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The main question raised by these studies is that of the impossibility of reconstituting the staff of servants of the royal bureaucracy and the cursus honorum of the individuals responsible for producing the deeds recorded in the ledgers of the royal chancellery, in view of the fact that they only relate to short periods. With the aim of overcoming this limitation, the studies turned their attention to describing and characterizing the chancellery as an archive, making both an internal and an external criticism of the main collection of documents relating to the period of governance of Afonso V Henriques Similarly, attempts have been made to investigate the possible relationships existing between the places where the deeds were drawn up and the establishment of the places of power , as a way of studying the settlement and implantation of the services of the royal bureaucracy and the central archives of the chancellery as an organ of government.

Others worked on defining the rhythms and working habits of the notaries and scribes Ferreira ; Brito Almost all of them stress the participation of the royal bureaucrats in the council, in diplomatic missions and in war. Thanks to this wide-ranging group of works, we can safely say today that the study of the political staff and the organizational structure of the services of royal governance has been satisfactorily made for the period from to One of the most important pieces of research undertaken by the group of researchers mentioned was the preparation of biographical notes resorting to the definition of a prosopographic source accompanied by the respective computerized experimentation.

It is this experiment that we shall now examine. The use of prosopography as a method of historical research in Portugal dates back to the s, as we have said, coinciding with a period of intense publication and dissemination of French and Anglo-American studies upon the subject. The aim of prosopography is to collect a set of data originating from different sources about a pre-defined group of people a micro-population and organize it in a structured manner. This allows for factor analysis, i.

In the early s, the English historian Lawrence Stone relaunched discussions about the use of the prosopographic method, pointing out that the aim of prosopography is to collect multi-biographical data collective biographies. This distinguishes it from biography which has as its aim to collect all the information available about one particular individual Avezou For Stone, the purpose of prosopography is to produce a multi-biography Stone , which is to be created from a matrix that brings together the full set of correlations that are accepted as being essential for the analysis of the social group under study.

In the prosopographic matrix, it is possible to identify sub-groups of variables that are closely correlated with one another within each group and have little association with other variables of other sub-groups. In fact, in the s, the application to the Social Sciences of developments in information technology made it possible for French and Anglo-Saxon historians to recognize in prosopography a privileged instrument for combining qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis Millet ; Bulst In the s, the prosopographic method underwent a genuine rebirth, becoming very popular amongst the communities of medievalists in western Europe.

Most of the studies about royal officialdom that were mentioned in the previous section made use of the prosopographic method, thus increasing Portuguese familiarity with the prosopographic style proposed by the French school Millet ; Genet ; Autrand ; Genet and Lottes The starting point for identifying the holders of royal posts and offices was the chancellery.

The exhaustive survey of the chancellery records made it possible to identify the State servants whose names were written in the final protocol of the royal charters. A similar purpose was served by the diplomatic classification of all the deeds drawn up with the aim of establishing the areas of bureaucratic specialization of the notaries who underwrote them Exchequer, Justice, Grace and Favor, General Administration. The studies made of royal scribes follow a research methodology that is similar to the one developed for analyzing the bureaucratic activity of the higher placed agents of power.

This is one of the main limitations of prosopography, as has been underlined by several authors since the s Burke In this context, the studies made about the officials of the medieval royal chancelleries that we have referred to in previous sections examined all the information available in the original sources and in the published sources for the two groups of officials studied notaries and scribes.

The former sources include the so-called archive sources, in particular the records of the royal chancellery and the separate original sources. The latter include all the published medieval sources, namely genealogical sources, chronicle sources and documents originating from different areas of production.

Consequently, scholars studying the royal officials have completed the information that they gathered from the main source — the royal chancellery — with the consultation of all the published medieval sources.

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The preparation of the prosopographic surveys took into account the whole of the information available for the two groups of higher placed agents in the royal bureaucracy notaries and scribes. This is why underlying each of the items of the questionnaire are the quality and quantity of biographical information surveyed in all the sources examined for the group s of officials under analysis.


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In this way, it was possible to point out the similarities and differences in the political participation and the careers of the two socio-political groups. The program of research into royal chancelleries developed by Portuguese scholars has established the following categories of data as the items to be included in the prosopographic catalogues of the upper elite of the bureaucracy the notaries: Both the compilation and the systematic organization of individual data in prosopographic catalogues correspond to what Jean-Philippe Genet calls a metasource Genet The metasource provides an organized distribution of the main questions that can be asked about all of the members of each of the groups under study.

Consequently, the two main vectors of the prosopographic databases built by the scholars of the power elites of the late Middle Ages are the men and the documents sources. From what has been said, it can be seen that we distinguish the works that are accompanied by biographical information in which the narration of events and the succession of informative details is, to some extent, arbitrary from those works in which the information that has been gathered together follows a rigid organizational scheme, structured in the form of a prosopographic matrix.

At the end of this text, it is important to stress the main approaches, knowing that these illustrate the main stages in the evolution of political history in Portugal over the last thirty years. In this regard, the royal chancellery is seen as a documentary memory of the activity of the agents of the royal bureaucracy. Next, we described the international framework of the studies about political societies in Portugal, bearing in mind the decisive influence of the historiography produced by French and Anglo-American scholars in enriching the problematics and in renewing the different perspectives for approaching classical themes from the historiography of the political.

