The aim was to control more land for animal trapping, a career most natives had turned to in hopes of trading with whites first. Not only did this completely change the ethnography of the region, most large game was hunted out before whites ever fully explored the land. In the s, they would also merge with the Mohawk during the French-Indian War and take in the remaining Susquehannock of Pennsylvania after they were decimated in war.
Then, after the Revolution, a large group of them split off and returned to Ohio, becoming known as the Mingo Seneca. As the Iroquois sided with the British during the Revolution, they soon after migrated to Canada. Meanwhile, the Lenape formed a close relationship with William Penn. However, upon Penn's death, his sons managed to take over much of their lands and banish them to Ohio. Also, in , the United States relocated the Nanticoke from the Delmarva Peninsula to the former Iroquois lands south of Lake Ontario, though they did not stay long. Mostly, they chose to migrate into Canada and merge with the Iroquois, although some moved west and merged with the Lenape.
On April 17, , Verrazzano entered New York Bay , by way of the strait now called the Narrows into the northern bay which he named Santa Margherita, in honor of the King of France's sister. Verrazzano described it as "a vast coastline with a deep delta in which every kind of ship could pass" and he adds: This vast sheet of water swarmed with native boats".
He landed on the tip of Manhattan and possibly on the furthest point of Long Island. Verrazzano's stay was interrupted by a storm which pushed him north towards Martha's Vineyard. In , French traders from New France built a chateau on Castle Island , within present-day Albany; it was abandoned the following year due to flooding.
In , the Dutch, under the command of Hendrick Corstiaensen, rebuilt the French chateau , which they called Fort Nassau. The small fort served as a trading post and warehouse. Located on the Hudson River flood plain, the rudimentary "fort" was washed away by flooding in ,  and abandoned for good after Fort Orange New Netherland was built nearby in Henry Hudson's voyage marked the beginning of European involvement with the area. During the 17th century, Dutch trading posts established for the trade of pelts from the Lenape , Iroquois , and other tribes were founded in the colony of New Netherland.
The first of these trading posts were Fort Nassau , near present-day Albany ; Fort Orange , on the Hudson River just south of the current city of Albany and created to replace Fort Nassau , developing into settlement Beverwijck , and into what became Albany; Fort Amsterdam , to develop into the town New Amsterdam which is present-day New York City ; and Esopus, , now Kingston.
The success of the patroonship of Rensselaerswyck , which surrounded Albany and lasted until the midth century, was also a key factor in the early success of the colony. It was returned to the English under the terms of the Treaty of Westminster a year later. The Stamp Act Congress met in the city on October 19 of that year, composed of representatives from across the Thirteen Colonies who set the stage for the Continental Congress to follow. The Stamp Act Congress resulted in the Declaration of Rights and Grievances , which was the first written expression by representatives of the Americans of many of the rights and complaints later expressed in the United States Declaration of Independence.
This included the right to representative government. At the same time, given strong commercial, personal and sentimental links to Britain , many New York residents were Loyalists. The Capture of Fort Ticonderoga provided the cannon and gunpowder necessary to force a British withdrawal from the Siege of Boston in New York was the only colony not to vote for independence , as the delegates were not authorized to do so. New York then endorsed the Declaration of Independence on July 9, It was not submitted to the people for ratification. About one-third of the battles of the American Revolutionary War took place in New York; the first major battle after U.
Battle of Brooklyn in August After their victory, the British occupied New York City, making it their military and political base of operations in North America for the duration of the conflict, and consequently the focus of General George Washington 's intelligence network. On the notorious British prison ships of Wallabout Bay , more American combatants died of intentional neglect than were killed in combat in every battle of the war combined.
Both sides of combatants lost more soldiers to disease than to outright wounds. The first of two major British armies were captured by the Continental Army at the Battle of Saratoga in , a success that influenced France to ally with the revolutionaries. The state constitution was enacted in In an attempt to retain their sovereignty and remain an independent nation positioned between the new United States and British North America, four of the Iroquois Nations fought on the side of the British; only the Oneida and their dependents, the Tuscarora, allied themselves with the Americans.
