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The waiter served the sweet. Saccharin is an artificial sweetener, often used instead of sugar. References in classic literature? She was the sweetness of the strength of the oak, the soul born of the sun kissing its green leaves in the still Memnonian mornings, of moon and stars kissing its green leaves in the still Trophonian nights.

Only the few know the sweetness of the twisted apples. And sad the hour when all ripe things must pass, For sweetness and decay are of one stem, And sweetness ever riots to decay. Sweetness , bitterness, sourness, are examples of this sort of quality, together with all that is akin to these; heat, moreover, and cold, whiteness, and blackness are affective qualities.

The gentleness, modesty, and sweetness of her character were warmly expatiated on; that sweetness which makes so essential a part of every woman's worth in the judgment of man, that though he sometimes loves where it is not, he can never believe it absent. There was, nevertheless, some sweetness diffused over that face, but it was the sweetness of a cat or a judge, an affected, treacherous sweetness. Sophia who though naturally all winning sweetness could when occasions demanded it call forth the Dignity of her sex instantly put on a most forbidding look, and darting an angry frown on the undaunted culprit, demanded in a haughty tone of voice "Wherefore her retirement was thus insolently broken in on?

At night time she sang or played with the windows open, Wingrave himself out of sight under the cedar trees, whose perfume filled with aromatic sweetness the still night air. They hypothesized that to be sweet, a compound must contain one each of two classes of structural motif, a glucophore and an auxogluc. Based on those compounds known to be sweet at the time, they proposed a list of six candidate glucophores and nine auxoglucs. From these beginnings in the early 20th century, the theory of sweetness enjoyed little further academic attention until , when Robert Shallenberger and Terry Acree proposed the AH-B theory of sweetness.

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Simply put, they proposed that to be sweet, a compound must contain a hydrogen bond donor AH and a Lewis base B separated by about 0. According to this theory, the AH-B unit of a sweetener binds with a corresponding AH-B unit on the biological sweetness receptor to produce the sensation of sweetness. B-X theory proposed by Lemont Kier in While previous researchers had noted that among some groups of compounds, there seemed to be a correlation between hydrophobicity and sweetness, this theory formalized these observations by proposing that to be sweet, a compound must have a third binding site labeled X that could interact with a hydrophobic site on the sweetness receptor via London dispersion forces.

Later researchers have statistically analyzed the distances between the presumed AH, B, and X sites in several families of sweet substances to estimate the distances between these interaction sites on the sweetness receptor. This theory involves a total of eight interaction sites between a sweetener and the sweetness receptor, although not all sweeteners interact with all eight sites. The most potent of these, lugduname , is about , times sweeter than sucrose. Such variations may arise from a range of methodological variables, from sampling to analysis and interpretation.

Indeed, the taste index of 1, assigned to reference substances such as sucrose for sweetness , hydrochloric acid for sourness , quinine for bitterness , and sodium chloride for saltiness , is itself arbitrary for practical purposes. Some values, such as those for maltose and glucose, vary little.

Others, such as aspartame and sodium saccharin, have much larger variation. Regardless of variation, the perceived intensity of substances relative to each reference substance remains consistent for taste ranking purposes. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Sweet disambiguation , Sweetness disambiguation , and Sweetening disambiguation.

This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. The specific problem is: May Learn how and when to remove this template message. Food portal Neuroscience portal. Opioids, sweets and a mechanism for positive affect: Dobbing , pp.


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Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology. The New England Journal of Medicine.

Sweetness by Stephen Dunn | Poetry Magazine

Mind-boggling facts about today's human body and high-tech medicine. A Socratic dialogue on evolutionary themes". Chemical ecology and the origins of human diet and medicine. University of Arizona Press. The Psychology of Eating and Drinking. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Evolution. Attitudes towards sugar and sweetness in historical and social perspective.

Textbook of Medical Physiology 8th ed.

Organic Chemistry 4th ed. Transport Mediated by Electrical Interfaces. Studies in interface science. The World of Chemistry: Retrieved 14 September N Engl J Med. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr.


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