I shall make a short historical presentation of the pre-Cartesian discussions concerning the method3. In philosophy, there was a high interest in method as the result of the development of mathematics, especially of geometry. Thus, first of all, the method becomes a part of the logic, logical papers from that period having a section about method.

Dear identifies two meanings of method: In the second sense we can find the following elements: Bonnen, Descartes and method. The role of the method in the Cartesian system is not very well established, being some divergent opinions. According to Garber we can talk about method in the first per- iod Rules, Discourse , and this method consists into a reductive step followed by a constructive one.

But after this period the method disappears completely from Descartes writings. In a writing dating at the beginning of the seventeenth century, called Summa philosophiae , of Eustachius, the true method was consid- ered to be the second one the order 6. In this way the analysis and the synthesis are considered to be favorable to discoveries, and the defin- ing is seen as favorable only for pedagogical purposes. Another impor- tant figure to be quoted in connection with the method of analysis and synthesis is Zabarella, strongly influenced by Aristotle. What is this method of analysis and synthesis?

In what concerning the first, it shows what the first things that we know are and what is the basis of the deduced things. The method of demon- stration is presented as having two ways: The first consists of a reductive step, and the second of a con- structive step. To these Descartes adds a few considerations about the method that was displayed by the ancient geometers in their writ- ings.

Descartes considers that between analysis and synthesis only 4 Pappus, cf. The translation is made from Romanian text. Descartes offers in Geometry a solution for the problem of Pappus10 applied to more than four lines. In this article we are not interested in Descartes solution, it is important that we can find the method of analysis at Pappus.

Jakko Hintikka distinguishes11 two steps of this method: The first represents the search of the premises that can get us to the result. The second step is a deduction. We can write this formally: The analysis begins from p, and goes through p3 and p2, and finally gets to p1. The synthesis is the reverse of the analysis. This method that appears with Pappus is considered to be the method of the Greek mathematicians and some commentators The book in which the method is the main subject, and in which it is extendedly presented it is an early work of Descartes.

It remained unfinished and it appeared only posthumous. It was men- tioned earlier: Regulae ad directionem ingenii. By this Descartes made a connection between all the sciences. The problem is to find a point C from which to be drown straight lines on the initial lines and to form with these ones some specified angles. Another requirement it is that the result of the multiplication of some lines to be equal with the result of the multi- plication of the other lines, or to be into a given relation. What does he understood by this? The method is the one that shows us how we could use the ways of finding the truth, such as nothing that is false to be taken as true; and also the way to the knowledge of all things.

The two ways that we can take to get to the knowledge of all things are specified in AT X We cannot proceed further without seeing what does Descartes mean by each of them. In the commentary of the third rule we can find some definitions: These two can lead us to certainty, but they could not do this by themselves. There is another element besides the mental processes of intuition and deduction, namely the simple natures, the first certain objects of our knowledge. The simple natures are mentioned for the first time in the sixth rule18, where Descartes talks about series of things, series based on these simple natures.

How does Descartes arrive to the simple natures? By intu- ition AT X If we go back to the formal scheme of analysis, then the simple natures are represented by p1. Esprits Modernes deduce later on p2, and p3, and finally p. In this way the simple natures become the first objects of our knowledge. Until now we found out that the method is necessary for obtain- ing a certain knowledge of all that is shown to us. The elements of certainty are the mental processes of intuition and deduction, and the simple natures.

The simple natures are the first objects of our knowl- edge and they are obtained through intuition. So, the conclusion of what it was said before is that our certain knowledge begins from the intuited simple natures and goes on by deductions to find out the composed natures. Is there any connection between what we have said so far and the method of analysis that I have presented? If we want to try to answer to this question, then we should focus our attention to the rule IV Here Descartes affirms that the method of the ancient geometers, such as the new arithmetic algebra appears in his method In this moment we should abandon the study of the Rules and we should look for the applications of this method.

Forward, in Rules there are other norms to be kept in mind if we want to attain certain knowl- edge: These are beyond the pur- pose of this paper. Instead, I will turn to the second writing of Descartes, and the first published: This has been published together with three Essais: An intellectual biography Clarendon Press, Oxford, , p. For this see Pamela A. At the present time a sort of arithmetic called alge- bra is flourishing, and this is acheving for numbers what the ancients did for figures. Descartes uses his method in the three essays for solving a series of problems such as the explanation of the apparition of the rainbow.

