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Of another altar-piece, only the central panel remains and it is in a very ruinous condition. The Child seems to grasp His Mother's ear. Three panels of a similar polyptych which hung on the left wall of the Cathedral of Perugia but have been transferred to the recently arranged Cathedral Museum, resemble in type those of the best-preserved altar-piece in the Gallery, but they are of a somewhat more elaborate form.

Here we see the two SS. John at the sides of the Virgin, little angels in the spandrels and the figures of the Redeemer, SS. Peter and Paul in the terminals. All these works might be classified as to style, as midway be- tween the signed polyptych and the last picture also in the Pina- coteca of Perugia, which has yet to be described, and in which the manner of painting is reminiscent of that found in the little panel, already mentioned, representing the Child Jesus bending backwards to grasp the Virgin's chin.

This last picture by Meo, although much longer, was probably also the centre of an altar- piece fig. The proportions are more attenuated, and relief is almost entirely absent; in this the panel reminds us of the two first works I named as belonging to this group. The type of the Madonna shows a marked resemblance to that depicted by Marinus. The Child is again seen grasping His Mother's ear. The Virgin's dress is threaded with gold and the decorative design on the border of the panel is similar to the one found on the little picture that I have just mentioned. An entirely ruined panel of the Madonna enthroned between saints which is preserved in a lumber room behind the apse of the church of Ponte Felcino, near Perugia, might possibly also be a work of Meo's.

Judging from what is left of Meo's artistic productions, I think we may conclude that the artist, familiar with Duccio's art, migrated to Perugia and there, coming in contact with masters such as Marinus, he felt their influence and his manner under- went a slight change, he, at the same time probably transmitting something of the Sienese style of painting to the artists who had studied at the Riminese school. It is possible that when Meo came to Umbria he was accompa- nied by one of his pupils whose works are still to be found there and who remained there as Marinus' collaborator or helper.

This last hypothesis is supported by the fact that the place from which Marinus' panel comes and the monaster - whence the greater part of Meo's pictures originates, are not far distant from one another. This period which, at first sight, seems rather early, is con- firmed by the document of which proves that at that moment Meo had already been established for some time in the country of his adoption and had apparently acquired some property Moreover, later on we shall deal with a school work ot and others of ?

The works of Meo's school reveal to us the great importance of the part that this master played in the development of Umbrian painting. This rather contradicts the hypothesis of Signor A. Venturi, Storia dell' Arte, V, p. Meo da Siena, Madonna. As I have just said, the date is found on a work of Meo's school. It is inscribed at the top of a Maesta in the parish church of Pieve Pag- liaccia in the vicinity of Perugia. The fresco shows the Virgin with the Child Christ standing on her knee and two angels supporting the curtain that forms the background.

It is a rough, un-beautiful work ; the style of painting, however, is clearly derived from Meo's manner. Of a much better quality are two predella panels in the Stadelsche Kunstinstitut of Frankfort-on-the Main nos. The inscription on the pedestal of the Virgin's throne informs us that the picture was executed in This work, which previously comprised another panel, originates from the Confraternity of S. Pietro in Perugia 2. Salmi, Note sulla Galleria di Peru- gia, p. The works that most closely ap- proximate to the master's style of painting are three frescoes in the crypt of the church of S.

Two of them have even been ascribed to Meo ; they represent the Marriage and the Death of the Virgin fig. The third imitates a polyptych in form and shows the Crucified between the Virgin and St. This fresco also seems to be from the same hand, although its dilapidated conditionhas somewhat altered its appearance.

The decorative frame of all three is identical. In spite of the great resemblance to Meo's works, I do not think that the marked clumsiness of the figures allows us to attribute these frescoes to the master's own hand. To the same painter can be ascribed a fresco detached from the church of Sta. Elisabetta and now in the Gallery of Perugia, representing the miracle of the roses fig. It is one of the legendary stories related in connection with St. This painting, which bears the date x , shows a very marked resemblance to those in S. In the Pinacoteca of Perugia there are several panel paintings which reveal Meo's influence.

There is a little group, originating also from Monte l'Abate, which can be ascribed to one master ; it includes a crucifix with Christ on the Cross, two large panels of SS. Herculanum and Laurence with the figures of SS. Paul and Peter as pope on the back, and a predella with the four half- length figures of SS. Emilian, Mary Magdalene, Catherine and Benedict. Although the artist paid great attention to his tech- nique, his drawing is weak and his figures without modelling, while life and expression are entirely absent.

Still in the same Gallery we find two panels similar in form and doubtless having originally formed part of the same altar- piece. The principal scene on the one is the Adoration of the Magi fig. Peter the Martyr and Francis 2 while the corresponding figures on the other panel are the Virgin of the Annunciation. Louis of Toulouse and Dominic. These two panels originally belonged to the confraternity of St.

As Signor Salmi remarks, a peculiar feature in this master's art is the Cosmati architecture, not only with regard ' A breach in the paint prevents us from knowing if anything followed what is now visible of the date: Ricci, La prima chiesa dedicata a S. Maria degli Angeli Assisi , , p. From a chronological point of view his affirmation that this picture shows an influence of Bartolo di Fredi, is impossible. Francis is depicted wearing ear-rings. There is a belief, still fairly wide-spread, that this form of adornment cures eye-trouble.