As allies of the British, the Iroquois were forced out of New York, although they had not been part of treaty negotiations. They resettled in Canada after the war and were given land grants by the Crown.idssolutions.com/lex-nemo-y-la-hermandad-nautilus.php
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In the treaty settlement, the British ceded most Indian lands to the new United States. Because New York made treaty with the Iroquois without getting Congressional approval, some of the land purchases have been subject to land claim suits since the late 20th century by the federally recognized tribes.
New York City was the national capital under the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union , the first government. That organization was found to be insufficient, and prominent New Yorker Alexander Hamilton advocated a new government that would include an executive, national courts, and the power to tax. Hamilton led the Annapolis Convention that called for the Philadelphia Convention , which drafted the United States Constitution, in which he also took part.
The new government was to be a strong federal national government to replace the relatively weaker confederation of individual states. Hamilton's revival of the heavily indebted United States economy after the war and the creation of a national bank significantly contributed to New York City becoming the financial center of the new nation.
Both the Dutch and the British imported African slaves as laborers to the city and colony; New York had the second-highest population of slaves after Charleston, South Carolina. Slavery was extensive in New York City and some agricultural areas. The state passed a law for the gradual abolition of slavery soon after the Revolutionary War, but the last slave in New York was not freed until Transportation in western New York was by expensive wagons on muddy roads before canals opened up the rich farm lands to long-distance traffic.
Work commenced in , and the Erie Canal opened in Packet boats pulled by horses on tow paths traveled slowly over the canal carrying passengers and freight. It was an engineering marvel which opened up vast areas of New York to commerce and settlement. It enabled Great Lakes port cities such as Buffalo and Rochester to grow and prosper. It also connected the burgeoning agricultural production of the Midwest and shipping on the Great Lakes, with the port of New York City.
Improving transportation, it enabled additional population migration to territories west of New York. After , railroads largely replaced the canal. New York City was a major ocean port and had extensive traffic importing cotton from the South and exporting manufacturing goods.
Nearly half of the state's exports were related to cotton. Southern cotton factors, planters and bankers visited so often that they had favorite hotels. The state provided more than , soldiers to the Union armies. Over 53, New Yorkers died in service, roughly one of every seven who served. However, Irish draft riots in were a significant embarrassment. Since the early 19th century, New York City has been the largest port of entry for legal immigration into the United States. In the United States, the federal government did not assume direct jurisdiction for immigration until Prior to this time, the matter was delegated to the individual states, then via contract between the states and the federal government.
The first permanent immigration depot in New York was established in at Castle Garden , a converted War of era fort located within what is now Battery Park , at the tip of Lower Manhattan. The first immigrants to arrive at the new depot were aboard three ships that had just been released from quarantine.
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Castle Garden served as New York's immigrant depot until it closed on April 18, , when the federal government assumed control over immigration. During that period, more than 8 million immigrants passed through its doors two out of every three U. When the federal government assumed control, it established the Bureau of Immigration , which chose the three-acre Ellis Island in Upper New York Harbor for an entry depot.
Already federally controlled, the island had served as an ammunition depot. It was chosen due its relative isolation with proximity to New York City and the rail lines of Jersey City, New Jersey , via a short ferry ride. While the island was being developed and expanded via land reclamation , the federal government operated a temporary depot at the Barge Office at the Battery. Ellis Island opened on January 1, , and operated as a central immigration center until the National Origins Act was passed in , reducing immigration. After that date, the only immigrants to pass through were displaced persons or war refugees.
The island ceased all immigration processing on November 12, , when the last person detained on the island, Norwegian seaman Arne Peterssen, was released. He had overstayed his shore leave and left on the Manhattan-bound ferry to return to his ship. More than 12 million immigrants passed through Ellis Island between and More than million Americans across the United States can trace their ancestry to these immigrants.
Ellis Island was the subject of a contentious and long-running border and jurisdictional dispute between New York State and the State of New Jersey, as both claimed it. The issue was settled in by the U. Supreme Court which ruled that the original 3. Johnson and is still owned by the Federal government as part of the Statue of Liberty National Monument. Ellis Island was opened to the public as a museum of immigration in On September 11, , two of four hijacked planes were flown into the Twin Towers of the original World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan , and the towers collapsed.
