Many Poles perceive Germans as their long-time oppressors, dating back to the times of Teutonic Order. Several issues have also strained recent Polish-German relations, although Poland and post-reunification Germany overall have had mostly positive relations. The Poles are suspicious of the campaign led by Erika Steinbach , a daughter of a German officer in the German forces occupying Poland, made famous for her voting against Oder—Neisse line borders,  who seeks reparations for the property lost by Germans expelled by Poland following the Second World War and to create the Centre Against Expulsions.
Anti-German sentiment was already prevalent in the Netherlands centuries before the unification of Germany and establishment of the Second German Empire , completed The Dutch are thought to have developed a low opinion of Germans during the 17th century, also known in the Netherlands as the Gouden Eeuw literally: In the first half of the 17th century, the Republic saw a major spike in German immigrants including common laborers, persecuted Lutherans and Jews , and all sorts of war refugees fleeing the violence of the Thirty Years' War.
A culture clash soon followed, and German immigrants were often discriminated against by the native Dutch. There are known joke books in which these Germans are featured prominently and stereotypically as dumb, arrogant and filthy. During WWI in which the Netherlands was neutral , the so-called Wire of Death , a lethal volts electric fence built along the southern Dutch border by the Germans occupying Belgium caused a large number of fatalities among the Dutch people, renewing anti-German sentiment in the Netherlands.
Most elderly Dutch people remember these events including the Rotterdam Blitz bitterly, and some still refuse to set foot on German soil. A sociological study from showed that still two generations after it had ended, World War II remained influential, and "present-day parents and young people are negatively biased against Germany. Newer studies also consistently show that Dutch anti-German sentiment has been falling steadily for years,  and that most Dutch people today show a positive view towards both Germany and the German people.
Rapid increase of German immigration to Switzerland during the s decade has given rise to "Germanophobia" in German-speaking Switzerland. During the European debt crisis , many countries embarked on, or were arguably pushed into, austerity programs. Germany was blamed for the resulting economical, social and political consequences   .
The ongoing Greek government-debt crisis and EU-driven austerity measures imposed on the country have revived anti-German sentiments. In August , Italian Prime Minister Mario Monti warned that escalating arguments over how to resolve the Euro debt crisis are turning countries against each other and threatening to rip Europe apart. Resentment in Italy is growing against Germany, the European Union and chancellor Merkel, he said, adding that "the pressures already bear the traits of a psychological break-up of Europe". A survey took place in the summer of among ten members of the EU.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. It is not to be confused with Germophobia. Not to be confused with Anti-Germans political current. American entry into World War I. Internment of German Americans. Forced labour of Germans in the Soviet Union. Flight and expulsion of Germans — Germany—Netherlands football rivalry and Germany—Netherlands relations. For , the tenth annual poll covered the influence of the E. All of the influential countries except Iran, North Korea, and South Africa were among the 24 surveyed.
Religion and Identity in Modern Russia. Kennedy, "Idealists and realists: British views of Germany, — British Images of Germany: Germany - Great Britain - France. Great Britain and the daily telegraph affair. Dressing Up For War.
French–German enmity - Wikipedia
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Former eastern territories of Germany
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Germany's global image is the most positive of all countries evaluated in this survey. In 20 of the 22 tracking countries the most common view was that Germany's influence in the world is "mainly positive", while people in two countries viewed its influence as mainly negative. BBC World Service bbc. The annual survey was inaugurated in For Germany's influence, the results see table cover only 22 countries, excluding Argentina. The report, including pages cited here, sometimes shifts focus to 21 or 20 countries that were covered as participants both in and Five Days That Shocked the World: Dutch Culture in a European Perspective: Germany and the Netherlands".
Break out, Break down or break in: Germany and the European Union after Amsterdam pp: Small aircraft carriers began to accompany allied convoys, using spotter planes to locate the German submarines, which had to spend most of their time on the surface in order to move with any reasonable speed and locate the enemy's ships. By May the allies were building more ship tonnage than the Germans were sinking, while one U-boat was being sunk by allied warships and planes on average every day.