The Discourse looks like a preface for the three Essays. Here, Descartes renounces to a systematical exposition of some rules, and he begins with an autobiographical exposition. He told us how he had begun to be concerned about method, and which were the steps that he took for the completion of the method. In short, those are: But let us see what is happened with the Essays, if that we could find these rules applied in the process of solving the problems that can be found here.

The beginning of both Dioptrics and Meteors consists in the formulation of some hypotheses, and this is the point where the arguments started. But we can find an exception, and this is presented in the same manner as the method of the Rules: Into a letter addressed to Vatier, and who dates from 22 February AT I , Descartes wrote that the example of the rainbow contains his method, and it is an illustration of this.

Liefde van de vrouw tegenover de man in de Homerische epen. De Deianeira-fi- guur in de Trachinische Vrouwen van Sophocles: Het gebruik van de completiefzin bij Thucydides: Godsdienstige aspecten in de utopische romans van de Oudheid en de neolatijnse literatuur. Erasmus' Opvoedkunde vanuit haar antropologische vooropstellingen in haar geschiedkundige samenhang. De Slavernij in de Odusseia. De drijfveren, die Antigone aanzetten tot het begraven van haar broer Polynices. Pu- blius Faustus Andrelinus Foroliviensis: De dood van Memnon in de literatuur en beeldende Kunst der Oudheid: Plato en de Sofisten.

Bijdrage tot de studie van de tropen in Vergilius' Georgica. De verhouding van de mens tot zijn fysische omgeving in Cicero's redevoeringen en filosofische werken. De postume uitgave van Latijnse werken. De epistrategie in Romeins Egypte. Over de mondelinge traditie in het werk van Titus Livius. Diminutieven bij Catullus en. Het archief der familie van Laches. De Nijlbeschrijving bij de Latijnse dichters. Hieronymus van Stridon als geestelijk leidsman bestudeerd in zijn brieven. De mythe van Cacus en Hercules. Vergelijking naar inhoud en vorm. Hulp en offervaardigheid in de Homerische epen.

Geschiedenis en geschiedschrijving in het Oeuvre van Plinius Junior. Bijdrage tot de studie van de P. Papyri Trinity College Dublin. Het Symposiongenre in de Oudheid en zijn invloed op het Lucasevangelie. De buitenlandse reizen van Cicero. Een studie over Cicero's grote reizen aan de hand van getuigenissen uit zijn schriftelijke nalatenschap. Studie over de betrekkingen tussen Kreta en de Lagiden. Een bijdrage tot de identificatie en de lokalisatie van auteurs en geschriften, vanaf de oorsprong tot de aanvangsdecennia van de zevende eeuw.

De transposities in Lukas. Het probleem der verplaatsingen in de Markus-stof van het derde evangelie. Les symboles et la construction romanesque. Max Elskamp, Enluminures Gilles le Muisit, Li complainte de dames. Markten en kermissen in het arrondissement Antwerpen. Colijn van Rijssele en De Spiegel der Minnen.

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De Vrouw bij Top Naeff. Analyse van het Nederlands bij jarigen. Het herbergwezen te Antwerpen in verband met opschriften en uithangborden. Volkskundige studie over de moderne bijnamen in de streek van Leopoldsburg. Sagenonderzoek in het zuidelijk gedeelte van de roede van Tielt en Izegem. Volkskundige bijdragen uit Limburgse tijdschriften Dat Boecsken der Verclaringhe van Jan van Ruus- broec. Tekstuitgave met inleidende studie en commentaar.

De Zeeuwse tijdschriften van tot Bijdrage tot de studie over de dialectwoorden- schat van Zingem en omgeving. Romanstruktuur bij Gerard Walschap van tot Analyse van het Nederlands bij jarigen, prov. Systematische registers op tijdschriften, reekswerken en gelegenheidsuitgaven. Het Mensbeeld in het verhalend Proza van Albert Heiman. Shall and will in Novels from to De Vrouw in de Romans van Johan Daisne.