This detail, consequently, must have been associated in the painter's mind with the eye disease from which, according to his biographies, the saint of Assisi suffered. These panels date probably from about the middle of the 14th century. The type of the figures is very characteristic of Meo's school. Yet another painter, whose figures are somewhat heavier, but in whose faces we notice a decided resemblance to those of this school, is the one who executed two panels in the Pinacoteca which come from Passignano, not far distant from Perugia.

School of Meo da Siena, Miracle of St. On the other, the enthroned Virgin with the Child is represented between two angels with two little adorers below, while to the left we see the archangel Michael. Clare, Francis and Peter and to the right SS. The throne is inlaid in mosaic ; above each column, which separates v 3 Fig. School of Meo da Siena, the Mouring over the body of Christ. This artist possessed a certain dramatic sense which gives much animation to the Passion scenes in particular ; but the isolated figures also are more life-like than we have so far found in this group.

He was, as well, a fairly good colourist, but curiously enough left his faces completely white. I think we can probably attribute to the same artist a half- length figure of a saint frescoed on the left-hand side of the wall behind the altar in Sta. From another hand, and one more strongly influenced by the reminiscences of Simone Martini but belonging all the same to this group, are the figures of male and female saints under Gothic arcades which seem to have adorned the greater part of the walls of this church, and of which some still remain visible on the entrance wall and on that to the left of the altar.

Meo's school seems to have been fairly wide-spread. At least we find works belonging to it at some distance from Perugia. The Pinacoteca of Gubbio possesses a polyptych fig. It is a mediocre work but the types of the faces as well as the ornamental details are character- istic of this school. The painter who frescoed the four triangular compartments of the vault over the altar in the church of Sta. Chiara, Assisi, also felt to a certain extent the influence of Meo's art, but he was still more dependent on the Giottesque school and for this reason I shall deal with him elsewhere.

In the Town Hall of Narni, a panel, painted on both sides, representing the Virgin and Child and the Death of the Virgin, is a late production -- about — of this current. A panel of the Nativity in the collection of pictures belonging to the German Seminary, alongside the church of St. Peter's, Rome, belongs to Meo's school. This master's influence is also evident in a little reliquary in the form of a diptych in the Victoria and Albert Musuem 19, 20 — ; each panel is divided into two parts, one above the other, the upper divisions showing the Madonna and the Cruci- fixion with two accompanying saints, and the lower each a row of saints fig.

The presence of St. Emilian attests the Peru- gian origin of this diptych, which, however, is one of the minor production of this group. The most important series of paintings in this manner are not found in Umbria but near Rome in the upper church, intheScala Santa and in the Chapel of the Madonna of the Sacro Speco, Subiaco. The date proposed by Signor Hermanin for them, somewhere during the period when Bartolommeo III of Siena was prior of the monas- tery, which was from until , seems to me somewhat late. The frescoes in the upper church illustrate the Passion, be- ginning with the Entry into Jerusalem, which covers the greater part of the right wall fig.

The composition is very tradition- al ; the Saviour, seated on an ass, followed by its foal, is accom- panied by the Twelve Apostles; a youth spreads his cloak on the ground, others climb into the trees to obtain a better view, some sing while almost all carry branches of palm. Below on the left well is represented the Betrayal of Judas. The central figures are surrounded by a large group of people, some of whom have already laid hands on the Saviour. A detail, peculiar to Sienese iconography, is the flight of the Apostles; it is rarely depicted but we find an example of it in Duccio's works.

The artist has not omitted to illustrate the passage from the Gospels according to which a disciple, leaving his cloak in the hands of a soldier, escapes naked. On the right of the pulpit we see the Flagellation in which the Saviour, covered with blood and attached to a pillar, is being scourged by two men, while Pilate is depicted in half- length figure on a balcony above.

The Calvary is shown in a large fresco above these represent- ations. It is a picture full of movement and at first sight seems to be a triumphal procession. In a portico to the left, we see a scene of Pilate condemning Christ, Who is clothed in rich gar- ments and crowned with thorns. Then is depicted a long proces- sion of men on horseback, soldiers with banners and trumpets and the sorrowing faithful following Christ, bearing the Cross, and the two criminals. The Twelve Apostles are depicted in a row above. The Crucifixion, which occupies the end of this wall, is a large dramatic composition, resembling Pietro Lorenzetti's picture of this subject in the Lower Church, Assisi.

A thronged and agi- tated group surrounds the three crosses ; again there are many soldiers on horseback and on foot, while Mary Magdalene grasps the foot of the Cross and the Virgin faints into the arms of her companions. Higher up an arch is adorned with medallions containing Apostles, prophets and St. The events, which occur after the death of Christ, are depicted on the same wall as the Entry into Jerusalem. Here we find the three Maries at the Empty Sepulchre on which an angel is sitting, and at a higher level "Noli me tangere" with Mary Magdalene kneeling and the Saviour drawing away from her, and the Incredulity of Thomas which takes place in a vaulted room seen in section, while the other Apostles are arranged in a row at either side.

