Viewing Japanese Prints - John Fiorillo's encyclopedic articles on various aspects of ukiyo-e , shin-hanga and sosaku-hanga For images: Rare Books Image Database - good images of thousands of ukiyo-e prints, Japanese text only Tokyo Metropolitan Library - an image database with more than prints, Japanese text only Ritsumeikan University Ukiyo-e Database - with more than excellent images of ukiyo-e prints - Japanese text only Database of Ukiyo-e held at the Library of Congress - images of more than 2, prints Minneapolis Institute of Arts - a database of almost 2, prints.
Yoshitoshi Tsukioka - with a number of good images. Christian Diat's Gallerie - a small but well presented collection of prints, with text in French Hanga Gallery - featuring signatures, seals and print lists for a number of Japanese 20th century artists Kuchi-e - Fred Zwegat displays book frontispieces from the late 19th and the early 20th century Kushigata Shunsen Museum of Art - fine actor portraits and other works by Natori Shunsen Masami Teraoka's Art Theater - featuring the amazing works by this Japanese-American artist, who uses the styles of midth century ukiyo-e in a modern context ShinHanga.
Customising Windows with ukiyo-e prints - D E Fix has designed opening screens, wallpaper and screensavers for Windows Welcome to Edo-Jo - Ken Matsushima offers a virtual tour of Japan in the Edo period, with numerous ukiyo-e illustrations Teaching and Learning About Japan - Lee A Makela's narrative introduction to Japanese culture with lots of interesting links Ogura Hyakunin Isshu Poems by Poets - a classical anthology of Japanese poetry, that has been illustrated by many of the great ukiyo-e masters.
Blomhoffs ontmoetingen met Edo - a thesis based on a collection of surimono Isamu Kurita: The Fireworks of Edo Architronic - "The aim of this essay is to compose a synchronous reading of the cities Edo-Tokyo, by proposing a network of links and intersections that set under question the linear development from Edo to Tokyo, or from, what is classified as, Early Modern to Modern Japan. Data Mining of Ukiyo-e - quantitative studies of faces in ukiyo-e , mostly in Japanese If you are looking for literature on Japanese art and culture, there are also bookshops with WWW catalogues: Less attention was given to accuracy of the women's physical features, which followed the day's pictorial fashions—the faces stereotyped, the bodies tall and lanky in one generation and petite in another.
Ukiyo-e prints grew out of book illustration—many of Moronobu's earliest single-page prints were originally pages from books he had illustrated. In the late period, Hokusai produced the three-volume One Hundred Views of Mount Fuji and the fifteen-volume Hokusai Manga , the latter a compendium of over sketches of a wide variety of realistic and fantastic subjects. Traditional Japanese religions do not consider sex or pornography a moral corruption in the Judaeo-Christian sense,  and until the changing morals of the Meiji era led to its suppression, shunga erotic prints were a major genre.
Scenes from nature have been an important part of Asian art throughout history. Artists have closely studied the correct forms and anatomy of plants and animals, even though depictions of human anatomy remained more fanciful until modern times. The 11th-century Tale of Genji  and the 13th-century Tale of the Heike  have been sources of artistic inspiration throughout Japanese history,  including in ukiyo-e.
From the 17th to 19th centuries Japan isolated itself from the rest of the world. Trade, primarily with the Dutch and Chinese, was restricted to the island of Dejima near Nagasaki. Outlandish pictures called Nagasaki-e were sold to tourists of the foreigners and their wares. Yakusha-e print of two kabuki actors Sharaku , Sumo wrestlers in preparation, e-hon page from Hokusai Manga Hokusai , early 19th century.
From erotic shunga sex manual Treasures Hidden in our Pockets Eisen , c. English Couple Yokohama-e by Utagawa Yoshitora , Ukiyo-e artists often made both prints and paintings; some specialized in one or the other. Yoshiwara no Hana Utamaro, c. Ukiyo-e prints were the works of teams of artisans in several workshops;  it was rare for designers to cut their own woodblocks. Ukiyo-e prints were impressed on hand-made paper  manually, rather than by mechanical press as in the West. The block-cutter cut away the non-black areas of the image, leaving raised areas that were inked to leave an impression.
Prints were made with blocks face up so the printer could vary pressure for different effects, and watch as paper absorbed the water-based sumi ink,  applied quickly in even horizontal strokes. The ukiyo-e print was a commercial art form, and the publisher played an important role. The number peaked at around in the s and s  — in Edo alone  —and slowly shrank following the opening of Japan until about 40 remained at the opening of the 20th century. The publishers owned the woodblocks and copyrights, and from the late 18th century enforced copyrights  through the Picture Book and Print Publishers Guild.
The woodblocks were also traded or sold to other publishers or pawnshops. Print designers went through apprenticeship before being granted the right to produce prints of their own that they could sign with their own names. As the artists gained fame publishers usually covered these costs, and artists could demand higher fees. An artist's name consisted of a gasei artist surname followed by an azana personal art name. The prints were mass-marketed  and by the midth century total circulation of a print could run into the thousands.
The woodblock printing process in a print by Kunisada , An actual print shop would not have been staffed by such beauties. While colour printing in Japan dates to the s, early ukiyo-e prints used only black ink. Colour was sometimes added by hand, using a red lead ink in tan-e prints, or later in a pink safflower ink in beni-e prints. Colour printing arrived in books in the s and in single-sheet prints in the s, with a different block and printing for each colour. Early colours were limited to pink and green; techniques expanded over the following two decades to allow up to five colours.
Printers first used natural colour dyes made from mineral or vegetable sources. The dyes had a translucent quality that allowed a variety of colours to be mixed from primary red, blue, and yellow pigments. The colours were harsher and brighter than traditional pigments. The Meiji government promoted their use as part of broader policies of Westernization.