De ontwikkeling van de germaanse eu in het zuiden van het Nederlandse taalgebied. Systematische registers op Zuidnederlandse toeristische tijdschriften. Tijdschriften van de reguliere en seculiere geestelijkheid in Vlaanderen. De Middelnederlandse Graaltraditie in het licht van de West- europese. Een vergelijkende studie van motieven. Foneemstructuur van het Oost- en Westvlaams dialect Bijdrage tot de structuralistische klankgeographie. Mechtild von Magdeburg und die abstrakta auf-heit. De invloed van de rijksgrens op de woordenschat in een grensstrook tussen Noord-Brabant en Antwerpen.

Realiteit en fictie in de historische romans van L. Terminologie van het Nederlands kinderspel in de middeleeuwen en de 16 e eeuw en haar weerslag op de hedendaagse Nederlandse spreekwoorden, zegswijzen en uitdrukkingen. Volkskundige bijdragen in de Vlaamse tijdschriften gesticht voor Op zoek naar de sagenmotieven in het grensgebied van de Limburgse Kempen. Klankleer van het Leopoldsburgs en klankgeografie van de omliggende gemeenten. Synchronisch en diachronisch onderzoek van het fonologisch systeem van het dialect van Oost- duinkerke, en een klankgeografisch onderzoek van de omliggende gemeenten.

Middelnederlands systematisch glossarium van voedsel en drank. Provincie Oost- Vlaanderen, deel 1. De Familie in de eigentijdse psychologische Romans van Louis Couperus. Fonologie van het Zuidnederlands Beschaafd. Studie van een verhouding. Studie over de Middelnederlandse werkwoorden van beweging. Onderzoek naar de sagenmotieven in het Oosten van het Houtland. Elementen van een beschrijving van de taal als betekenende praxis.

Het Lekespel in Noord-Nederland tussen de twee wereldoorlogen. Bijdrage tot de studie van de Mechelse persoonsnamen, voorkomend in de rekening voor het maken van de relikwiekas van de H. Rumoldus van en in de stadsrekening van Tijdschriften uit de provincie Antwerpen sedert De korte e-fonemen in de provincie Antwerpen.

Een struktuur-geo- grafisch onderzoek. Analyse van de geschreven kindertaal. Woordenschat van de vruchten en veldge- wassen in het Aliddelnederlands. Sagenonderzoek in tien gemeenten uit de Maasvallei. De Tover van het Woord. De Nederlandse ei en ij in het zuiden van het Nederlands taalgebied. De bronnen van drie woordenboeken uit de drukkerij van Plantijn: Death and the Identification of the Self. De distributie van het onderwerp en het lijdend voorwerp in het huidig geschreven Nederlands in zijn A.

De Weerwolf in de Nederlandse volkssage van de negentiende en twintigste eeuw. Point of view and expressive form in James Joyce's Ulysses. De Tussenkomst van de Verteller in de Roman. Een historisch-kritische studie over de Duitse Verhaal- en Romantheorie Seven Manieren van Minne, Lexicografisch Onderzoek. A la recherche de l'espace perdu.

Zur metaphysischen Hoflhungsphilosophie von Ernst Bloch. Les ordonnances comme source du droit urbain: La loi du 20 mai L'orphisme chez Virgile, En. Un historique du droit filial. Syntaxe des modes chez Andocide. Chronique de Georges Ghastellain. L'ange noir et l'ange blanc dans les romans de F. L'emploi contemporain du subjonctif dans les propositions relatives. Origine et formation des noms d'animaux en namurois. Le portrait physique de la femme chez Colette. Proverbes et expressions du patois de Tournai. Les locutions dans la correspondance de Diderot.

Le vocabulaire de l'alpinisme. Emile Verhaeren, Les visages de la vie The order of prepositional groups after a head-noun in English. De toneelkritiek in de Franse tijd. Aldous Huxley and the world of music. Comparisons in Graham Greene. Zinsdelen met voorzetsel voor of achter de elementen die normaal aan het einde van de zin staan.

Juvenilia ofte De Schone Helena, een treurspel van W. Lexicografisch onderzoek van de woordfrequentie in Noord en Zuidnederlandse kranten. De ziekteproblematiek in M. Lexical infiltration of English into French. Der deutsche Wortschatz des Tennisspiels. Lexical infiltration of English intoF rench. Specificatie van plaats en richting in de zin. The nominal groups in classical, romantic and contemporary Poetry. Systematisch register op de tijdschriften uit Frans- Vlaanderen Nominal and verbal transpositions in contemporary English and French Novel-Prose.