Highest of all is represented the Ascension ; fifteen disciples and four holy women witness the Saviour being car- ried to heaven by angels. The vault is adorned with the figures of the four Fathers of the Church sitting writing; the throne of each is adorned with the bust of an Evangelist. Regarding the second example of this art which adorns the Scala Santa, I do not share Signor Hermanin's opinion that it is by another artist than the foregoing decoration, although the coulouring is here paler.

It is highly probable that the painter who undertook this decoration, received a certain amount ot assistance, but this is not more evident in one part than in another and I do not find that the manner of the principal master is more pronounced in the Scala Santa and in the chapel than in the church. The four triangles of the vaults of the chapel are adorned with the Annunciation in which the angel kneels before the Virgin who has just arisen from her chair; the Presentation with the five traditional figures ; the Coronation of the Virgin in which the throne, on which the Virgin and her Son are seated, is sur- rounded by angels; and the Madonna della Misericordia, who shelters a group of faithful under her mantle.

On the left wall we find united on one fresco the Nativity of Christ taking place in an open shelter, the preparation for Christ's first bath, the Message to the Shepherds and the Adoration of the Magi fig. John, Benedict, Placid- ius and Maurus, and above, the Virgin enthroned with the Child standing on her knee in the midst of four saints, two holy popes and a little adorer; while still higher the Dead are seen arising from their tombs and apparently imploring protection from the UMBRIA. School of Meo da Siena, the Entry into Jerusalem. Madonna della Misericordia, depicted on the vault above.

On the entry wall we find a very realistic painting of the Virgin's funeral fig. The Jews who have stopped the bier on which the dead Virgin is being taken to her grave, are miraculously deprived of their sight. The Twelve Apostles who stand behind, belong to the representation of her Death ; St.

Peter seems to be officiating, St. John carries a branch of palm.

Full text of "The development of the Italian schools of painting"

Above, the Madonna and the Saviour, Who protectingly grasps His Mother round her shoulder, are seated on the same throne, which is borne upward by six angels, while eight others accompany them with music. The frescoes in the Scala Santa show, over the entrance arch, the Baptism of Our Lord and on the other side, the Flight into Egypt, and the Massacre of the Innocents, in which to the left we see soldiers snatching children from the arms of their weeping mothers. Above, Herod, followed by two of his suite, appears at a balcony, from where he issues his orders.

In the first is depicted an old man, showing three corpses in their coffins in different stages of decomposition, to three young noblemen, two of whom carry falcons. The other fresco represents Death as a skeleton with long hair, mounted on horseback, holding a cythe in one hand and a sword in the other with which he attacks two young men, one of whom again holds a falcon. In his terrible onslaught Death rides over six dead bodies that lie on the ground, while behind him we see four sad figures, apparently imploring him to put an end to their existence also.


At the top of the Scala we find further five figures of saints. Having already described the characteristics of the artistic current to which these frescoes belong, I shall not enter into details of their peculiarities. These particular productions, however, are rather unpleasing; the drawing is clumsy and linear, no attention has been paid to the proportions and almost all the figures are too short.

Relief is but rarely attempted and dramatic action, which is absent, has been replaced by grimacing expressions. All this only proves that we owe the decoration to a provincial artist who paid little heed to the aesthetic side of his task. Le danze macabre in Italia, 2 nd ed. School of Meo da Siena, the Nativity and Adoration. The iconography of these paintings provides us once more with proof that the origin of Meo's school was not purely Sien- ese. It is true that in the Betrayal of Judas, the group of Apostles deserting their Master is apparently inspired by Duccio's repre- sentation, but on the other hand the open shed in the Nativity, the combination of the Nativity with the Adoration of the Magi, that of the Holy Women at the Empty Sepulchre with the Noli me tangere, and the Child erect on the Virgin's knee in the Cap- pella della Madonna are all characteristics of the Riminese school and not of Duccio's.

The decoration of the triangles of the vault is analogous to one in Ravenna, while the scene of the Death of the Virgin shows no resemblance to the example left by Duccio. Apart from Meo's school, we find in Perugia various little groups of painters who reveal the existence of different currents simultaneously. Perugian painting of the first half of the 14th century was spec- ially influenced by Pietro Lorenzetti, although his art was inter- preted in a very provincial manner and generally speaking the productions do not attain a very high level.

This group seems to be of a slightly later period than that of Meo's, since some of its productions date from The finest work of this group is a large Crucifixion, an import- ant part of which is preserved on the altar wall of Sta. Originally the three crosses must have been represented, but now the central one alone remains; many figures, some on horse- back, are grouped around it ; in the midst of them we see the three soldiers dividing the Saviour's cloak. The latter have an oriental appearance and remind us of the warriors in Ambrogio Loren- zetti's fresco of the martyrdom of the Franciscan monks in the church of S.

