For instance, Ulrich and Ulrich [ 13 ] showed that the composite balance test from the Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency in 3—5 year olds, significantly predicted a qualitative rating of hopping, jumping and striking proficiency, but not other FMS. Ulrich and Ulrich speculated that the composite score for balance may be too insensitive to assess the specific types of balance control required in other FMS. This dynamic product based assessment tool requires children to maintain a single-leg balance and reach as far as possible with the contralateral leg in the anterior, posteromedial and posterolateral directions.
The YBT-LQ has been shown to have good inter-rater and retest reliability; although predictive validity could not be established [ 16 ]. It was suggested that other factors need to be considered alongside chronological age when assessing predictive validity such as somatotype, muscular strength and habitual physical activity [ 16 ].
For example, there is evidence to suggest that weight status obesity is associated with poorer FMS [ 3 ]. Furthermore it was suggested that environmental factors may have caused some children to develop more efficient movement strategies resulting in higher stability scores [ 16 ]. This is supported by other studies which found that socioeconomic status SES influences maturational development [ 17 , 18 ], weight status and the acquisition of FMS [ 19 , 20 ]. Despite this, no specific research has examined how SES affects stability skill proficiency.
Participation in gymnastics is thought to promote improvements in the performance of postural control of younger children through the use of sensory cues inherent in the execution of gymnastic skills. Garcia, Barela, Viana and Barela [ 21 ] found significant improvements in bipedal static upright two foot stance postural control in 5—7 year old gymnasts compared to non-gymnasts. The first aim of this study was to validate a test battery to assess stability skills in children aged 6 to 10 years old in order to measure the development of the underpinning sub-domains of postural control system, orientation and stability.
The second aim of this study was to assess where stability skills fit into a FMS model which includes locomotive and object control skills. We also investigated the influence of SES as a predictor of stability skills development as well as the possible influence of grip strength and body mass index BMI [ 16 ]. The method is divided into three parts: Part one sets out the procedure for developing the stability skills assessment tool to measure the face and content validity of the test battery.
Fundamental Movement Skills Are More than Run, Throw and Catch: The Role of Stability Skills
Part two reports the methods used to assess predictive validity and inter and retest reliability. Part three explains the methods used to assess how stability fits into a FMS model, which involved two steps: The development of the postural control test protocols was guided by the Delphi approach [ 22 ]. This method makes use of the opinions of a panel of experts through a series of carefully developed stages to create consensus. In particular, a panel of experts was used to determine face measures what it is supposed to measure and content how essential test and its components are validity [ 23 ].
Four experts three academic experts in human movement and skill acquisition and one physical education teacher identified movement skills demanding postural control. Due to the relationship between superior postural control and gymnastics [ 21 ], the experts also reviewed 32 gymnastics skills taken from the Gym Mix gymnastics for all national program for potential inclusion in the postural control assessment tool. These skills were then ranked according to the demands they place on the two subdomains of the postural control system and the method by which this could be assessed.
In the first iteration, nine skills were identified: The second iteration assessed the feasibility of the skills as an assessment tool in a school setting, resulting in four skills being deemed unsuitable because of safety concerns cartwheel, handstand, forward roll and backward roll and one skill arabesque being similar to the YBT-LQ single leg balance.
This left four skills: The front and back support are very similar skills so it was decided only one needed to be included. We selected the back support task as it was reasoned that it would be more challenging due to it being a more unnatural position for the body to hold and therefore would require higher torso strength and postural stability. As each of these skills measure different aspects of postural control, i. A process-oriented assessment was developed for the three gymnastics skills similar to other FMS test batteries e. The same team of experts involved in the development of face validity analysed each skill in slow-motion and agreed upon the key components for successful execution for each skill.
This was the first iteration of a scoring system for each skill which enabled an assessor to determine if key components were present or absent. Following this, nine experts five academics, two physical education teachers and two state level gymnastics coaches were invited to assess the skill components. To be included on the expert panel researchers had to have published papers internationally in the areas within or related to movement sciences; teachers had to have taught physical education or coached gymnastics to primary school aged school children; and gymnastic coaches needed to have advanced coach accreditation and be currently coaching.
All panel members provided extensive feedback which centered around three themes: Based on this feedback a number of changes were made. Changes were made to the protocol whereby the participants were required to complete two rocks and then come to a stand in a single motion to enhance the postural orientation demands of the skill. This was broken down into four components Fig 1.