The other buildings of the World Trade Center complex were damaged beyond repair and demolished soon thereafter.
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The collapse of the Twin Towers caused extensive damage and resulted in the deaths of 2, victims, including aboard the two planes. Since September 11, most of Lower Manhattan has been restored. In the years since, many rescue workers and residents of the area have developed several life-threatening illnesses, and some have died. A permanent museum later opened at the site on March 21, On October 29 and 30, , Hurricane Sandy caused extensive destruction of the state's shorelines, ravaging portions of New York City and Long Island with record-high storm surge , with severe flooding and high winds causing power outages for hundreds of thousands of New Yorkers, and leading to gasoline shortages and disruption of mass transit systems.
The storm and its profound effects have prompted the discussion of constructing seawalls and other coastal barriers around the shorelines of New York City and Long Island to minimize the risk from another such future event. This is considered highly probable due to global warming and rise in sea levels. In contrast with New York City's urban landscape, the vast majority of the state's geographic area is dominated by meadows , forests , rivers, farms, mountains, and lakes.
Most of the southern part of the state rests on the Allegheny Plateau , which extends from the southeastern United States to the Catskill Mountains ; the section in New York State is known as the Southern Tier. The rugged Adirondack Mountains , with vast tracts of wilderness, lie west of the Lake Champlain Valley. The Tug Hill region arises as a cuesta east of Lake Ontario. Upstate and downstate are often used informally to distinguish New York City or its greater metropolitan area from the rest of New York State.
The placement of a boundary between the two is a matter of great contention. New York contains a part of the Marcellus shale , which extends into Ohio and Pennsylvania. Of New York State's total area, New York is the only state that includes within its borders parts of the Great Lakes and the Atlantic Ocean. The Hudson River begins near Lake Tear of the Clouds and flows south through the eastern part of the state, without draining Lakes George or Champlain.
Lake George empties at its north end into Lake Champlain, whose northern end extends into Canada, where it drains into the Richelieu River and then ultimately the Saint Lawrence River. The western section of the state is drained by the Allegheny River and rivers of the Susquehanna and Delaware River systems. Downstate New York, comprising New York City, Long Island, and lower portions of the Hudson Valley, has rather warm summers with some periods of high humidity and cold, damp winters which are relatively mild compared to temperatures in Upstate New York due to downstate region's lower elevation, proximity to the Atlantic Ocean, and relatively lower latitude.
Upstate New York experiences warm summers, marred by only occasional, brief intervals of sultry conditions, with long and cold winters. Western New York, particularly the Tug Hill region, receives heavy lake-effect snows , especially during the earlier portions of winter, before the surface of Lake Ontario itself is covered by ice. The summer climate is cool in the Adirondacks, Catskills, and at higher elevations of the Southern Tier.
New York ranks 46th among the 50 states in the amount of greenhouse gases generated per person. This relative efficient energy usage is primarily due to the dense, compact settlement in the New York City metropolitan area, and the state population's high rate of mass transit use in this area and between major cities.
Due to its long history, New York has several overlapping and often conflicting definitions of regions within the state.
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The regions are also not fully definable due to colloquial use of regional labels. The New York State Department of Economic Development provides two distinct definitions of these regions; it divides the state into ten economic regions,  which approximately correspond to terminology used by residents:. The department also groups the counties into eleven regions for tourism purposes: New York has many state parks and two major forest preserves. Niagara Falls State Park , established in , is the oldest state park in the United States  and the first to be created via eminent domain.
The park is larger than Yellowstone , Everglades , Glacier , and Grand Canyon national parks combined. There are some black bears living in the region. Hither Hills State Park , also on the South Fork of Long Island, offers camping and is a popular destination with surfcasting sport fishermen. The State of New York is well represented in the National Park System with 22 national parks , which received 16,, visitors in New York is divided into 62 counties. Aside from the five counties of New York City, each of these counties is subdivided into towns and cities , incorporated under state law.