Contemporary records of ukiyo-e artists are rare. Before World War II, the predominant view of ukiyo-e stressed the centrality of prints; this viewpoint ascribes ukiyo-e's founding to Moronobu.
Following the war, thinking turned to the importance of ukiyo-e painting and making direct connections with 17th-century Yamato-e paintings; this viewpoint sees Matabei as the genre's originator, and is especially favoured in Japan. This view had become widespread among Japanese researchers by the s, but the militaristic government of the time suppressed it, wanting to emphasize a division between the Yamato-e scroll paintings associated with the court, and the prints associated with the sometimes anti-authoritarian merchant class.
The earliest comprehensive historical and critical works on ukiyo-e came from the West. His Masters of Ukioye of was the first comprehensive overview and set the stage for most later works with an approach to the history in terms of epochs: Michener 's The Floating World in broadly followed the chronologies of the earlier works, while dropping classifications into periods and recognizing the earlier artists not as primitives but as accomplished masters emerging from earlier painting traditions.
The book acknowledges artists such as Yoshitoshi and Kiyochika as late masters.
The book nevertheless recognizes a larger number of masters from throughout this last period than earlier works had,  and viewed ukiyo-e painting as a revival of Yamato-e painting. Ukiyo-e scholarship has tended to focus on the cataloguing of artists, an approach that lacks the rigour and originality that has come to be applied to art analysis in other areas. Such catalogues are numerous, but tend overwhelmingly to concentrate on a group of recognized geniuses.
Little original research has been added to the early, foundational evaluations of ukiyo-e and its artists, especially with regard to relatively minor artists. Standards for inclusion in the ukiyo-e canon rapidly evolved in the early literature. Utamaro was particularly contentious, seen by Fenollosa and others as a degenerate symbol of ukiyo-e's decline; Utamaro has since gained general acceptance as one of the form's greatest masters. Artists of the 19th century such as Yoshitoshi were ignored or marginalized, attracting scholarly attention only towards the end of the 20th century.
Many late works examine the social or other conditions behind the art, and are unconcerned with valuations that would place it in a period of decline. He maintained that ukiyo-e was merely the easiest form of Japanese art to understand from the perspective of Westerners' values, and that Japanese of all social strata enjoyed ukiyo-e, but that Confucian morals of the time kept them from freely discussing it, social mores that were violated by the West's flaunting of the discovery.
Since the dawn of the 20th century historians of manga —Japanese comics and cartooning—have developed narratives connecting the art form to preth-century Japanese art. Particular emphasis falls on the Hokusai Manga as a precursor, though Hokusai's book is not narrative, nor does the term manga originate with Hokusai.
- At the Rooftop;
- Ukiyo-e - Wikipedia!
- Bound By Her Desire.
The ruling classes strictly limited the space permitted for the homes of the lower social classes; the relatively small size of ukiyo-e works was ideal for hanging in these homes. They sold for considerably higher prices than prints—up to many thousands of times more, and thus must have been purchased by the wealthy, likely merchants and perhaps some from the samurai class. Shops that sold them might specialize in products such as hand-held fans, or offer a diverse selection. The ukiyo-e print market was highly diversified as it sold to a heterogeneous public, from dayworkers to wealthy merchants.
Detailed records in Edo were kept of a wide variety of courtesans, actors, and sumo wrestlers, but no such records pertaining to ukiyo-e remain—or perhaps ever existed. Determining what is understood about the demographics of ukiyo-e consumption has required indirect means. Determining at what prices prints sold is a challenge for experts, as records of hard figures are scanty and there was great variety in the production quality, size,  supply and demand,  and methods, which went through changes such as the introduction of full-colour printing.
The dyes in ukiyo-e prints are susceptible to fading when exposed even to low levels of light; this makes long-term display undesirable.
The paper they are printed on deteriorates when it comes in contact with acidic materials, so storage boxes, folders, and mounts must be of neutral pH or alkaline. The paper and pigments in ukiyo-e paintings are sensitive to light and seasonal changes in humidity. Mounts must be flexible, as the sheets can tear under sharp changes in humidity. In the Edo era, the sheets were mounted on long-fibred paper and preserved scrolled up in plain paulownia boxes placed in another lacquer wooden box.
Scrolling causes concavities in the paper, and the unrolling and rerolling of the scrolls causes creasing. Because ukiyo-e prints were mass-produced, collecting them presents considerations different from the collecting of paintings. There is wide variation in the condition, rarity, cost, and quality of extant prints.
Prints may have stains, foxing , wormholes, tears, creases, or dogmarks, the colours may have faded, or they may have been retouched. Carvers may have altered the colours or composition of prints that went through multiple editions. When cut after printing, the paper may have been trimmed within the margin.realsport.cl/wp-includes/2020-04-29/3641-alquiler-de.php
Ukiyo-e prints often went through multiple editions, sometimes with changes made to the blocks in later editions. Editions made from recut woodblocks also circulate, such as legitimate later reproductions, as well as pirate editions and other fakes. These refreshed prints he resold as original printings. Ukiyo-e artists are referred to in the Japanese style, the surname preceding the personal name, and well-known artists such as Utamaro and Hokusai by personal name alone. Many of the largest high-quality collections of ukiyo-e lie outside Japan.
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A Guide to the Ukiyo-e Sites of the Internet
University of Chicago Press. Kita, Sandy September Matabei and the Two Worlds of Ukiyo". The Bulletin of the Cleveland Museum of Art. Cleveland Museum of Art. Thompson, Sarah Winter—Spring Philadelphia Museum of Art Bulletin. Philadelphia Museum of Art. The Journal of Decorative and Propaganda Arts. Traditional Japanese Arts And Culture: University of Hawaii Press.
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