Nevertheless Pietro's influence is very evident, while the composition has been borrowed from his enormous fresco of this subject in the Lower Church, Assisi. A large number of frescoes in this manner have been trans- ferred from the church of Sta. Elisabetta to the Gallery of Perugia. I have already mentioned the paintings belonging to Meo's school, which come from there. Photo Alinari, all of them '. Very characteristic ot a rough interpretation of Lorenzetti's art is a rather fragmentary Iresco showing the enthroned Virgin, holding the Child erect on her knee and offering Him flowers.

Of the lateral figures, only that of St. Antony Abbot has been preserved. The date, , is i'i Ricci, op. I think we might attribute to the same hand two fragments of a detached fresco representing the Virgin and five saints within arcades, and yet another of the Virgin seated on a throne, the back of which is unfinished, gazing at the Child Whom she holds in her arms; St. Catherine is depicted standing at the side.

Matteo where an important fresco of the Virgin with four angels, two saints, some other figures and a little female adorer is dated The central figure and those nearest, however, have almost entirely disappeared. On the wall close by we find a representation of a saint on horseback, before whom kneel several adorers, two of whom seem to carry hand-cuffs.

A figure of a bishop hard by is probably from the same hand. It is possible that we can ascribe to this artist an heretical image ol the Trinity - - a figure with three heads — enthroned and accompanied by two angels, in the bell-tower of S. Pietro, and a very damaged detached fresco of St. Antony Abbot and a young saint, which was preserved in the sacristy of the church ot Papiano, but is now in the Gallery of Perugia. The characteristics of this artist are the very pointed features, the rather graceful though flat figures, the naked necks and the almost straight line of the decollete.

A group of lesser importance comprises four works — three triptychs and a painting on parchment — of the first half of the 14 th century. All four are preserved in the Gallery of Perugia and differ considerably from the other styles of painting of that period. Two of the triptychs are very alike 2. One represents the mystical marriage of St. Catherine's finger, while opposite another saint forms a pen- dant ; above, we see the Saviour on the Cross between the Virgin and St.

John with Mary Magdalene kissing the feet of Christ.

The wings show, above, the two figures of the Annunciation and below, on one side four saints in two rows and on the other the Virgin adoring the new-born Child in the manger. The other triptych shows the Virgin seated on a very elabo- rate throne between SS. Catherine and Lucy, while in each of the wings are two saints, one above the other fig. The picture on parchment is not in a very good state of preser- vation.

Within borders composed of numerous busts of saints and six full-length figures, among which we see the archangel Michael represented twice , St. Christopher, are depicted the Virgin enthroned between two angels and two saints and the Saviour on the Cross between the Virgin and St. John and two angels fig. Triptych, Umbrian School, first half of the 14 th century. The third triptych is only a rustic production of the same cur- rent. In the central panel the Madonna, seated on an architectural throne holds the Infant Jesus between St. Anna and the Virgin as a child.

Lower down we see the Crucifixion and the Prayer on the Mount of Olives. Three figures of saints adorn each oi the wings. It is a roughly executed work of no importance. The elements composing the art to which these pictures belong, are obviously based on Giottesque principles. This, consequently, would lead us to date these works 'from the first half of the 14th century, which seems too early, especially on account of the elaborate form of the throne in one of the pictures, which is characteristic of North Italian painting of a much later date.

Nevertheless it is possible that we are here dealing with one of Fig. Madonna and Crucifixion, Umbrian School, first half of the 14 th century. The type of the Madonna in majesty seems to have been fairly common in Perugia. Apart from the foregoing picture and the panel by Marinus in the Gallery, which I have already described, we find traces of another in a niche on the facade of the old hos- pital which seems to date from the first years of the 14th century.

Another which, on account of the presence of a Sienese influence, must be of slightly later date, is the considerably restored fresco called the Madonna del Verde in the church of S. Very closely connected with this painting is the so-called "Maesta della Volta" which adorns a chapel in the arch of that name, behind the Cathedral of Perugia. Here the Virgin, in the midst of four angels, holds the Child standing on her knee fig.

A detached fresco in the Gallery of Assisi belongs to this group of repre- sentations; it is in fact the most beautiful example but we shall return to it later on 2. I think we can still include among the Umbrian Maesta a large panel dated in the Gallery of Aneers, where it is attributed to Giunta Pisano. The enthroned Madonna, who holds the Child upright on her knee, is escorted by two angels, four saints and two kneeling devotees.

All these paintings date from the first quarter of the 14 th cen- tury and bear a resemblance to provincial Sienese work ; the painting of the Maesta della Volta reveals the influence of Simone Martini which is still more marked in the fresco at Assisi. The frescoes in the chapel under the bell-tower of the church of S.

Domenico, Perugia, belong to the same artistic current. It is only a few years ago that the greater part of this decoration was brought to light; before that only a few small fragments were visible 3. Doctor Salmi, who has made a profound study of these frescoes 4 , identifies them with those that Vasari describes as being from the hand of Buffalmacco, as, indeed, Rosini, before him, had already done 5.

Vasari further informs us that Stefano da Siena worked in the chapel of St. Domenico, but did not finish his task. Considering the lack of confidence we have in Vasari's state- ments, especially in connection with 14th century works, I do not r There is no reason whatsoever, to attribute this painting to Cavallini as Signor Hermanin did in the lectures he delivered in Perugia in the autumn of , in II Maestro Romano di Giotto, Almanaccodi Roma, , p.