Towns can contain incorporated villages or unincorporated hamlets. New York City is divided into five boroughs , each coterminous with a county. The major cities of the state developed along the key transportation and trade routes of the early 19th century, including the Erie Canal and railroads paralleling it. Today, the New York Thruway acts as a modern counterpart to commercial water routes.
The nation's most populous state until the s, New York is now the fourth most-populous state. The distribution of change in population growth is uneven in New York State; the New York City metropolitan area is growing, along with Saratoga County , while cities such as Buffalo , Rochester , and Syracuse and several others having been losing population for decades.
Between and , immigration failed to surpass out-migration to other parts of the United States, a trend that has been reversing since New York State lost two House seats in the congressional reapportionment, secondary to relatively slow growth when compared to the rest of the United States. In and , more people moved from New York to Florida than from any one state to another, contributing to New York becoming the U. New York City is the most populous city in the United States,  with an estimated record high population of 8,, in ,  incorporating more immigration into the city than emigration since the United States Census.
Long Island alone accounted for a Census-estimated 7,, residents in , representing Females made up These are the ten counties with the largest populations as of [update]: There are 62 cities in New York. The largest city in the state and the most populous city in the United States is New York City, which comprises five counties each coextensive with a borough: New York City is home to more than two-fifths of the state's population. Albany , the state capital, is the sixth-largest city in New York State. Hempstead is the most populous town in the state; if it were a city, it would be the second largest in New York State, with over , residents.
The following are the top ten metropolitan areas in the state as of the Census: The racial makeup of New York State as of the Census was: Hispanic or Latino of any race were According to the — American Community Survey , the largest ancestry groups were Italian The state's most populous racial group, non-Hispanic white , has declined as a proportion of the state population from New York is home to the second-largest African American population after Georgia and the second largest Asian-American population after California in the United States.
New York's uniracial Black population increased by 2. The Chinese population constitutes the fastest-growing nationality in New York State which is the top destination for new Chinese immigrants, and large-scale Chinese immigration continues into the state. Brooklyn has been a destination for West Indian immigrants of African descent, as well as Asian Indian immigrants.
Albany and the Mohawk Valley also have large communities of ethnic Italians and Irish Americans, reflecting 19th and early 20th-century immigration. Americans of English ancestry are present throughout all of upstate New York, reflecting early colonial and later immigrants. New York is home to the second largest African American population and the largest recipient of immigrants from Africa to the United States. Manhattan Chinatown , home to the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere. Chinese is the fastest-growing nationality in the state.
New York is home to the largest Italian American population. As many as languages are spoken in New York City,    making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. As of [update] , Before the s, Protestant sects dominated the religious life of New York, although religion did not play as large a role in the public life of New Netherland as it did in New England, with its Puritan population. Religious revivals and the formation of new religious movements of the Second Great Awakening took place in the burned-over district of western and central regions of New York in the early 19th century.
This constitutes a total LGBT adult population of , individuals. The State monument is planned to be built in Hudson River Park in Manhattan, near the waterfront Hudson River piers which have served as historically significant symbols of New York's role as a meeting place and a safe haven for LGBT communities.
The New York Stock Exchange , the world's largest stock exchange by total market capitalization of its listed companies. Silicon Alley has expanded well beyond its cradle in the Flatiron District of Manhattan. Midtown Manhattan in New York City, the largest central business district in the world. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory on the North Shore of Long Island is an internationally renowned biomedical research facility and home to eight scientists awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
Times Square in Midtown Manhattan, hub of the Broadway theater district , a media center, and one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan , New York City has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world.
Several investment banks and investment managers headquartered in Manhattan are important participants in other global financial centers. Many of the world's largest media conglomerates are also based in the city. Manhattan contained approximately million square feet Albany,  Saratoga County ,   Rensselaer County , and the Hudson Valley , collectively recognized as eastern New York's Tech Valley , have experienced significant growth in the computer hardware side of the high-technology industry , with great strides in the nanotechnology sector, digital electronics design, and water- and electricity-dependent integrated microchip circuit manufacturing,  involving companies including IBM and its Thomas J.