The log-roll protocol underwent the least revisions as it was felt it was the most demanding of skills, requiring orientation to roll in a straight line and stability to keep legs extended and slightly off the ground. The skill was condensed into three components Fig 2. Feedback from the panel of experts resulted in the inclusion of two time based outcome components. In addition, successful completion of this task was deemed to include a high level of body stability as well as maintaining all-round body tension and strength.
The new assessment break down was comprised of three process components and two timed product components Fig 3.
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If a child was unable to maintain any of the process components 1—3 they would be given one prompt to re-hold the correct position, if they failed to maintain that position for a second time the test would be terminated. Alternatively, the test would be ended if the participant held the position for 45 seconds. We tested predictive validity in both gymnasts and children of differing SES backgrounds.
In order to assess the construct validity, confirmatory factor analysis was undertaken on the school sample only. To ensure reliability, two measures were taken and the average of the two was used. The result of each trial was recorded to the nearest 0. If the difference between the two trials was within 0. If the difference was greater than 0.
Maximum score of the dominant hand was used in this study. The Test of Gross Motor Development-2 TGMD-2 24 assesses proficiency in six locomotor skills run, hop, slide, gallop, leap, and horizontal jump , and six object control skills striking a stationary ball, stationary dribble, catch, kick, overhand throw, and underhand roll. Each participant completes all 12 skills of the TGMD To measure stability, three additional gymnastics training skills were assessed. These were the rock Fig 1 , log- roll Fig 2 and back support Fig 3. The full test battery comprised the stability skills and TGMD The movement competency assessments were carried out in a large sports hall with groups of four participants rotating around three skill stations and one anthropometric station.
The TGMD-2 was split between two stations, a locomotor skills station run, hop, slide, gallop, leap, horizontal jump and an object control skills station striking a stationary ball, stationary dribble, catch, kick, overhand throw, and underhand roll. The three stability skills rock, log roll, and back support made up the third skill station.
Before the start of each skill children watched a live and pre-recorded demonstration. Following this they were given one practice attempt and two assessment trials for each skill as per TGMD-2 protocol. Before testing could be completed, four research assistants RAs each undertook 26 hours of reliability training. Raw mean descriptive results were reported for the stability skills and TGMD-2 tests for each cohort.
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Prior to statistical analysis, the stability skills and TGMD-2 data were z-transformed. In addition, data was assessed for violation of the assumptions of normality and for outliers. We also examined the proportion of participants who scored towards the top ceiling effect or bottom floor effect of the test by examining the percentage of children who scored zero or a maximal score on the three stability skills.
To examine the predictive validity, the cohort differences were investigated. Analysis of covariance ANCOVA was conducted for the combined score of the three stability skills and controlling for the potentially confounding factors of BMI and grip- strength [ 17 , 18 ]. Post-hoc comparisons were conducted using Bonferroni.
Significance level was set at 0. Confirmatory factor analysis CFA in AMOS 22 was used to examine the factorial structure of the three stability skills and if they loaded onto a single construct, named stability skills. CFA was conducted with the maximum likelihood method of estimation.
This energy-field system is a type of computer mechanism and is in fact nature's quantum computer system, an understanding of which is much sought within most scientific disciplines. We are normally only aware of sensing muscular activity, but if we, say, imagine moving the arm no muscular activity , we will feel kinaesthetically the motion. This is the sensation of information within nature's computer system. The neurophysiologist will tell you it is the physiological kinaesthetic sense around the muscles and joints, but in fact the latter accounts for only a tiny fraction of the overall sense.
What must be recognised then is that there are two entirely different systems of training for these mechanisms of body motion: Everyone is familiar with physical training, which comes under 1. There is adequate knowledge and methods available for this activity and we shall not encroach on this field except to present a summary covered in the chapters on physiology and psychology and, in particular, as they relate to the overall training. The other mechanism, nature's computer system, consists of an immense complex of energy fields within the body and limbs, which are, of course, invisible to the naked eye, and not detectable by existing scientific instruments, which can't handle higher-frequency scalar waves.
This system requires a very different kind of training for development as we shall come to understand later in the book. The reader who doesn't wish to study any theory can go straight to Chapter 10 and begin the training. If you have well-trained arm movements, as would have, for example, a good pianist, tennis player or boxer, try alternate contraction of the antagonistic muscles in the arm, for example, the biceps and triceps.
Move the forearm relative to the upper arm in a rapid small oscillation. This will also operate the shoulder muscles as well. Set up an alternate motion about the joints shoulder and elbow such as in boxing, only in a repetitive manner and of shorter smaller amplitude movements; also the arm can hang down.