The style derives from the Sienese school and the work is decidedly Umbrian. Perkins, Rassegna d'Arte, , p. Galenga Stuart, Perugia, Bergamo, , p. Simone Martini et les peintres de son ecole, Strasbourg, , p. Salmi, Gli affreschi ricordati dal Vasari in S. Bolletino d'Arte del Minist. Domenico Vecchio, which is behind the present church and is now used as a barracks.

The decoration is fairly elaborate but very much damaged. Vague traces of the four Evangelists and their symbols remain in the vaults. The groins and other parts of the chapel are adorned with medallions containing; heads and half-length figures of 52 UMBRIA. On the window wall we see the figures of the Annunciation and the greater part of two frescoes illustrating the legend of St.

Catherine, her dispute with the philosophers of the Emperor Maximin fig. On the opposite wall we find scenes from the life ol Fig. The Disputation of St. Catherine, Umbrian School, 2 nd half of the 14 th century. Peter the Martyr; the first shows the miracle of the shower of rain that he brought down under the provocation of a heretic bishop, and the other the martyrdom of the saint, who is killed by soldiers on the road between Como and Milan, while above is represented the holy Dominican monk curing a sick person. Traces of other representations are visible. The walls of the chapel are further adorned with the figures of the Twelve Apost- les, and of the cardinal virtues figs 35 and 36 and theintradosof the entrance arch with several figures of saints, some of which are well preserved fig.

Fig 35 Justice, Umbrian School, 2 nd half of the 14 th century. Signor Salmi has rightly observed that two different hands can be recognized in this decoration. To the one we must attri- bute the dispute of St. Courage, Umbrian School, 2 nd half of the 14 th century. A holy Pope, Umbrian School, 2 nd half of the 14 th century. Peter, Umbrian School, 2" d half of the 14 th century. As for the heads and busts in the medallions, I think they show more connection with the former, but were, in all probability, executed by an assistant.

The first of these two artists was obviously entirely under the charm of Simone Martini's art, the spirit of which he seems to have fully understood. In the sweet melancholy and spiritual elegance of certain of the figures of the Apostles, he reproduces, although in a less skilful manner, the types of the older master. Signor Salmi finds that this artist shows some points in common with the Orvietan painters.

A connection must certainly exist since both derive from a common source in the art of Simone Martini, but I do not think that this artistic current passed through Orvieto before reaching Perugia, because the influence here seems to be too direct. A Sienese inspiration is less evident in the productions of the second artist who worked in this chapel, and Doctor Salmi finds that his paintings reveal an influence of the school of The Marches.

The technique of this master and his forms are much coarser and there is no trace of idealism, a feature characteristic of all works inspired by Simone's art. The date of or proposed for them by Signor Salmi may be exact, but in my opinion it is just possible that they were executed at a slightly earlier period. I think we should associate these frescoes with some others in the same church, which adorn the old Gothic vaults of the lateral chapels of the choir, but are now invisible from below, on account of the lower 17th century vaulting.

We can, however, gain access from above because there is a considerable space between the original and the present vaulting. The decoration of one of them comprised four figures of saints against haloes of radiating rays of light; of these there remain St. Antony and traces of a holy bishop. The four Evangelists, seated on Gothic thrones, were depicted in the other chapel ; the best preserved is the figure of a young clean- shaven Evangelist, gazing attentively at his pen fig.

I think the latter may probably have been executed by the assistant to whom the less important figures in the St. Catherine chapel were left. Umbrian School, 2 ,ul half of the 14 th century. The contours are very thickly out- lined but that may well be on account of the great distance that these images originally were from the eye of the spectator.

The figures of SS. Peter and Antony show certain points in common with some of the works of the second master who was active in St. Catherine's chapel, but the technique is somewhat different so that we cannot ascribe them with certainty to the same artist. A painting which was also inspired by Simone's school is a detached fresco representing the Virgin, with the Child in benediction, under an open shed, behind and above which are some angels fig.

Francesco which, no longer used for worship, is abandoned in an incomprehensible manner. Above the picture we see the inscription: The fresco comes from the walls of the old church which is now entirely covered by constructions of later centuries. It is obviously a fragment of an Adoration of the Magi 2. From the examples of Perugian painting of the 14th century that we now possess, it is evident that the dominating influence was that of the Sienese school. After Meo da Siena and his fol- lowers, we find in the first half of the century a popular adap- tation of Pietro Lorenzetti's manner; then, with the exception of a small number of works belonging to the Giottesque tradition, we notice, especially in the second half of the 14 th century, many adherents of Simone Martini's manner.

It is quite possible that after the Perugian people became aware of the inferiority of the local productions, and made certain pictures, destined for the more important sites, come directly from Siena. This Sienese domination was still more widely disseminated ' Siepi, op. The school of The Marches had no influence on Perugian painting although we find in the Gallery a little panel representing a half- length figure of the dead Saviour and a large trip- tych, quite recently recon- structed, showing the Virgin and Child escorted by angels, between SS.