Creative industries , which are concerned with generating and distributing knowledge and information , such as new media, digital media, film and television production , advertising, fashion, design, and architecture, account for a growing share of employment, with New York City possessing a strong competitive advantage in these industries. Attendance in — stood at New York exports a wide variety of goods such as prepared foods, computers and electronics , cut diamonds , and other commodities. New York's largest imports are oil, gold, aluminum, natural gas, electricity, rough diamonds, and lumber.
The state also has a large manufacturing sector that includes printing and the production of garments , mainly in New York City; and furs, railroad equipment, automobile parts, and bus line vehicles, concentrated in Upstate regions. New York is the nation's third-largest grape producing state, and second-largest wine producer by volume, behind California. Start Planning for Winter! Download Our Mobile App! So Many Places to Discover.
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Apr 17, - Apr 17, Crime has continued an overall downward trend in New York City since the s. In , New York City had the third lowest murder rate among the largest U. Sociologists and criminologists have not reached consensus on the explanation for the dramatic decrease in the city's crime rate. Some attribute the phenomenon to new tactics used by the NYPD,  including its use of CompStat and the broken windows theory.
A strong correlation was found demonstrating that violent crime rates in New York and other big cities began to fall after lead was removed from American gasoline in the s. The 20th century saw a rise in the Mafia , dominated by the Five Families , as well as in gangs , including the Black Spades.
The New York City Fire Department FDNY , provides fire protection , technical rescue, primary response to biological, chemical, and radioactive hazards, and emergency medical services for the five boroughs of New York City. In addition to responding to building types that range from wood-frame single family homes to high-rise structures , there are many secluded bridges and tunnels, as well as large parks and wooded areas that can give rise to brush fires.
New York is also home to one of the largest subway systems in the world, consisting of hundreds of miles of tunnel with electrified track. New York City has been described as the cultural capital of the world by the diplomatic consulates of Iceland  and Latvia  and by New York's Baruch College. Numerous major American cultural movements began in the city, such as the Harlem Renaissance , which established the African-American literary canon in the United States. New York has long had a flourishing scene for Jewish American literature.
The city is the birthplace of many cultural movements, including the Harlem Renaissance in literature and visual art; abstract expressionism also known as the New York School in painting; and hip hop ,  punk , salsa , freestyle , Tin Pan Alley , certain forms of jazz , and along with Philadelphia disco in music. New York City has been considered the dance capital of the world. New York Fashion Week is one of the world's preeminent fashion events and is afforded extensive coverage by the media.
New York City has more than 2, arts and cultural organizations and more than art galleries of all sizes. The advent of electric lighting led to elaborate theater productions, and in the s, New York City theaters on Broadway and along 42nd Street began featuring a new stage form that became known as the Broadway musical. Strongly influenced by the city's immigrants, productions such as those of Harrigan and Hart , George M.
Cohan , and others used song in narratives that often reflected themes of hope and ambition. New York City itself is the subject or background of many plays and musicals. Broadway theatre is one of the premier forms of English-language theatre in the world, named after Broadway , the major thoroughfare that crosses Times Square ,  also sometimes referred to as " The Great White Way ".
Attendance in — stood at New York City is home to hundreds of cultural institutions and historic sites, many of which are internationally known. Ten museums occupy the length of this section of Fifth Avenue. In addition to other programming, the museums collaborate for the annual Museum Mile Festival, held each year in June, to promote the museums and increase visitation. New York City's food culture includes an array of international cuisines influenced by the city's immigrant history.
Central and Eastern European immigrants, especially Jewish immigrants from those regions, brought bagels , cheesecake , hot dogs , knishes , and delicatessens or delis to the city. Italian immigrants brought New York-style pizza and Italian cuisine into the city, while Jewish immigrants and Irish immigrants brought pastrami and corned beef , respectively. Chinese and other Asian restaurants, sandwich joints, trattorias , diners , and coffeehouses are ubiquitous throughout the city.