Finally, we referred to the advantages of introducing prosopography into the study of the royal power and the upper elites of the bureaucracy in the 14th and 15th centuries, highlighting the increased possibilities for the treatment, exploration and correlation of data offered by the construction of prosopographic databases in considering the different aspects of the activity of the groups studied notaries and scribes. This series of alliances gave rise to a renewal of the studies of political history in Portugal from the s onwards, leading to the firm implantation of this field of study in the following decades.

Currently the history of the political dominates important sectors in the production of Portuguese medieval historiography. Albuquerque, Martim de Albuquerque, Ruy and Albuquerque Martim The first edition was published in Almeida, Ana Paula Godinho de In O Instituto , vol. As cortes de Arnaut, Salvador Dias Pedro, Senhor de Penela. Les gens du Parlement de Paris. Publications de la Sorbonne. Publications de la Sorbonne: Offprint from O Instituto , vol. Documentos das Chancelarias reais relativos a Marrocos anteriores a A Chancelaria de D.

Azevedo, Rui de Azevedo, Rui de a. In Revista da Universidade de Coimbra. Azevedo, Rui de b. Barros, Henrique da Gama The photocopied edition dates from Lisbon, Universidade Nova de Lisboa: Bethencourt, Francisco and Curto, Diogo Ramada, ed.

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Borlido, Armando Paulo Carvalho Brito, Isabel Carla Moreira de Prosopography and the Computer: In History and Computing II , ed. Peter Denley et al. Bulst, Neithard and Genet, Jean-Philippe, ed. O concelho de Lisboa na crise de As Cortes de Leiria de Capas, Hugo Alexandre Ribeiro Pedro I I, Tomo 1 I, Tomo 2 II, Tomo 1 II, Tomo 3, Livro da Casa dos Contos, Lisbon: Chartularium Universitatis Portucalensis A linguagem dos foros de Castelo Rodrigo.

Imprensa Nacional Casa da Moeda, Coelho, Maria Helena da Cruz et al. Coelho, Maria Helena da Cruz b. Caminhos mais antigos e mais recentes. Maria Helena da Cruz Coelho et al. Coelho, Maria Helena da Cruz O Estado e as Sociedades Urbanas. O Poder Concelhio em Tempos Medievais.

Funchal 26 a 30 de Out.: In Poder central, poder regional, local , ed. Documentos , 23, Universidade de Sevilla: Coelho, Maria Helena da Cruz a. O Peso dos privilegiados em Portugal. A terra e as gentes. In Serge Berstein e Pierre Milza dir. La Guerre au Moyen Age. Reinado de D Afonso IV Cortes portuguesas, Reinado de D.

Duarte Cortes de e Fernando I Cortes portuguesas, Reinado de D Pedro I Universidade Aberta, PhD thesis, photocopied. Costa, Avelino de Jesus da A chancelaria real portuguesa e os seus registos de a In Revista da Faculdade de Letras. Costa, Avelino de Jesus da Costa The much improved 3rd edition dates from The 6th edition is from The first edition dates from Cunha, Mafalda Soares da Linhagem, parentesco e poder. Cunha , Maria Cristina Almeida e A Chancelaria Arquiepiscopal de Braga The Portuguese Medieval Parliament: In e-journal of Portuguese History , vol.

Afonso V , Porto: O reinado de D. Fernandes, Hermenegildo Nuno Universidade Nova de Lisboa: The photocopied text is from The photocopied dissertation is from Franco, Maria das Neves Faculdade de Letras da Universidade do Porto: A Idade dos Homens do Poder: In Economia, Sociedade e Poderes. Estudos em Homenagem a Salvador Dias Arnaut. PhD thesis, 3 vols. Os textos, as normas, as gentes. I, Madrid, Universidad Complutense: As Gavetas da Torre do Tombo Centro de Estudos Ultramarinos.

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Gomes, Rita Costa Um olhar sobre a cidade medieval. Sancho II , Coimbra: Maison des sciences de l'homme: The first edition is from Entre l'Eglise et l'Etat. Histoire, Sciences Sociales , vol. Centro e periferia nas estruturas administrativas do Antigo Regime.

The first edition is from , and the most recent edition is from Paulo Ferreira da Cunha, Coimbra: Publications de La Sorbonne: O Estado moderno na recente Historiografia Portuguesa: Revista de Cultura da Cidade da Guarda , 3 Maio: Dionisius et Alfonsus, Dei gracia reges et communis utilitatis gratia legiferi. PhD thesis, 2 vols. Conselho Real ou Conselheiros do Rei?

Por onde vem o medievismo em Portugal? In La Diplomatique urbaine en Europe au moyen age. Lei e poder concelhio: In Diplomatique royale du Moyen Age. Geografia dos livros de linhagens medievais portugueses Livro das Leis e Posturas Faculdade de Direito da Universidade de Lisboa. Atlas das Cidades Medievais Portuguesas. Imprensa Nacional-Casa da Moeda. In Brigantia , V, , Abr-Dez: In Braga Medieval , Braga: Marques, Maria Alegria Fernandes O Papado e Portugal no tempo de D. Ensaio sobre as origens de Portugal.

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