Francis and Antony Ab- bot and originating from the convent of Ferneta near Perugia, in both of which certain reminis- cences of the painters of Fabriano are manifest. A fairly important group of paintings inspir- ed by the Sienese school is to be found in the little church of S. Egidio which was built about and lies just off the main road between Perugia and As- sisi. They are all votive frescoes by local paint- ers of little merit and I shall only mention the most important. On the left of the tabernacle there is a fairly fine Madonna, accompanied by St.

Fran- cis; and on the lower row a beautiful figure of an archangel. A charming Madonna holding the Child's foot, which decorates the wall near the door leading to the village, belongs Fig. Fragment of an Adoration of the Magi, Umbrian School, Near this another Madonna with her arms crossed on her breast is a production of the same tradition.

The Madonna on the altar is considerably repainted, she holds the Child erect on her knee in an affectionate attitude. All the above frescoes more or less reveal the influence of Simone's school, but on the entrance wall a Madonna with the Child standing on her knee stretching out His hand towards a little bird, sooner belongs to that group inspired by the art of the Lorenzetti, as, moreover, do several of the other paintings in this church.

Thus in this little village church the two Sienese currents - that of Simone and that of the Lorenzetti — flourished still, towards the end of the 14th century. We are again dealing, however, with local adaptations, as may be seen, not only in the actual appearance of the works but also in some of the icono- graphical details, such for example as the free attitude of the Child Jesus, Whom we generally find standing on His Mother's knee, a detail, as I have already mentioned, that the early Umbrian artists seem to have borrowed from the Riminese school; or, again, in the position of the head resting on the arm as is depicted in one of the frescoes in S.

The works of the 14th century executed in Assist are, for the greater part, more in their place in the history of Florentine or Sienese painting, and it is in the chapters dealing with these different schools that I have mentioned them. The archives having almost entirely disappeared, the documents concerning these paintings are extremely rare. Nevertheless the following facts have come to our knowledge. Chiara for the ornamentation of its walls. Francesco d'Assisi, Roma, , pp. Fratini, Storia della Basilica e del Convento di S.

Francesco in Assisi, Prato, , p. Descent from the Cross and the Entombment, Umbrian School, 2 nd half of the 14 th century. The three painters, Pace, Giovanni and Angelino are charged with the ornamental part of the decoration of the St. Catherine chapel which was ordered by Cardinal Albornoz.

Vasari has confused Pace di Bartolo with Pace da Faenza 4 and informs us that it was this artist who adorned the chapel of St. In we find a certain Niccolo di Giovanni, an Assisan painter, working at that moment at water conduits 6. The same artistic classification that we made for the works in Perugia can be applied to those in Assisi. Here too we find a rude adaptation of the art of Meo da Siena and Pietro Loren- zetti, reminiscences of the Giottesque school, and the influence of Simone Martini, but not one of these groups is of very great importance.

The most characteristic painting of the first group will be found in the chapel of the Holy Sacrament, or that of St. Chiara, where on the altar wall, above the figures by Giottino, we see a representation of the Descent from the Cross between frescoes of the Resurrection and the Entombment fig. This somewhat vulgar artist, who tried to obtain good dramatic effects by means of grimaces and violent and excessive gesticulation, seems to have been slightly influenced by Meo da Siena.

Closely connected with this artist was the one who depicted the Annunciation on the entrance wall; it takes place in a room seen in cross-section in which the Virgin has risen and walked away from her seat. Below this, three paintings, showing St. George slaying the dragon, the Nativity, in which we see many angels on the roof of i 1 Fratim, op.

Brizi, Delia rocca di Assisi, Assisi, , p. Filippini, Andrea da Bologna, Bollet. Joseph in meditation and the shepherds, and the Adoration of the Magi, are by quite a different artist. Here the basis of the work is the same, but the more elegant forms reveal an influence of Northern Gothic art. On the wall opposite the entrance a modest local painter working under a Sienese influence has left some figures of saints; they include SS. Clare, Francis, Agnes, Elizabeth and Mary Magdalene, while on the arch which separates the chapel from the nuns' choir we find a pretty figure of St.

Peter and Paul and two little kneeling adorers decorates the nuns' choir. More directly influenced byLorenzetti,I think, was the painter who executed on the right wall of the charming little church of S. Damiano two frescoes in connection with this sanctuary; the first shows the crucifix ordering St. Francis to restore the build- ing, and the second the father, Bernardone, threatening his son, who was then living at S. Damiano, because he had sold some merchandise to defray the expenses of his work. Although these paintings have, on account of certain topographic details, been ascribed to between and 1 , they are, without any doubt, productions of the second half of the 14th century.

The same church contains, in the apse, a fresco which sooner belongs to the group which shows the influence of Simone Mar- tini's current. It is a half-length figure of the Virgin between two saints near one of whom we can still read the name " S. Ru ftnus" while the other, according to the later inscription, is St. They are, however, coarsely executed figures in which the man- ner of the charming Sienese master is completely disguised 2.