Some 4, mobile food vendors licensed by the city, many immigrant-owned, have made Middle Eastern foods such as falafel and kebabs  examples of modern New York street food. The city is home to "nearly one thousand of the finest and most diverse haute cuisine restaurants in the world", according to Michelin. New York City is well known for its street parades , which celebrate a broad array of themes, including holidays, nationalities, human rights, and major league sports team championship victories.
The majority of parades are held in Manhattan. The primary orientation of the annual street parades is typically from north to south, marching along major avenues. The annual Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade is the world's largest parade,  beginning alongside Central Park and processing southward to the flagship Macy's Herald Square store;  the parade is viewed on telecasts worldwide and draws millions of spectators in person.
Ticker-tape parades celebrating championships won by sports teams as well as other heroic accomplishments march northward along the Canyon of Heroes on Broadway from Bowling Green to City Hall Park in Lower Manhattan. The New York area is home to a distinctive regional speech pattern called the New York dialect , alternatively known as Brooklynese or New Yorkese. It has generally been considered one of the most recognizable accents within American English. This is often misperceived by speakers of other accents as a reversal of the er and oy sounds, so that girl is pronounced "goil" and oil is pronounced "erl"; this leads to the caricature of New Yorkers saying things like "Joizey" Jersey , "Toidy-Toid Street" 33rd St.
The classic version of the New York City dialect is generally centered on middle and working-class New Yorkers. The influx of non-European immigrants in recent decades has led to changes in this distinctive dialect,  and the traditional form of this speech pattern is no longer as prevalent among general New Yorkers as it has been in the past.
Participation in professional sports in the city predates all professional leagues, and the city has been continuously hosting professional sports since the birth of the Brooklyn Dodgers in The city has played host to over forty major professional teams in the five sports and their respective competing leagues, both current and historic. New York has been described as the "Capital of Baseball". Additionally, there have been 14 World Series in which two New York City teams played each other, known as a Subway Series and occurring most recently in No other metropolitan area has had this happen more than once Chicago in , St.
Louis in , and the San Francisco Bay Area in The Yankees have won a record 27 championships,  while the Mets have won the World Series twice. Both teams moved to California in The metropolitan area is home to three National Hockey League teams. The New Jersey Devils play at Prudential Center in nearby Newark, New Jersey and traditionally represent the counties of neighboring New Jersey which are coextensive with the boundaries of the New York metropolitan area and media market. The first national college-level basketball championship, the National Invitation Tournament , was held in New York in and remains in the city.
The Cosmos play their home games at James M. Boxing is also a prominent part of the city's sporting scene, with events like the Amateur Boxing Golden Gloves being held at Madison Square Garden each year. The city also hosted the U. Open golf tournament and the and PGA Championships, and has been host city for both events several times, most notably for nearby Winged Foot Golf Club. Mass transit in New York City, most of which runs 24 hours a day, accounts for one in every three users of mass transit in the United States, and two-thirds of the nation's rail riders live in the New York City Metropolitan Area.
The iconic New York City Subway system is the largest rapid transit system in the world when measured by stations in operation, with , and by length of routes. Nearly all of New York's subway system is open 24 hours a day, in contrast to the overnight shutdown common to systems in most cities, including Hong Kong ,   London , Paris , Seoul ,   and Tokyo. Public transport is essential in New York City.
New York City's commuter rail network is the largest in North America. The combined systems converge at Grand Central Terminal and Pennsylvania Station and contain more than stations and 20 rail lines. The Staten Island Railway rapid transit system solely serves Staten Island, operating 24 hours a day. New York City's public bus fleet is the largest in North America,  and the Port Authority Bus Terminal , the main intercity bus terminal of the city, serves 7, buses and , commuters daily, making it the busiest bus station in the world.
New York's airspace is the busiest in the United States and one of the world's busiest air transportation corridors. The three busiest airports in the New York metropolitan area include John F. The primary general aviation airport serving the area is Teterboro Airport. The Staten Island Ferry is the world's busiest ferry route , carrying over 23 million passengers from July through June on the 5. Other features of the city's transportation infrastructure encompass more than 12, yellow taxicabs ;  various competing startup transportation network companies ; and an aerial tramway that transports commuters between Roosevelt Island and Manhattan Island.
