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Freud was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, who created an entirely new approach to the understanding of the human personality. He is regarded as one of the most influential - and controversial - minds of the 20th century. His father was a merchant. The Freud was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, who created an entirely new approach to the understanding of the human personality. The family moved to Leipzig and then settled in Vienna, where Freud was educated.
Freud's family were Jewish but he was himself non-practising. In , Freud began to study medicine at the University of Vienna. After graduating, he worked at the Vienna General Hospital. He collaborated with Josef Breuer in treating hysteria by the recall of painful experiences under hypnosis. In , Freud went to Paris as a student of the neurologist Jean Charcot.
On his return to Vienna the following year, Freud set up in private practice, specialising in nervous and brain disorders. The same year he married Martha Bernays, with whom he had six children. Freud developed the theory that humans have an unconscious in which sexual and aggressive impulses are in perpetual conflict for supremacy with the defences against them. In , he began an intensive analysis of himself. In , his major work 'The Interpretation of Dreams' was published in which Freud analysed dreams in terms of unconscious desires and experiences.
In , Freud was appointed Professor of Neuropathology at the University of Vienna, a post he held until Although the medical establishment disagreed with many of his theories, a group of pupils and followers began to gather around Freud. Processes that are not causally related to the phenomenon called thinking are more appropriately called the nonconscious processes of the brain.
- Freud’s Model of the Human Mind;
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David Holmes  examined sixty years of research about the Freudian concept of "repression", and concluded that there is no positive evidence for this concept. Given the lack of evidence for many Freudian hypotheses, some scientific researchers proposed the existence of unconscious mechanisms that are very different from the Freudian ones. In modern cognitive psychology, many researchers have sought to strip the notion of the unconscious from its Freudian heritage, and alternative terms such as "implicit" or "automatic" have come into currency.
These traditions emphasize the degree to which cognitive processing happens outside the scope of cognitive awareness, and show that things we are unaware of can nonetheless influence other cognitive processes as well as behavior. In terms of the unconscious, the purpose of dreams, as stated by Freud , is to fulfill repressed wishes through the process of dreaming, since they cannot be fulfilled in real life.
For example, if someone was to rob a store and feel guilty about it, they might dream about a scenario in which their actions were justified and renders them blameless. Freud asserted that the wish-fulfilling aspect of the dream may be disguised due to the difficulty in distinguishing between manifest content and latent content.
Freud’s Model of the Human Mind | Journal Psyche
The manifest content consists of the plot of a dream at the surface level. The latent content refers to the hidden or disguised meaning of the events in the plot. The latent content of the dream is what supports the idea of wish fulfillment. It represents the intimate information in the dreamer's current issues and childhood conflict.
In response to Freud's theory on dreams, other psychologists have come up with theories to counter his argument. Theorist Rosalind Cartwright proposed that dreams provide people with the opportunity to act out and work through everyday problems and emotional issues in a non-real setting with no consequences. According to her cognitive problem solving view, a large amount of continuity exists between our waking thought and the thoughts that exist in dreams.
Proponents of this view believe that dreams allow participation in creative thinking and alternate ways to handle situations when dealing with personal issues because dreams are not restrained by logic or realism. In addition to this, Allan Hobson and colleagues came up with the activation-synthesis hypothesis which proposes that dreams are simply the side effects of the neural activity in the brain that produces beta brain waves during REM sleep that are associated with wakefulness.
According to this hypothesis, neurons fire periodically during sleep in the lower brain levels and thus send random signals to the cortex. The cortex then synthesizes a dream in reaction to these signals in order to try to make sense of why the brain is sending them. However, the hypothesis does not state that dreams are meaningless, it just downplays the role that emotional factors play in determining dreams.
The Unconscious Mind
While, historically, the psychoanalytic research tradition was the first to focus on the phenomenon of unconscious mental activity, there is an extensive body of conclusive research and knowledge in contemporary cognitive psychology devoted to the mental activity that is not mediated by conscious awareness. Most of that cognitive research on unconscious processes has been done in the mainstream, academic tradition of the information processing paradigm.
As opposed to the psychoanalytic tradition, driven by the relatively speculative in the sense of being hard to empirically verify theoretical concepts such as the Oedipus complex or Electra complex , the cognitive tradition of research on unconscious processes is based on relatively few theoretical assumptions and is very empirically oriented i. Cognitive research has revealed that automatically, and clearly outside of conscious awareness, individuals register and acquire more information than what they can experience through their conscious thoughts.
See Augusto, , for a recent comprehensive survey. For example, an extensive line of research conducted by Hasher and Zacks  has demonstrated that individuals register information about the frequency of events automatically i. Moreover, perceivers do this unintentionally, truly "automatically," regardless of the instructions they receive, and regardless of the information processing goals they have.
The ability to unconsciously and relatively accurately tally the frequency of events appears to have little or no relation to the individual's age,  education, intelligence, or personality, thus it may represent one of the fundamental building blocks of human orientation in the environment and possibly the acquisition of procedural knowledge and experience, in general.
Ellenberger, in his classic history of dynamic psychology. He remarks on Schopenhauer's psychological doctrines several times, crediting him for example with recognizing parapraxes, and urges that Schopenhauer "was definitely among the ancestors of modern dynamic psychiatry. He also cites with approval Foerster's interesting claim that "no one should deal with psychoanalysis before having thoroughly studied Schopenhauer.
In general, he views Schopenhauer as the first and most important of the many nineteenth-century philosophers of the unconscious, and concludes that "there cannot be the slightest doubt that Freud's thought echoes theirs. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Carl Jung and Collective unconscious. Mind and Brain portal Thinking portal. Is Freud Really Dead? Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association. Retrieved June 1, The Macmillan Dictionary of the History of Science.
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