Jacqueline Lagrée

Stefan George und Baudelaire. On Conversion and connected Problems. Volkskundige registers op franstalige Zuidnederlandse tijdschriften tot provincie Brabant. Analyse van het Nederlands bij jarigen, provincie West- Vlaanderen, deel I. The use of the verbal Participle in English and in French. The Novels and Short Stories of H.

Mulisch, Het stenen bruidsbed, interpretatie en evaluatie. Status quaestionis de la programmation dans le cadre de l'enseignement des langues. John Wain and the Search for Morality. De vereenzaming van de moderne mens. Vergelijkende studie over de problematiek van de eenzaamheid bij Fr. Bijdrage tot de kennis van de preteritum-vorming bij het zwakke werkwoord in de Zuidnederlandse dialecten.

De intervocalische -d- in de Zuidnederlandse dialecten. Histoire du formulaire grec de la liturgie de Saint Jean Chrysostome. Phonologie der Moresneter Mundart. Eine Beschreibung der segmentalen und prosodischen Zeichenformdiakrise. Brasidas — Essai biographique. L'expression de la peur chez Sophocle. Les mots tabous chez Virgile. Chronologie des suites du Conte del Graal. Hvdronymie de la province de Luxembourg.

Toponymie de l'arrondissement de Philippeville. La transposition temporelle chez Charles Sorel. Trente fables de Marie de France. Proverbes et dictons Dieu et diable. Les situations dramatiques chez Ionesco.

Le sentiment de la nature chez les troubadours. Les premiers grammairiens belges. Le lyrisme amoureux d'Apollinaire combattant. La technique du portrait dans Le Neieu de Rameau de Diderot. Le folklore dans UArgayon de Michel Renard. Meeting point of two Traditions. Joachim van Babylon van Marnix Gysen en zijn Onthaal. Disorder in Bleak House C. Dickens and The Secret Agent J. De Eenzaamheid in de Novellen van W. Der Kritiker und der Satiriker Tucholsky. Das Phantastische bei Ludwig Tieck. Study of the social Glasses in D.

Eliot and the Revival of Poetic Drama. Godservaring en Godsbeeld in de Lyriek van Karel van de Woestijne. Proeve van verklarende Syntaxis. Alfonso Alvarez de Villansandino. Schwankungen in der deutschen Verbalflexion. Der heutige Gebrauch verglichen mit dem um Plays of James Bridie. The vision of France. Die Blechtrommel — Versuch einer Deutung.

Category: Society Social Sciences In French

James Gould Cozzens' Novels and the conservative Spirit. A la recherche du Dieu Perdu. Le temps et la conscience: Sociale achtergronden van de Belgische Revolutie van La seigneurie de Warcoing. De verkiezingen van het jaar V in het Departement van de Leie. La date de la bataille des Thermo- pyles. De staking van De federatie Brussel in de Belgische Werklieden- partij. Rome et la Campanie de avant J. Les finances provinciales du Brabant, de la Flandre occidentale, de la Flandre orientale et du Hainaut, Recherches sur l'Empereur Tacite.

Beroeps- en vermogen- struk- tuur van de stad Brussel La production du charbon de bois dans les Pays-Bas autrichiens. De oppositievorming tegen het kabinet van Loppem. Proeve tot onderzoek naar de bloei en het verval der Middeleeuwse stadsvrijheid Vilvoorde. Biographie de Jean Volders. Verkiezingen en verkozenen in het arrondissement Oudenaarde De Bronnen van Plutarchos in het Leven van Marius.

De Handeling en de karakters der optredende personen in Ilias Tekst en problematiek van de 26 e Idylle van Theocritus. Les causes de la grandeur romaine dans Tite-Live. Recherches sur l'avortement chez les Grecs. Communication et lecture selon Maurice Blanchot.

