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Soaked in this cultural immersed in this culture both as consumers of rain of marketing communications, consumers it, and as managers within it? There has a broader legal framework. Communications by competing international organisations. But while there Postmodern writing places on electronic com- are some specific rules for example alcohol munications as a primary cultural influence see, drunk in TV advertisements must be sipped for example, Brown, This influence has rather than gulped the industry guidelines notable epistemological and moral dimensions emphasise general requirements of decency, in the sense that Postmodern media products legality and honesty concerning the truthfulness are characterised by relativism, irony, self of advertising claims and the means by which referentiality and hedonism.

Furthermore, the these claims are presented. Crucially, these reg- distinction between marketing culture and enter- ulatory criteria are culturally and historically tainment communications such as movies is relative. What was unacceptable in U. In tising in the s is acceptable today. What is the light of this view the construct of the com- acceptable in the U. The way these juxtapositions The concern of this paper lies primarily with are presented in advertisements is circumscribed the normative dimension of this issue. If the con- by the social mores of the time and the place. Ethical Perspectives on the Postmodern Communications Leviathan 17 The professional regulation of marketing com- marketing ethics.

The next section seeks to munications in the U.

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Thus, from a managerial point of view, the boundaries of what might be claimed and the ways the claims can be presented change over Reflections on the morality and psychology time as cultural norms change. Furthermore, the of advertising globalisation of communications renders regula- tion increasingly difficult and subject to cross The point that advertising does not, in general, cultural influences.

But not only are marketing seek to promote the advancement of human communications ethical guidelines difficult to moral sensibility, is not new: Kitchen formulate and police because of scale and cultural quotes Lasch on the ethics of advertising: They are framed by the cultural phenomenon of the Leviathan itself and conse- Modern advertising seeks to promote not so much quently they may carry implicit assumptions self indulgence as self doubt.

It seeks to create needs, not to fulfil them: It addresses itself an ethical issue. In particular, the guidelines seem to the spiritual desolation of modern life and to presupposes a particular view of ethical social proposes consumption as the cure. The ethical regulation of marketing p. The which explicitly uses the motive force of sub- marketing professional is conceived of as being jective feelings of guilt to try to manipulate engaged in a one to one dialogue with a pro- human behaviour through guilt inducing adver- spective consumer and this dialogue may be tising themes Burnett and Lunsford, There is no consideration of This explicit fostering of consumer doubt and the moral effect of the totality of marketing anxiety has ethical implications.

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While a certain communications and the effect this may have on degree of caveat emptor let the buyer beware the autonomous decision making ability of the is appropriate in a free society, at what point does consumer. Neither is there any consideration of the influence of marketing communications the effect of the burgeoning volume of marketing become insidious? The question is partly a psy- messages on society more generally or on the chological one: Such passivity implies moral sub- communication to targeted consumers who are servience to marketing communication designers.

Ethical issues are consid- To marketing communications professionals ered in this social vacuum and are framed by a consumers seem very far from morally sub- cognitivist discourse which excludes broader servient and this is reflected in information social and cultural considerations.

Marketing Communications: Principles and Practice by Philip J. Kitchen

By the same impulse, we see advertising cated automata influenced by internal material images of affluent consumption and partake perceptions of an external material world vicariously in the emotional scenario of material Hobbes, , p. This general view of gratification. Hume result is a subjective feeling of dissonance, or a sought to develop moral philosophy as a state of felt deprivation.

Hume is perhaps best known for his For Hume , the association of one idea theory of causation as a human construction: We may number of repetitions the two ideas may appear associate one idea with another if there is some necessarily connected. In the context of con- resemblance between them, and if they are temporary marketing, brands may, by repetitive contiguous in time or place. The source of ideas is the self and the ciations may reflect primitive anthropomorphic subjectivity of experience leaves us alone in the tendencies: The interpretations of our own sense experience.

We popularity and symbolic power of particular understand the world in terms of our own sense products of marketing demands theoretical experience and communications media offer us explanations which examine how we make a theatre of our own imagination. The emotional response to marketing products Any thing that gives a pleasant sensation, and is may sometimes seem logically prior to consid- related to the self, excites the passion of pr ide, erations of technical product quality in consumer which is also agreeable and has self for its object buying behaviour. Effective marketing commu- Hume, , p.

For example, Hume empha- marketing communication is the key to moti- sises the human predisposition to sympathy, vating and influencing consumer behaviour: We see television memory and decision making processes van pictures of starving children in Africa and we Raaij, Kitchen psychological analysis of human perception and addresses this point by referring to the belief.

Therefore, it may be conceded that the Cognitive Information Processing model of proliferation of marketing communications and consumer behaviour.