Ride-sharing services have become significant competition for cab drivers in New York. Despite New York's heavy reliance on its vast public transit system, streets are a defining feature of the city. Manhattan's street grid plan greatly influenced the city's physical development. Several of the city's streets and avenues, like Broadway ,  Wall Street ,  Madison Avenue ,   and Seventh Avenue are also used as metonyms for national industries there: New York City also has an extensive web of expressways and parkways , which link the city's boroughs to each other and to northern New Jersey , Westchester County , Long Island , and southwestern Connecticut through various bridges and tunnels.
Because these highways serve millions of outer borough and suburban residents who commute into Manhattan, it is quite common for motorists to be stranded for hours in traffic jams that are a daily occurrence, particularly during rush hour. New York City is also known for its rules regarding turning at red lights. Unlike the rest of the United States, New York State prohibits right or left turns on red in cities with a population greater than one million, to reduce traffic collisions and increase pedestrian safety.
In New York City, therefore, all turns at red lights are illegal unless a sign permitting such maneuvers is present. New York City is located on one of the world's largest natural harbors,  and the boroughs of Manhattan and Staten Island are primarily coterminous with islands of the same names, while Queens and Brooklyn are located at the west end of the larger Long Island, and The Bronx is located at the southern tip of New York State's mainland. This situation of boroughs separated by water led to the development of an extensive infrastructure of well-known bridges and tunnels.
The Verrazano-Narrows Bridge is the longest suspension bridge in the Americas and one of the world's longest.
The towers of the Brooklyn Bridge are built of limestone , granite , and Rosendale cement, and their architectural style is neo-Gothic, with characteristic pointed arches above the passageways through the stone towers. This bridge was also the longest suspension bridge in the world from its opening until , and is the first steel-wire suspension bridge. The Queensboro Bridge is an important piece of cantilever architecture. The Manhattan Bridge , opened in , is considered to be the forerunner of modern suspension bridges , and its design served as the model for many of the long-span suspension bridges around the world; the Manhattan Bridge, Throgs Neck Bridge , Triborough Bridge , and Verrazano-Narrows Bridge are all examples of Structural Expressionism.
The Lincoln Tunnel , which carries , vehicles a day under the Hudson River between New Jersey and Midtown Manhattan, is the busiest vehicular tunnel in the world. The Holland Tunnel , connecting Lower Manhattan to Jersey City, New Jersey , was the world's first mechanically ventilated vehicular tunnel when it opened in Roosevelt was the first person to drive through it.
New York City has focused on reducing its environmental impact and carbon footprint. New York's high rate of public transit use , over , daily cyclists as of [update] ,  and many pedestrian commuters make it the most energy-efficient major city in the United States. The city government was a petitioner in the landmark Massachusetts v. The city is a leader in the construction of energy-efficient green office buildings , including the Hearst Tower among others. New York City is supplied with drinking water by the protected Catskill Mountains watershed.
Newtown Creek , a 3. New York City has been a metropolitan municipality with a mayor—council form of government  since its consolidation in In New York City, the city government is responsible for public education, correctional institutions, public safety, recreational facilities, sanitation, water supply, and welfare services. The Mayor and council members are elected to four-year terms. The City Council is a unicameral body consisting of 51 council members whose districts are defined by geographic population boundaries.
Each borough is coextensive with a judicial district of the state Unified Court System , of which the Criminal Court and the Civil Court are the local courts, while the New York Supreme Court conducts major trials and appeals. There are also several extrajudicial administrative courts , which are executive agencies and not part of the state Unified Court System.
Uniquely among major American cities, New York is divided between, and is host to the main branches of, two different US district courts: The present mayor is Bill de Blasio , the first Democrat since The Democratic Party holds the majority of public offices. Party platforms center on affordable housing, education, and economic development, and labor politics are of importance in the city. New York is the most important source of political fundraising in the United States, as four of the top five ZIP Codes in the nation for political contributions are in Manhattan.
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