L'image de la femme endormie chez P. Lecture des fragments d'un journal d'enfer d'Antonin Artaud. Comparaison succincte avec l'italien. Jean Giono — Le personnage Gionien. Le Paris Nocturne vu par Restif de la Bretonne. L'expression du mouvement dans la Fin de Satan de V. Hugo Parties Hors de la Terre. Psychologie et style dans deux romans de L. Sagesse et ironie dans les romans de Raymond Queneau. De invloed van de filmtechniek in de verhalen van Hugo Claus. Fonetische realisaties van de woorden u en uw in de Antwerpse dialekten.

Claus-Artaud, een parallel geval. Hugo Claus en de Citatenkunst van T. De romans van Paul de Wispelaere. De vrouw in de eerste werken vanjohan Daisne Franse woorden in het Nederlands. Brendan Behan's dramatic works. The conception of time in the novels of Joyce Cary. Vormleer van het dialekt van Bree. Thomas Hinde's African Novels. Melancholie und Zorn im Schatten der Erinnerung. Toponymie van Korten- berg. Bijdrage tot de toponymie van Linkebeek.

Uitgave van middelnederlandse tekst. Het tweede boek van Heliseus Camerken. Gecommentarieerde uitgave naar een handschrift van Koninklijke Bibliotheek te Brussel. A study of syllabication of British and American English. De romantiek inde structuur van J. Tractaat van het leenrecht. Verbs devoting necessity in present- day written British English. Eine Kritik an der deutschen Gesellschaft bei Arno Schmidt.

Ralph Ellison — Invisible man. Essai de formalisation d'une Logique Ter- ministe. Frequentie van woorden en structuren in spontaan gesproken Nederlands. Bijdrage tot de studie van de klankleer van het Brugs, op het einde van de Middeleeuwen. Kritiek van Max Scheler op het plichtbegrip bij Immanuel Kant. Een inleiding tot het denken van de subjectiviteit bij E.

Plutarchus' gebruik van archeologisch en epigrafisch materiaal in de Vitae. De spreiding van de civitas Romana in Romeins Egypte 30 v. De ambtelijke loopbaan van de keizers voor hun troonsbestijging volgens de Historia Augusta. De keizerlijke titulatuur in de Historia Augusta. De organisatie van de census in de vroege keizertijd. Livius' voorstelling van de Romeinse senaat.

Een onderzoek van de boeken II-V. Alba Fucens en Carsioli in het gebied van de Aequi. Bijdrage tot de geschiedenis van de Aequi, en van Alba Fucens en Carsioli. De grote Brabantse watertol mei april De Belgische pers en de organieke wet op het middelbaar onderwijs van 1 juni De Broederschappen te Antwerpen van de 14e eeuw tot ca. Een onderzoek naar haar politieke-sociale gebondenheid en haar taak De tol van Lith en de Maashandel in en De Heren van Belle 12e tot 15e eeuw. Studie van de Belgische. De Centrale School van het Scheidedepartement te Gent, De verkiezingen voor de Gemeenteraad te Berchem, Ontstaan en domaniale ontwikkeling Het vrachtvervoer over land naar de haven van Antwerpen, Studentenbeweging en taaitoestanden van het katoliek middelbaar onderwijs in het aartsbisdom Mechelen, Het Sint- Hironymusveld en de Congregatie v.

De Handschriften van de kartuis Genadendal bij Brugge Dionysus van Holland De pers in Vlaanderen in Haar houding tegenover de Vlaamse beweging op een toppunt van politieke spanning. Evolutie van de parochiale kerkelijke goederen van tot Het patrimonium van de St. De Bogaarden te Antwerpen, De houding van de politieke partijen tegenover de eerste taalwet De Kom- manderij van de Duitse Ridderorde te Bekkevoort De Leuvense Schepenen op het einde der zeventiende Eeuw. De tafel van de H.

Geest van het Leuvens Groot-Begijnhof De plaatselijke pers en de verkiezingen te Leuven De sociale en politieke actie van Mej. Belpaire tijdens de Eerste Wereldoorlog De stemming over de Grondwet van in het departement van Beide Nethen. Domeinstudie Deinze-Drongen-Astene- Petegem De Sint- Richardusabdij 7e-lle eeuw.

