Brisbane was appointed as the capital city. On 10 December , a proclamation was read by British author George Bowen , whereby Queensland was formally separated from the state of New South Wales. On 22 May the first Queensland election was held and Robert Herbert , Bowen's private secretary, was appointed as the first Premier of Queensland. Queensland also became the first Australian colony to establish its own parliament rather than spending time as a Crown Colony.
In , the first rail line in the state opened between Ipswich and Grandchester. Queensland's economy expanded rapidly in after James Nash discovered gold on the Mary River near the town of Gympie , sparking a gold rush.
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While still significant, they were on a much smaller scale than the gold rushes of Victoria and New South Wales. Immigration to Australia and Queensland in particular began in the s to support the state economy. During the period from the s until the early 20th century, many labourers, known at the time as Kanakas , were brought to Queensland from neighbouring Pacific Island nations to work in the state's sugar cane fields.
Some of these people had been kidnapped under a process known as blackbirding or press ganging, and their employment conditions amounted to indentured labour or even slavery. On 1 January , Australia was federated following a proclamation by Queen Victoria. During this time, Queensland had a population of half a million people. Brisbane was subsequently proclaimed a city in In , women voted in state elections for the first time, and the University of Queensland was established in In , The first alternative treatments for polio were pioneered in Queensland and remain in use across the world today.
World War I had a major impact on Queensland.
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Over 58, Queenslanders fought in World War I and over 10, of them died. Australia's first major airline, Qantas , was founded in to serve outback Queensland. In , cane toads were deliberately introduced to Queensland from Hawaii in a poorly-thought-out and unsuccessful attempt to reduce the number of French's cane and greyback cane beetles that were destroying the roots of sugar cane plants, which are integral to Queensland's economy.
In , the first commercial production of oil in Queensland and Australia began at Moonie. The humid climate —regulated by the availability of air conditioning—saw Queensland become a more accommodating place to work and live for Australian migrants. In , Queensland celebrated Q , its th anniversary as an independent colony and state.
Queensland is an expansive area with a wide range of climates and geographical areas. If Queensland were an independent nation, it would be the 16th largest nation on earth. Most of Queensland's human population is on the East coast, particularly the southeast. Like much of eastern Australia, Queensland has a mountain range that runs roughly parallel with the coast, and areas west inland of this mountain range are much more arid than the coastal regions.
Queensland borders the Torres Strait to the north, with Boigu Island off the coast of New Guinea representing the absolute northern extreme of its territory. The triangular Cape York Peninsula , which points toward New Guinea, is the northernmost part of the state's mainland. West of the peninsula's tip, northern Queensland is bordered by the Gulf of Carpentaria , while the Coral Sea , an arm of the Pacific Ocean, borders Queensland to the east.
In the south, there are three sections that constitute its border: The state is divided into several officially recognised regions. Other smaller geographical regions of note include the Atherton Tablelands , the Granite Belt , and the Channel Country in the far southwest. Queensland has many areas of natural beauty, including the Sunshine Coast and the Gold Coast, home to some of the state's most popular beaches; the Bunya Mountains and the Great Dividing Range , with numerous lookouts, waterfalls and picnic areas; Carnarvon Gorge ; Whitsunday Islands ; and Hinchinbrook Island.
The state contains six World Heritage -listed preservation areas: Mangrove swampland in Cape Tribulation. Mossman River during the wet season.
Because of its size, there is significant variation in climate across the state. Low rainfall and hot humid summers are typical for the inland and west, a monsoonal "wet" season in the far north, and warm, temperate conditions along the coastal strip. Elevated areas in the south-east inland can experience temperatures well below freezing in mid-winter providing frost and, albeit rarely, snowfall. The climate of the coastal strip is influenced by warm ocean waters, keeping the region free from extremes of temperature and providing moisture for rainfall.
Natural disasters are often a threat in Queensland; severe tropical cyclones can impact the coast and cause severe damage,  with recent examples including Larry , Yasi , Ita and Debbie. Flooding from rain-bearing systems can also be severe and can occur anywhere in Queensland. One of the deadliest and most damaging floods in the history of the state occurred in early Severe springtime thunderstorms generally affect the south-east and inland of the state and can bring damaging winds, torrential rain, large hail and even tornadoes. There are five predominant climatic zones in Queensland,  based on temperature and humidity:.