This same movement is described later in the main exercise section with a diagram. Table 1 Biomechanically substantiated characteristics of sports movements. Open in a separate window. Table 2 Non-biomechanically substantiated characteristics of sports movements. Constraints If movements are first and foremost understood as the means for the solution of motor-related tasks, then the first logical step for a functional analysis refers to gathering knowledge on all the characteristics that define the task to a remarkable extent.
Goals need to be considered because movement tasks can solely be defined as tasks for someone who intends to achieve a certain movement-related goal. So if the goal of a skier was to maximize control over the skis, a completely different movement should be expected than for a skier who just loves experiencing nature and thus strives for a minimization of effort. In the first case, a pronounced edging of the skiers is functional, in the second case, due to the increased effort, such a pronounced movement execution is non-functional. Common goals in sports refer to time minimization e.
Apart from these objectives focussing on performance comparisons between athletes or teams, further common goals in sports are achievement-related like performing a difficult skill e. Finally, goals may also be rather unspecific to the situation at hand as it is the case in objectives regarding fitness, health, well-being, or keeping in touch. In the majority of cases, rules are officially defined by the respective international association.
However, one has to keep in mind that in informal, non-official settings at least, rules may be negotiated as it is, for instance, quite common for the disregard of official pitch measures or the offside rule in children's football play. Besides, rules may be changed not only in informal settings but also officially as it became true for the somersault technique in track-and-field's long jump that had been compliant until it was explicitly banned by the rule commission.
Thus, performing a somersault over the flight phase of a long jump might, from a biomechanical viewpoint, be the best solution for the task to maximize the perpendicular distance from the take-off board to the nearest break in the landing area, as soon as this technique had been banned, the solution was not functional anymore. Specifics of the environment particularly come into play in outdoor sports. For instance, in many water sports, the time needed to cover a predefined distance has to be minimized. Hence, the water as the sport-specific medium for performing a task is a prerequisite for swimming, canoeing, rowing etc.
Comparable specifics can be found in other outdoor sports that are conducted on snow e. Furthermore, in a number of sports, demand-increasing and unpredictably changing conditions e. Specifics of the object , quite trivially, are crucial whenever objects are involved in the motor task. In this respect, for instance, in discus throwing, due to the specific flight quality of the disc, it is important to release the disc with a certain rotation and at a certain angle with respect to the horizontal plane.
In turn, the physical features of the object define whether a specific movement can claim to be functional or not. Quite obviously, the same is true for balls, darts, Frisbee discs, and air-rifle munition, in a nutshell, for all sports in which an object has to be moved as far or as precisely or as close to a pre-defined target or flight curve as possible. Less obviously, it can also be an opponent who has to be moved as it is the case in wrestling, in rope pulling, or, when striving for a knockout, in boxing.
Even less obviously, very often, the object coincidences with the movement-inducing subject, that means, with the athlete him- or herself. In many sports, the athlete is supported by specific devices that are needed in order to successfully perform the task to be solved. Consequently, in skiing, car racing or tennis, for instance, the overall performance is not only determined by the athlete him- or herself but also by the supporting material as well as by the degree the athlete is able to adapt his or her movements to certain specifics of the skis, the car or the racket.
In those cases, the determination of functionally optimal task solutions also needs to consider specifics of the supporting devices. Finally, movements are functionally constrained by attributes of the athlete him- or herself. In this regard, for instance, the athlete's body height, his or her coordinative competence, peculiarities of the leg muscles' strength as well as other athlete-related factors might give rise to different optimal movement solutions of the task at hand. Furthermore, the functional analysis should also take into account whether the movement has to be executed with a teammate e.
Sub-actions After having gathered a deeper understanding of the task at hand by considering the role of constraints, the second step of a functional analysis would regard task solutions that are typically executed in sports practice. Modalities From a functional point of view, it is not only decisive for an optimal performance to execute actions, and on a finer grain size, sub-actions; additionally, it is crucial to execute these actions and sub-actions in a certain way.
Functional assignments As it should have become apparent throughout the descriptions so far, the credo of a functional approach to movement analysis is based on the idea that action-related movements as well as modality-related specifications should not be understood as mere physical processes defined in space and time but should be approached from a perspective focussing on actions, sub-actions, and modalities that are determined by their function with regard to achieving certain goals or sub-goals.
The straight run-up 1—2 is composed of 5—7 straight steps with increasing speed in order to reach an individual optimum for being transformed into an optimal vertical take-off speed because sport practice shows that in this way, the optimum speed is achieved most easily and reliably. The curved approach 3—5 is accompanied by an incline away from the bar in order to produce a centrifugal force that will, after the termination of the incline with the last step, propel the athlete over the bar. The take-off 5—6 is accompanied by a diagonal swing of the free leg in order to produce a rotation of the whole body, and by this means, to prepare an optimal clearance position backwards over the bar.