Een biografisch en historiografisch onderzoek. De Broederschappen in enkele kerken te Gent tussen en De bevolking van Lier in de xixe eeuw De priorij van O. Vrouw-ten-Hole te Nelle bij Gent Een klooster van Reguliere Kanunniken aangesloten bij de Congregatie van Midenheim. De Abdij Vrouwenpark Nationalisme en kultuurflamingantisme in de Vlaamse studentenbeweging, Het probleem van de dood bij Sophocles. De niet-literaire bedrijvigheden van de Romeinse auteurs vanaf de oorsprong tot de dood van Augustus.

Onderzoek van Plutarchus' objektivi- teit in de Pelopidas-Vita. De Menoecusscene in de Phoenissae van Euripides. Haar plaats in de dramatische handeling. Betekenis en verplichtingen der vriendschap volgens Plinius' Epistulae. Het Zeus-altaar in Olympia. Humor in Ovidius' Metamorfosen, I. Apollofiguur in Euripides' Iphigeneia in Tauris. Bijdrage tot de studie van het Kleon-archief. De eenheid in de Hecuba van Euripides. Kritischhistorisch onderzoek van het verre verleden door Thucydides I.

De hoffelijkheid in het gesprek: Cicero's vrouwelijke verwanten en zijn houding in het begin van de tweede burgeroorlog. De redenaarskunst en haar principes met een toepassing op de eerste gerechtelijke pleidooien van Cicero. Zijn persoon en zijn cultus in de werken van Aristophanes.

Vroeg-christelijke opschriften in het Rijn-en Aloezelland. De studie van het exordium: Oronymie van de Peloponnesos. Bijdrage tot de studie over humor, ironie en sarkasme in de Philippicae van Cicero. Studie over de stadscommandant in de buitenlandse bezittingen van de Lagiden. Het licht in de Ilias en de Odysseia. De problematiek rond Commodianus ; een overzicht van de recente literatuur. Themata van literaire kritiek in Horatius' gedichten.

Een studie in het licht der naoorlogse commentaren. De klacht van Radegonde en het lied van Gelesvintha. Het leven van T. De historische infinitief bij C. De literaire en ecologische studie der villa-beschrijvingen uit de romeinse literatuur der zilveren eeuw. Het maritieme bij Homerus. Toponymie van de Kukladen ; heuristiek, semantische verklaring en classificatie. Studie over het vroeg-middeleeuws vocabulaire van Sisebutus. Met kritisch geannoteerde vertaling van zijn werk. Michael Psellos en Michael Attaleiates. Een vergelijkende studie van hun parallel werk Herodotus' opvattingen over de Monarchie.

De Philoc- tetes van Sophocles. Een onderzoek naar de innerlijke samenhang tussen de Heracles- scene en de rest van het drama. De verkenningstocht en de dood van Dolon in de letterkunde en de beeldende kunst van de Oudheid. De betrekkingen van Egypte met het buitenland ten tijde van Ptolemaios I v. De kansspelen te Rome ten tijde van Cicero in hun betekenis voor het zedelijk verval. De vriendschap in de Latijnse komedie en satire, Een beschouwing ten opzichte van de vriendschapsopvattingen van Cicero en Seneca.

Het Latijnse diminutief en zijn gebruik door Janus Secundus De wraak van Medea. Een onderzoek naar haar motivering in de Medea van Euripides. De vrijheidsleer in Aristoteles' Ethica Eude- mia. Het visioen van Wetti. Bijdrage tot de studie van Walafried Stra- bo's Visio Wettini ; met een kritisch geannoteerde vertaling.

Bijdrage tot de studie van vier Pannonische legioenen in de keizertijd 27 v. Ulrich von Hutten's Arminius. De epische vergelijkingen in Petrarca's Africa en hun verwantschap met de Vergiliaanse. La technique romanesque d'Ignazio Silone. Galileo Galeu et Giambattista Vico. La fortune de Multatuli en France. L'amour dans les romans de Maxence Van der Meersch. Esquisse d'un portrait spirituel. Tachtig over Multatuli ; Multa- tuli over Tachtig. Scherplange en zacht- lange o in de Zuidnederlandse dialecten. The Novels of Ivy Compton-Burnett. Gerard Walschaps trilogie in het licht van zijn opvattingen over Verhaalkunst.