A beautiful painting belonging to Simone's school is a Maesta, which I have already mentioned in connection with similar representations in Perugia, in which the Virgin, holding the Child erect on her knee, is surrounded by angels while St. Francis stands near by.

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This fresco comes from the facade of the church "della Carita" and is now preserved in the town Gallery nos. Brancaloni, Storia di S. Damiano in Assisi, Assisi, It has been attributed to Simone Martini himself 0 but for this there is no reason. In the monumental forms there are even reminiscences of Lorenzetti's art. In spite of its fine qualities, however, this work can never be considered anything but a provincial production.

It is one of those Maesta of which, as we saw, the town of Perugia also possessed a few examples 2. A fresco in the hall of the old monastery of St. Hildebrand, now occupied by Benedictine nuns, dates from about the year or even slightly later. The painting is a free copy of the Stigmatization of St. Francis as it is represented in the Upper Church.

We see the same composition with the landscape and the monk reading, only the attitude of St.


Francis has been slightly changed. The colours are bright, and the work sur- rounded by an ornamental frame composed of medallions con- taining heads. A knowledge of Sienese painting is obvious and the artist seems to have worked under a strong influence of Simone Martini, leading the way to Sassetta. Let us not forget that Ilario da Viterbo has left us a work,, signed and dated , in the Porziuncola. This painting is almost entirely inspired by Simone Martini and is even in part an adap- tation of his famous Annunciation of ; but on account of the artist's origin, he, as well as Cola Petruccioli d'Orvieto, some of whose works we also find in Assisi, must be dealt with later on.

Giotto and the disciples he brought with him from Florence had, at Assisi, some pupils who profited so much from the lessons they received that we must consider them as forming part of the Florentine school. I do not even care to affirm definitely that all these masters were Assisan and not Florentine, but I think most of them were, more probably from Assisi. Gosche, Simone Martini, Leipzig, , p. Schmarzow that the work is from Simone's own hand. The Madonna and St. Clare in the midst of angels, Umbrian School, I st half of the 14 th century. The painter who adorned the vaults over the altar in Sta.

Agnes, Umbrian School, i st half of the 14 th century. Detail of a fresco in the vault of Sta. Francesco in the arrangement of his decoration rather than in his execution, while his manner is obviously influenced by Meo da Siena. As in the vault of S. Francesco so here too the space is divided into four triangles separated by heavy ornamental borders.

The composition of the frescoes in Sta. This master, however, is not only inferior to the leading artist of the corresponding de- coration but also to his assistants. The figures are extremely long, the faces, necks and particularly the eyes so elongated that the result is grotesque, the forms ugly and misshapen; even the drawing is hard. Crucifixion and saints, Umbrian School, I st half of the 14 th century. We must, however, grant that this artist had a real talent for ornamentation, for the decorative effect of his work is excellent.

The composition in each of the four triangles is almost iden- tical, the lower corners of each compartment are occupied by groups of kneeling angels, while in the centre two tabernacles, inlaid in marble, form the background to two figures of female saints, over whose heads flies an angel. The Madonna and Child are depicted with St. Margaret ; the figures are all very lifeless and without any variety of expression or attitude. The same poor artist executed, without any doubt, the triptych which hangs in the St. George chapel of this church fig.

It shows in the centre, the Crucifixion with angels hovering above and the Madonna, St John and the kneeling donor at the foot of the Cross and in each of the wings, which are about the same size as the central panel, two full-length figures of saints and a three-quarter-length figure of an angel in the terminal. Although far from beautiful the panel painting is very superior to the frescoes. A fragment of what must have been a charming fresco showing a faint Giottesque influence will be found in the left transept of the same church fig. It represents the Nativity and its great charm lies in the deep feeling that emanates from it.

A crucifix in the municipal museum, although of little artistic value, also belongs to the Giottesque tradition.

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  8. It was obviously made for Assisi, for, besides the Virgin and St. John, we see a small image of St. Rufinus, bishop and patron saint of the city. A fresco showing some resemblance to the Florentine current adorns, along with the Coronation of the Virgin, and scenes from St. Stanilaus' legend, described in another volume ' , the tribune in the nave of the Lower Church. The Lord on the Cross is re- presented between theVirgin and St. John; the well-draped figures are of good proportions and their expressions very dramatic.

    Some very fragmentary pieces of fresco on the facade of Monte Fromentario via Principe di Napoli , among which, however, we can recognize the enthroned Virgin surrounded by saints and the Saviour seated in the midst of the Apostles, as in represen- tations of the Last Judgment, seem to belong to the Giottesque tradition although they date from about the middle of the 14th century.

    Some fragments inside the Porziuncola which appear to be of about the same date, show also Giottesque elements and we still find traces of the same influence in the frescoes representing Jesus at the age of twelve teaching in the Temple and the Flight into Egypt - the latter unfinished — in the apse of the church of Roccaciuola, a short distance from Assisi. Lastly we find in Assisi, as elsewhere in Italy, the outcome of the late Gothic cosmopolitan painting.