The ascending phase 7 is, at its end, accompanied by a drop of the free leg in order to achieve an optimal preparation of the subsequent clearance position. Over bar clearance 8 , the arch position is changed to a L-position in order to maximally exploit the maximum height of the body's center of mass because in both positions, the current bar-clearing part of the body is, at the costs of other body parts that are actively pushed downwards, positioned as high as possible.
As a matter of course, the landing position 9 does not affect the overall jumping performance anymore; however, a rounded back is important in order to prevent neck injuries.
From task analysis to motor control: Behavioral shaping, modular controllers, and explicit concepts Before debating the question of how the adoption of a functional framework could support the practice of sports and physical education, it might be helpful to delineate the approach introduced here from related concepts that can be found in movement-science literature. Internal models and modular controllers As explained before, a functional approach to movement analysis can be much better married with a dynamical-system than with a motor-program framework as, from the former perspective, the action goal is prioritized over the movement whereas the opposite is true from the latter.
Setting the stage: Performance errors and a functional framework
Action control and explicit concepts One important point should be added to the discussion of the relation between functional movement analysis and motor-control architectures. Functional thinking in sports: Summing up, in sports practice, a functional approach to movement analysis helps: Conflict of interest statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
Supplementary material The Supplementary Material for this article can be found online at: On dexterity its development , in Dexterity and its Development , eds Latash M. Lawrence Erlbaum; , 1— Mental representation of spatial movement parameters in dance. Functional mastery of percussive technology in nut cracking and stone flaking: Der Hammerschlag [The hammer stroke]. The Modularity of Mind: An Essay on Faculty Psychology. Zur strukturanalyse sportmotorischer fertigkeiten [On structural analysis of motor skills in sports].
Fundamental Movement Skills Are More than Run, Throw and Catch: The Role of Stability Skills
Sportwissenschaft 4 , — Theoretische grundlegung [Teaching on the basis of functional phases. Sportunterricht 24 , 4—8. Praktische konsequenzen [Teaching on the basis of functional phases. Sportunterricht 24 , 45— Bewegungsanalyse im Sport [Movement Analysis in Sports].
Sensory feedback mechanisms in performance control: Module der Motorik [Motor Modules]. Bewegende Ereignisse [Moving Events]. The Principles of Psychology. Response-effect compatibility in manual choice reaction tasks. Anticipated action effects affect the selection, initiation, and execution of actions. Knowledge is more than we can talk about: Sport 69 , — On task and theory specificity.
Task constraints and movement organization: Human Kinetics; , 5— Tool use ability depends in understanding of the functional dynamics and not specific joint contribution profiles. Lawrence Erlbaum; , 47— The cognitive architecture of complex movement. Human Kinetics; , — A schema theory of discrete motor skill learning. Learning of action through adaptive combination of motor primitives. Nature , — Physical and informational constraints in the coordination and control of human movement. An internal model for sensorimotor integration.
The athlete accelerates legs, trunk, shoulder, and arm in succession in order to increase the velocity of the javelin by successively transferring energy from the lower to the upper body parts. The athlete prepares landing by bringing the feet and, due to the action-reaction principle, at the same time arms and upper body forward in order to maximize the distance defined by the nearest impression made in the pit. The athlete crosses the bar backwards in an arched position with legs and shoulders hanging down in order to achieve a measured height which is, related the maximum height of the body's center of mass, as large as possible.
The athlete starts from the blocks at a low angle in order to guarantee that the first accelerating steps can be performed with a minimum of horizontally acting braking forces.
The athlete supports the steps by moving the pelvis back- and forward in order to maximize the propulsion in forward direction whilst obeying the rules on a permanent contact to the ground and a straight leg in the cycle's first phase. When performing the repetitions with high loads, the athlete keeps his or her back straight in order to prevent the backbone from injuries resulting from repeated overload.
When facing a bumpy slope, the athlete modulates muscle stiffness in order to absorb the perturbations by making use of the spring characteristics of the muscles. The athlete typically refrains from a biomechanically optimal full arm swing in order to facilitate the coordination of the arm movement into the opponents' space as close to the top of the net as possible.
After multiple rotations, the athlete focuses on certain landmarks, for instance, at the wall of the bath, in order to facilitate visual orientation in space that is needed for an optimal entry. The athlete typically performs a pre-shot routine, for instance, by bouncing the ball twice, in order to shield his or her attentional focus against distractions e.