However, most of the Queensland populace experience two weather seasons: The coastal far north of the state is the wettest place in Australia, with Mount Bellenden Ker , south of Cairns, holding many Australian rainfall records with its annual average rainfall of over 8 metres. Snow is rare in Queensland, although it does fall with some regularity along the far southern border with New South Wales, predominantly in the Stanthorpe district although on rare occasions further north and west.
The most northerly snow ever recorded in Australia occurred near Mackay ; however, this was exceptional. The annual mean statistics  for some Queensland centres are shown below:. The highest official maximum temperature recorded in the state was For decades, Queensland has consistently been the fastest-growing state in Australia, while Western Australia has grown faster in the s. The census showed that the majority of Queenslanders are Christians 2. There are also 1. The largest distinct religious minorities consist of those who follow Buddhism 70,; 1.
In the s and s, sea ports were established on the coast, adjacent to the mouth of the Fitzroy River. Broadmount was on the northern side and Port Alma on the south. Railways were subsequently constructed to carry goods to the wharves at these locations, the railway to Broadmount opening on 1 January and the line to Port Alma opened on 16 October Maintenance on the Broadmount line ceased in August The following month, the wharf caught fire and the line was effectively closed in July The line to Port Alma closed on 15 October A sizeable influx of interstate and overseas migrants, large amounts of federal government investment, increased mining of vast mineral deposits and an expanding aerospace sector have contributed to the state's economic growth.
The —09 saw the expansion slow to just 0.
Between and , the growth in the gross state product of Queensland outperformed that of all the other states and territories. In that period Queensland's GSP grew 5. Queensland's contribution to the Australian GDP increased by Secondary industries are mostly further processing of the above-mentioned primary produce. For example, bauxite is shipped by sea from Weipa and converted to alumina at Gladstone. Major tertiary industries are the retail trade and tourism. Interests in Crown land in Queensland are primarily regulated by the Land Act Tourism is Queensland's leading tertiary industry with millions of interstate and overseas visitors flocking to the Sunshine State each year.
Cairns is renowned as the "Gateway to the Barrier Reef" and the heritage listed Daintree Rainforests. There are numerous wildlife parks in Queensland.
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Queensland is served by a number of National Highways and, particularly in South East Queensland, motorways such as the M1. Principal rail services are provided by Queensland Rail and Pacific National , predominantly between the major towns along the coastal strip east of the Great Dividing Range. Major seaports include the Port of Brisbane and subsidiary ports at Gladstone , Townsville and Bundaberg.
Sugar is another major export, with facilities at Lucinda and Mackay. Brisbane Airport is the main international and domestic gateway serving the state. Gold Coast Airport , Cairns International Airport and Townsville Airport are the next most prominent airports, all with scheduled international flights. South East Queensland has an integrated public transport system operated by TransLink , which provides services bus , rail , light rail and ferry services through contracted bus, ferry and light rail operators and Queensland Rail. The TransLink network operates a fare system which allows a single ticket to be used across all modes for the same price irrespective of the number of transfers made on the trip.
Regional bus and long-distance rail services are also provided throughout the State. Local bus services are also available in most regional centres. Executive authority is nominally vested in the Governor , who represents—and is formally appointed on the advice of the Premier by— Elizabeth II , Queen of Australia. The current governor is His Excellency, The Hon. Paul de Jersey , AC. The Head of Government —the Premier—fulfills in reality the day-to-day functions of the state's executive, and is assisted in this by the Cabinet.
He or she is appointed by the Governor but must have the support of the Legislative Assembly. The Premier is in practice a leading member of the Assembly and parliamentary leader of his or her political party, or coalition of parties. Other ministers, forming the Executive Council which includes members of the Cabinet , are appointed by the Governor from among the notable members of the Legislative Assembly on the Premier's recommendation. They are in practice members of the Premier's party, or allied with it.
A Speaker is elected by the Assembly to facilitate proceedings and communicate between the Assembly and the Governor, usually on matters relating to prorogation or dissolution of the Assembly. The Queensland Parliament or the Legislative Assembly, is unicameral. It is the only Australian state with a unicameral legislature. A bicameral system existed until , when the Legislative Council was abolished by the Labor members' "suicide squad", so called because they were appointed for the purpose of voting to abolish their own offices.
The state's politics are traditionally regarded as being conservative relative to other states. There are several factors that differentiate Queensland's government from other Australian states. The legislature has no upper house. For a large portion of its history, the state was under a gerrymander that heavily favoured rural electorates. This, combined with the already decentralised nature of Queensland, meant that politics has been dominated by regional interests. Queensland, along with New South Wales , formerly operated a balloting system known as Optional Preferential Voting for state elections.