Vormen van protest bij H. Der Ystorien Bloeme Ie Deel. Uitgave-techniek en Tekstkritiek in de Mnl. Scherplange en Zachtlange seinde Zuidnederlandse dialecten. De invloed van het Middelnederlands of van het Middel- nederduits op de Scandinavische talen? Index op de Handelingen van de Kon. Der Ystorien Bloeme 2 e deel — Een tekstuitgave met inleiding en aantekeningen. Het kind in de werken van Ina Seidel. Een reflektie op de I. Taalkundige studie van het dialect van Wevelgem en geografisch onderzoek van de omgeving. De literair-historische bedrijvigheid van J.

Intonatie, Waarneming en Funktie. Een Inleiding tot het Intonatie-onderzoek in de Wie- en Wat-vraag. Taalbeheersing bij leerlingen uit het M. Studie van de hypotactische zin. Nederlands van jarige kinderen. Een auteur uit de 18 e eeuw. Au- den's Poetry through the Eyes of the Critics: Volkskundige Bibliografie uit 4 bibliografische tijdschriften. Mededelings- vormen in 3 romans vanA. De Stijlevolutie van Gerard Walschap ' The Sensitive Hero in J.

De Nederlandse taalkunde in Land bouwtermen opgetekend te Grimbergen en omgeving. Woordenschat van de bomen en planten in het Middel-nederlands. Beeldspraak bij Hugo Claus. Symbolism in the Work of Iris Murdoch. Lindemans' antroponymische dokumentatie Letters u, v, w. Apocope van de auslautende -e in de Oostvlaamse en Brabantse dialecten. The World of Wooster: A Study of P. Wode- house Bertie Wooster Novels. Klankleer van het dialect van Lille, met een geografisch onderzoek van de omgeving. De voornaamste begrippen der hoofse Terminologie bij Hendrik van Veldeke.

Oude en Moderne Bijnamen in Hamont. Het boek Alfa — Dans le labyrinthe. Sagenonderzoek ten oosten van Aalst en in Noord- West-Brabant. Analyse van het Nederlands bij jarigen: The Novels of Kingsley Amis: Roose's Positional Subclassification of the Adjective. De Metsiers — As I lay. Nederlandse volkskundige bibliografie, Systematische register, op tijdschriften, reekswerken en gelegenheidsuitgaven. Driemaandelijkse bladen ; Driemaandelijkse Bladen ; Neerlands Volksleven Bijdrage tot de studie van de persoonsnamen te Geraardsbergen in en , 2 d. De priester als literaire figuur in de Zuidnederlandse verhaalkunst van tot nu.

Het dialect van Heldergem en dialectgeografisch onderzoek van de omliggende gemeenten. Meningen en gedachten van G. Wouters, De heylighe Genoveva ofte herkende Onnoselheyt. Tekstuitgave met inleiding en aantekeningen. De evolutie in het taalgebruik bij Herman Teirlinck. De Problematiek in het Werk van Paul Lebeau. Das Meissnische Deutsch und die Herausbildung der neuhochdeutschen Schriftsprache. Den broederlycken Haert teghen den onnooselen Joseph De persoonsnamen in de oorkonden van St.

A Critical Status Quaestionis. De onderschikkende, niet predicerende, endocentrische substantiefgroep in het Nijlens dialect. Sound change at R. Monophtongization of Diphthongs and Dipthongization of Monophthongs. Sagenonderzoek in 19 gemeenten ten westen van Brussel. De ouderdom van de huisnamen op grond van hun sociaal-economische dimensie.

Het luisterspel als taaikunstwerk. De beschrijving van het adjectief: Algemene Konst- en Letterbode Interpretations of Philip Larkin: Registers op Brabantse tijdschriften: Schellings hermeneutiek van de mythologie. De bisschoppelijke kanselarij te Kamerijk. De ontwikkeling van Adso's traktaat over de Antikrist. Bijdrage tot de studie van de eschatologische literatuur in de Middeleeuwen. Het Filhellenisme in het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden Een bijdrage tot de studie van de publieke opinie in het begin van de negentiende eeuw.

De jonge Romein volgens de literaire bronnen der periode ca. De literatuur in het licht van de vroegste psychoanalytische leer. L'amour naturel dans la philosophie de Soren Kierkegaard. Le sensualisme dans la philosophie de Ludwig Feuerbach. La psychologie des tendances chez Alexandre d'Aphrodisias. Les guerres cattiques de l'empereur Domitien — Implications politiques. Apollonius de Tyane ou le sage parfait de Philostrate.