    Typical of this current is I 1 v. The Nativity, Umbrian School, i st half of the 14 th century. According to Fea it is a work by Cec- colo di Giovanni of Assisi, executed after x ; nowadays it f 1 Fea, op. Fea, who was a serious writer, doubtless had very good reasons for his attribu- tion to this painter, whose name he must have found in records since lost. He adds that the faces of the lateral saints have been repainted by Alluno, but this is not noticeable on looking at the fresco. The Child Jesus, Who stands on His Mother's knee, holds a little bird and wears a piece of coral round His neck to ward off the evil eye.

    The Virgin who is seated on a large throne adorned with symbolic statues which seem to be of North Italian inspira- tion, is escorted on the left by two holy monks and on the right by a saintly bishop. The colours of the fresco are bright. A fresco after the same manner adorns a niche in the facade of S. Crispino, near the Porta Moiano ; it represents the Madonna on an elaborate throne, painted in grisaille, holding the Child, fully dressed, standing on her knee — a detail found in Nelli's works — between SS.

    Francis and Clare while the corporation of St. Crispin — the shoemakers — are depicted kneeling in prayer. On the projecting walls of the niche we see SS. Crispin and Blaise, from which we gather that the weavers also met in this chapel. This painting, which may have been executed in the last years of the 14th century, already manifests many elements which developed in Nelli's art. Another fresco of a few years later but all the same prior to Nelli, whose style it also foreshadows, adorns a wall, which is decorated with other paintings of later date, behind the refectory of the episcopal seminary; it represents SS.

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    5. Ruiinus, James and Clare. The staff that the first saint holds in his hand is executed in grisaille and ornamented in the manner that Nelli followed later. The tech- nique of the colours is much finer in this painting than that of the drawing. We shall call one of these two the Master of St. It comprises a series of frescoes adorning the chapel of the Holy Cross behind the sacristy of the church. The altar wall shows a large Crucifixion with groups of soldiers and Jews, the Virgin fainting in the arms of her com- panions, St. John supporting his head in his hand and Mary Magdalene clinging to the foot of the Cross; opposite we see a small image of the donor.

      Six angels fly around the Crucified while the inscription on the lower border of the fresco gives us Fig. The lunette on the left wall is adorned with a figure of Christ between two angels ; below this to the right and left of an arch we see the saint of Montefalco as a child praying before her sister, the Blessed Giovanna, and the Virgin and Child appearing to the saint; still i 1 L.

      Fiocca, Gli affreschi Trecentisti nella cappella della chiesa di S. Blaise in a grotto and the animals seeking his protection, a widow bringing a plate, on which is placed the head of his pig, to the imprisoned saint, and the figure of a kneeling warrior. In the arch we find the enthroned Virgin affectionately clasping the Child in her arms, between two angels, while lower down is depicted St.

      Christ carrying the Cross appears to her and impresses the signs of the Passion on her heart; the Blessed Giovanna stands on the right. The wall opposite is adorned, above, with a figure of the Saviour crowned within a mandorla which is surrounded by angels, while SS. Blaise and Catherine each present a tonsured figure clothed in black and white, perhaps Augustine monks. Below on one row are represented the death of St. Clare ol Montefalco who, half raised on her couch, is surrounded by kneeling nuns; a half-length figure of the dead Christ; and the martyrdom of St.

      Catherine, escorted by a group of persons, while in the background of this fresco a town is represented. The vault shows in the four triangles, which are separated by richly ornate borders, the heads of the four symbols of the Evangelists on human bodies. Other works from the same hand are found in the church 01 Turrita, a short distance from Montefalco. Here we see in the apse a rather grandiose representation of the Crucifixion, very similar in composition to the one in Sta. Fragments of a very confused composition which might have represented the Ascension are still visible above the apse, while at the side we can distinguish the Madonna with St.

      Fortunato and another saint. On the left wall near the main entrance are some remains of an Annunciation and near the choir some fragments of figures showing the date All these are from the hand of the Master of St. I think we can ascribe to the same artist a fresco in the ex- convent of Sta. Croce at Trevi fig. It shows the Lord on the Cross with five figures of saints standing below and four angels flying in mid-air, three of them with chalices to catch the blood from the wounds of the Crucified ; to the left are the Virgin and "hild and to the right the Annunciation, against a background of architecture and the Calvary.

      The Crucifixion and the Madonna, Umbrian School, middle ot the 14 th century. A reliquary diptych showing on one side the enthroned Ma- donna, at whose feet kneels a group of adoring nuns, and on the other side the Lord on the Cross between the Virgin and St. Although there is no trace, at least in his works at Montefalco, of aesthetic principles, the Master of St. Clare of Montefalco had all the same certain qualities. Before all he is an amusing painter, full of spirit and with a decided sense of realism. Written in such a way that even the busiest people can benefit, each page in capsule form contains thoughts and advice for quieting the mind, embracing the silence and finding the serenity within you.

      Take it with you on your phone or tablet. Feel the zing of inspiration that comes from her guidance. Based on the principles of End the Struggle and Dance with Life, this powerful little book delivers the important message that something wondrous in your being is there for the taking. The Little Book of Peace of Mind is filled with encouraging words and ideas that will help you let go, slow down, release, embrace, be mindful, be joyful and find peace of mind.