This is different from the predominant Australian electoral system, the instant-runoff voting system, and in practice is closer to a first past the post ballot similar to the ballot used in the UK , which some say is to the detriment of minor parties. The next Queensland election will use instant-runoff voting. These conditions have had notable practical ramifications for politics in Queensland. The lack of an upper house for substantial legislative review has meant that Queensland has had a tradition of domination by strong-willed, populist premiers, often with arguably authoritarian tendencies, holding office for long periods.
The judicial system of Queensland consists of the Supreme Court and the District Court , established by the Constitution of Queensland, and various other courts and tribunals established by ordinary Acts of the Queensland Parliament. In Queensland adopted a new codified constitution, repealing most of the assorted Acts of Parliament that had previously made up the constitution.
The new constitution took effect on 6 June , the anniversary of the formation of the colony of Queensland by the signing of Letters patent by Queen Victoria in Local government is the mechanism by which towns and cities can manage their own affairs to the extent permitted by the Local Government Act — Queensland is divided into 77 local government areas which may be called Cities, Towns, Shires or Regions. Each area has a council which is responsible for providing a range of public services and utilities, and derives its income from both rates and charges on resident ratepayers, and grants and subsidies from the State and Commonwealth governments.
The state's first university, the University of Queensland , was established in It was moved to St Lucia in , where it remains today. The University of Queensland ranks amongst the top 60 universities in all major global rankings. James Cook University was set up in to become the first tertiary education institution in North Queensland. Griffith University was established in the Brisbane suburb of Nathan in In , the Queensland University of Technology was opened previously the Queensland Institute of Technology in the Brisbane central business district at Gardens Point.
These Universities all have more than one campus, and all are recognised as leading Australian universities.
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Bond University was established in as a private not-for-profit university, the first of its type in Queensland and Australia. It is located at Robina on the Gold Coast. In , the Central Queensland University and University of Southern Queensland gained university status from previously operating and Institutes of Technologies, and the new University of the Sunshine Coast was established in The Australian Catholic University also operates a campus in Brisbane.
The state of Queensland is represented in all of Australia's national sporting competitions and is also host to a number of domestic and international sporting events. The most popular winter and summer team sports are Rugby league , Rugby union and cricket , respectively. Rugby league 's annual State of Origin series is a major event in the Queensland sporting calendar, with the Queensland Maroons in winning a record eighth series in a row.
The Brisbane Broncos are the state's most successful team of any sport, having won three premierships in the NRL rugby league era and six in total during their year existence. Queensland's dominance is not restricted to rugby league. Just four years after being branded "the joke of rugby union", the Queensland Reds won its first Super Rugby title in July In netball the Queensland Firebirds went undefeated in the season as they went on to win the Grand Final. Swimming is also a popular sport in Queensland, with a majority of Australian team members and international medalists hailing from the state.
At the Summer Olympics , Queensland swimmers won all six of Australia's gold medals , all swimmers on Australia's three female finals relays teams were from Queensland, two of which won gold. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Queensland disambiguation. History of Indigenous Australians. Economy of Queensland and Australian economy.
This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. June Learn how and when to remove this template message. Local government in Queensland. Geography portal Oceania portal Commonwealth realms portal Australia portal Queensland portal. Australian Bureau of Statistics. Archived from the original on 25 March Retrieved 25 March A river curving and curling its way around the landscape makes Brisbane one of the most unique capital cities in Australia. Brisbane came into being long before the state of Queensland was established, when intrepid Surveyor General John Oxley named the river he discovered after the Governor of New South Wales — Thomas Brisbane — in Brisbane is one of the fastest-growing capital cities in Australia in terms of population and employment.
Our residents are young and skilled, highly educated and culturally diverse. The Australian economy recorded its 22nd consecutive year of growth in and is projected by the IMF to record growth double the OECD average in The Commonwealth of Australia is an independent Western democracy with three tiers of government — federal, state and local. Pack a hat and a bottle of sunscreen. With 12 months of sunshine filled days and clear blue skies, Brisbane has a climate that sets the scene for year-round alfresco activities.
Considering a move to Brisbane? Use this guide to find out about education, work, costs, transport and more. Brisbane is one of the fastest-growing cities in Australia and is known for its vibrant urban precincts, outdoor lifestyle and friendly locals.