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  • Marketing has borrowed the consumption of marketing messages by the this model from Cognitive Psychology and it general population constitutes a major unprece- derives particularly from the work of Donald dented, undocumented, and under-researched Broadbent and Newell and Simon However, According to the model, data enters the cogni- while individual perceptions of products and tive system through the senses and is processed brands are influenced by particular marketing in linear fashion. Linear processing implies communications messages, it is still necessary to capacity limitation: For example, a well-established tions messages.

    For this task we seem to need a and replicated finding from memory research way of modelling the interaction between indicates that the maximum capacity of short consumers and marketing communications. Two term or working memory is about seven items issues arise at this point: This question may be addressed cognitive capacity to process all the marketing through the Cognitive Information Processing communications information to which they Model which represents humans and consumers are exposed.

    Assumptions discrete, computer-like operations. The other, about the way consumers react to this bottleneck related, question concerns consumer response to are central to the argument that the data overload. Advertising apologists loss of moral identity? Or do they adapt con- might contend that advertising can do no harm structively to the Leviathan and become intelli- precisely because consumers selectively, and gent, cynical, streetwise, circumspect Postmodern consciously or unconsciously, reject the great Consumers who are just as savvy as advertisers majority of marketing communications to which who are trying to persuade them?

    For enlight- they are exposed. Does this selective attention enment we will look firstly at the CIP model, process, which has presumably evolved by secondly at the Postmodern perspective on natural selection as a survival mechanism, not consumer psychology. As Kitchen Buyers can easily become overwhelmed with writes, information see Keller and Staelin, ; Kahneman, ; and Miller, Does this Assume that many advertising or promotional state, prolonged, result in the disablement of messages actually reach unintended audiences — critical faculties concerning buying decisions, or that is, audiences which may not be in the market do people react to the Leviathan by adapting and for particular products or services.

    The constant evolving into hyper-critical Postmodern con- bombardment of messages — indicating product consumption in lifestyle settings — may provide the sumers? The Postmodern consumer 22 Postmodern critical theorists such as Lyotard, The intuitive appeal of this argument is clear. Stephen Brown munications embody this fetishism by investing writes, products with emotional values, i.

    Not to Postmodernism, as its advocates frequently empha- have the product is not to have the attribute. But sise, has much to contribute to Marketing discourse.

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    Perhaps the and provides an insight into the current crisis of totality of marketing communications do form a confidence in the discipline. The information terpoints to this view, emphasises the influence processing model implies that consumers can Postmodernism has had on the development of filter a proportion of promotional messages out theories of buyer behaviour in Marketing see, of conscious awareness.

    Consumers, after all, are for example, Foxall, ; Venkatesh, ; not obliged to watch many hours of television a Nyeck, This influence is derived from the week. However, notwithstanding between Marketing Communications and avoidance strategies, we have still to deal with the popular cinematic culture. The advertising possibility that marketing communications data industry is a training ground for aspirant film overload could elicit a state of unconscious directors and television advertising reflects this in confusion in consumers, disarming critical and the prevalence of abstraction and surrealism as evaluative faculties, and impairing the presumed opposed to literal descriptions of product moral and economic quality of buying decisions.

    13. The Sovereign State: Hobbes' Leviathan

    These trends are contemporary conceptions of morality and social among many other features of a Communications justice. The sense of the collapse of certainty into cultural, moral and epistemological rela- tivism feeds directly into every home through the Philosophical perspectives on the technological telecommunications revolution. Postmodern Communications Leviathan Brown refers to Baudrillard in Poster, in asserting that, Bertrand Russell saw philosophy as. For many, this inexorable fragmentation of modern.

    Russell, , preface p.

    Marketing Communications: Principles and Practice

    Indeed, it may be considered very odd that so much The postmodern consumer is represented as speculation on general business ethics does occur a His work was produced in a time of This jaundiced model of the consumer is not that popular democracy in Athens, and political of a rational, decision making entity.

    It is that of power was won, when not by force, by sophis- an entity without moral sensibility or critical tical rhetoric, the art of verbal persuasion. An analysis of the ethics of Marketing non-representative democracy of fifth and fourth Communications based upon such a model of the century Athens all 45, voters2 were entitled consumer might conclude that Marketing to vote at the law making mass meetings of the Communications professionals should afford Assembly.

    Even the law courts were under its targeted audiences the same level of ethical popular control. Plato was deeply influenced by consideration as they might pet rabbits. No Canadian Experience, Eh? The Everything Guide to Customer Engagement. How to Win Influence and Friend People: Reality of Management, The. Lecturer in Service Operations Gary Graham. Advances in Luxury Brand Management. Working, Managing, and Leading in Turbulent Times. Integrated Brand Marketing and Measuring Returns.

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