L'industrie du fer dans les pays de Couvin et Chimay, Les semaines sociales flamandes et les semaines syndicales wallonnes, La seigneurie de Muno et la Gaume septentrionale. Eine Landschaft im Stadium der Unterentwicklung. Agrarstruktur des Hofes Amel gegen Ende des Essai sur les structures agraires du canton de Gembloux. Morphologie d'un groupe de pression scolaire: Nivelles septembre Les images illustrant le sentiment dans l'Iliade.

La souffrance dans VIliade. Virtus et Fortuna chez Velleius Paterculus. Le parfait de l'indicatif chez Thucydide. Euripide et les sophistes. L'aspect du parfait chez Sophocle. La vie de Philopoemen de Plutarque. Hortensius Hortalus, citoyen romain et orateur. Recherche sur la technique romanesque de Georges Simenon. Recherches sur les structures fondamentales d'un univers romanesque. Le vocabulaire de la vie familiale dans la commune de Sainte- Alarie Chevigny Ne La vie de saint Josse, de Jean Miclot. La toponymie de Villers- Perwin et de Liberchies.

Les types nationaux dans les romans de Jules Verne. Le vocabulaire des batteurs de cuivre dinantais. Charles Dausias, pages choisies. Verhaeren, Les villes tentaculaires La culture de Baldini. L'infinitif substantive dans la langue philosophique, Benedetto Croce. Traductions et adaptations en France. Les contes de Birago Diop. Vocabulaire concernant l'enfance et la jeunesse dans ta parler de Rocour W 2.

Examen critique des vues d'A. Anthony Powell's Music of Time. The language of Shakespeare's Higher and Lower Characters. De frequentste en minst frequente bijvoeglijke naamwoorden en bijwoorden in 24 Noord- en Zuidnederlandse romans. Twenty Years of Criticism. De distributie van de bijwoordelijke bepaling van tijd in de Nederlandse zin. Oudfranse Rechtstermen in het Middelnederlands.

De distributie van het reflexief voornaamwoord zonder voorzetsel in de journalistiek. The complete tales of H. Aspecten van het geschreven Nederlands van Franstaligen. The poetry of Edwin Muir. The novels of R. Aspecten van de motivering bij het aanleren van een vreemde taal Taai-sociologisch onderzoek.

Historisch overzicht van de taal toestanden en van de taaigrenslijn in het Edingse. The world of Elisabeth Bowen. The expression of futurity in English and in French. Iris Murdoch, status quaestionis. Muriel Spark's The go-away bird and other stories. The group genetive and its evolution in modern English. An introduction to the novels of Wyntham Levis. A study of eight Bestsellers. Studium des romanischen Einflusses auf die Mundart von Sippenaken. Beitrag zum Studium des historischen Sprachgebrauchs.

Legenden van de HH. Inversion of subject and verbal evolution since the xixth century. De bijwoordelijke bepaling van wijze in de Nederlandse zin, inzonderheid t. Du Perron en M. Syntactische afwijking in het geschreven Nederlands van Franstalige leerlingen codering en klassering. Onderzoek van het geschreven Nederlands van twaalfjarigen.

The novels of Ivy-Burnett. A study of the main themes. The novels of Muriel Spark: A comparative study of present-day English grammatical terminology. Die deutsche Sprache in Belgien von bis Versuch einer analytischen Bibliographie. De distributie en de plaats van het reflexieve pronomen in de journalistiek. Adjectivals, Adjectives and Adjective groups in Modern English. Connie in the novels of Muriel Spark.

An analysis of the feminine characters in four novels of P. Henry James' Short Tales The principles and procedures of film translation. Essai sur Maurice Blanchot. Recherches sur la transformation de l'entreprise et du bassin houiller. Vie politique et syndicale. Les premiers voyages de l'empereur Hadrien. Virgile et le 7 e Art. L'adolescent chez Marcel Arland. L'Espagne dans les romans d'Azorin. La limite entre les parlers lorrain et wallon en Belgique romane. Les voix du silence devant la critique.