The battle of the Atlantic was over. The most dramatic and most significant reversal of German fortunes came, however, on the eastern front. The sheer scale of the conflict between the Wehrmacht and the Red Army dwarfed anything seen anywhere else during the second world war. From 22 June , the day of the German invasion, there was never a point at which less than two-thirds of the German armed forces were engaged on the eastern front.
Deaths on the eastern front numbered more than in all the other theatres of war put together, including the Pacific. But it did not. On the contrary, Stalin's patriotic appeals to his people helped rally them to fight in the "great patriotic war", spurred on by horror at the murderous brutality of the German occupation. More than three million Soviet prisoners of war were deliberately left to die of starvation and disease in makeshift camps. Civilians were drafted into forced labour, villages were burned to the ground, towns reduced to rubble. More than one million people died in the siege of Leningrad; but it did not fall.
Soviet reserves of manpower and resources were seemingly inexhaustible. In a vast effort, major arms and munitions factories had been dismantled and transported to safety east of the Urals.
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Here they began to pour out increasing quantities of military hardware, including the terrifying "Stalin organ", the Katyusha rocket-launcher. Already in December , Japan's entry into the war, and its consequent preoccupation with campaigns in the Pacific, allowed Stalin to move large quantities of men and equipment to the west, where they brought the German advance to a halt before Moscow. Unprepared for a winter war, poorly clad, and exhausted from months of rapid advance and bitter fighting, the German forces had to abandon the idea of taking the Russian capital.
A whole string of generals succumbed to heart attacks or nervous exhaustion, and were replaced; Hitler himself took over as commander-in-chief of the army. Hitler had already weakened the thrust towards Moscow by diverting forces to take the grainfields of the Ukraine and push on to the Crimea. For much of , this tactic seemed to be succeeding.
German forces took the Crimea and advanced towards the oilfields of the Caucasus. Here again, acquiring new supplies of fuel to replenish Germany's dwindling stocks was the imperative. But Soviet generals had begun to learn how to co-ordinate tanks, infantry and air power and to avoid encirclement by tactical withdrawals.
The German forces were already dangerously short of reserves and supplies when they reached the city of Stalingrad on the river Volga, in August Three months later, they had still not taken the city. Stalingrad became the object of a titanic struggle between the Germans and the Soviets, less because of its strategic importance than because of its name. Short of fuel and ammunition, the Germans under General Paulus were unable to break out. As one airfield after another was captured by the Red Army, supplies ran out and the German troops began to starve to death. On 31 January , refusing the invitation to commit suicide that came with Hitler's gift of a field marshal's baton, Paulus surrendered.
Some , German and allied troops were captured; more than , had been killed. It was the turning point of the war. From this moment on, the German armies were more or less continuously in retreat on the eastern front.
The Red Army around Stalingrad was threatening to cut off the German forces in the Caucasus, so they were forced to withdraw, abandoning their attempt to secure the region's oil reserves. In early July came the last great German counter-attack, at Kursk.
This was the greatest land battle in history, involving more than four million troops, 13, tanks and self-propelled guns, and 12, combat aircraft. Warned of the attack in advance, the Red Army had prepared defences in depth, which the Germans only managed partially to penetrate. The local party commissar, Nikita Khrushchev, covered up this disaster by persuading Stalin that they had been destroyed in a huge battle that had eliminated more than German tanks and won a heroic victory.
Last year he managed to stir up a massive row over a long-dead economist when he suggested that John Maynard Keynes had no stake in the future because he was gay and childless — although he did later apologise, calling his remarks "stupid and tactless". Topics First world war. Niall Ferguson History books Germany Europe news. Order by newest oldest recommendations. Show 25 25 50 All. Threads collapsed expanded unthreaded. Loading comments… Trouble loading? Nearly 4, first world war diaries made available online. First-hand accounts of trench warfare, gas attacks and horseback battles digitised by National Archive and Imperial War Museum.
Gove and junior minister split over how to teach history of first world war. Michael Gove's minister disagrees with him over how to teach first world war.