Starting in the 15th century, the Portuguese maritime explorations led to the introduction of many loanwords from Asian languages.
From the 16th to the 19th centuries, because of the role of Portugal as intermediary in the Atlantic slave trade, and the establishment of large Portuguese colonies in Angola, Mozambique, and Brazil, Portuguese got several words of African and Amerind origin, especially names for most of the animals and plants found in those territories.
While those terms are mostly used in the former colonies, many became current in European Portuguese as well. Finally, it has received a steady influx of loanwords from other European languages. Between and , Portuguese belongs to the West Iberian branch of the Romance languages, and it has special ties with the following members of this group:.
Despite the obvious lexical and grammatical similarities between Portuguese and other Romance languages i. Portuguese speakers will usually need some formal study of basic grammar and vocabulary before attaining a reasonable level of comprehension in the other Romance languages, and vice versa.
Portuguese has a larger phonemic inventory than Spanish, and its dialect-varying system of allophony furthers distance even more. That could explain why it is only moderately intelligible to Spanish speakers despite the strong lexical similarity between the two languages; Portuguese speakers have quite a high degree of intelligibility of Spanish though. Communication is quite good between monolingual Brazilians and Spanish-speaking Latin Americans; between monolingual Portuguese and Spanish-speaking Spaniards the accents can make things a little more challenging. However, educated Portuguese and Spaniards can usually understand one another quite well.
The closest language to Portuguese is Galician, spoken in the autonomous community of Galicia northwestern Spain. The two were at one time a single language, known today as Galician-Portuguese, but since the political separation of Portugal from Galicia they have diverged, especially in pronunciation and vocabulary. Nevertheless, the core vocabulary and grammar of Galician are still noticeably closer to Portuguese than to those of Spanish. In particular, like Portuguese, it uses the future subjunctive, the personal infinitive, and the synthetic pluperfect. Nevertheless, many linguists still consider Galician to be a dialect of the Portuguese language.
It is called eonaviego or gallego-asturiano by its speakers. In nearby Larantuka, Portuguese is used for prayers in Holy Week rituals. The Romanization of Chinese was also influenced by the Portuguese language among others , particularly regarding Chinese surnames; one example is Mei.
Beginning in the 16th century, the extensive contacts between Portuguese travelers and settlers, African and Asian slaves, and local populations led to the appearance of many pidgins with varying amounts of Portuguese influence. As each of these pidgins became the mother tongue of succeeding generations, they evolved into fully fledged creole languages, which remained in use in many parts of Asia, Africa and South America until the 18th century.
Some Portuguese-based or Portuguese-influenced creoles are still spoken today, by over 3 million people worldwide, especially people of partial Portuguese ancestry. There is a maximum of 9 oral vowels and 19 consonants, though some varieties of the language have fewer phonemes Brazilian Portuguese is usually analyzed as having 8 oral vowels. There are also five nasal vowels, which some linguists regard as allophones of the oral vowels, ten oral diphthongs, and five nasal diphthongs. In total, Brazilian Portuguese has 13 vowel phonemes.gboat.vip.avoori.com/naroj-1993-mercedes-benz.php
The functional load of these two additional vowels is very low. Like Catalan, Portuguese uses vowel quality to contrast stressed syllables with unstressed syllables: The consonant inventory of Portuguese is fairly conservative. However, some notable dialectal variants and allophones have appeared, among which:. A notable aspect of the grammar of Portuguese is the verb. Morphologically, more verbal inflections from classical Latin have been preserved by Portuguese than by any other major Romance language.
It has also some innovations not found in other Romance languages except Galician and the Fala:.
Portuguese is written with 26 letters of the Latin script , making use of five diacritics to denote stress, vowel height, contraction, nasalization, and other sound changes acute accent, grave accent, circumflex accent, tilde, and cedilla. Accented characters and digraphs are not counted as separate letters for collation purposes. Official and administrative language.
Cultural or secondary language. List of countries where Portuguese is an official language. Portuguese alphabet and Portuguese orthography. In this discussion of a female politician from Alagoas state it is possible to notice that the "r" in this position is an [h] sound http: Patke, Lars Jensen A historical companion to postcolonial literatures: Retrieved 11 May Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics 2 ed. Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 21 April Why Portuguese is the second language of Massachusetts from www. The Case of Goa, Daman and Diu".
Retrieved 12 October Retrieved 13 July Retrieved 18 May Irineu da Silva Ferraz. Jorge Zahar Editora , p. Retrieved 27 November Retrieved 25 September Pu Han ci dian: Published , Biblioteca Nacional. Official languages of the European Union. Asturian Cantabrian Extremaduran Leonese Mirandese.
Portuguese language ~ Computer Informatics ~ ~ xecykisypife.tk
Italics indicate extinct languages Bold indicates languages with more than 5 million speakers Languages between parentheses are varieties of the language on their left. Languages of South Africa. Damanese East Timorese Goan Macanese. Geographic distribution of Portuguese Portuguese phonology Portuguese vocabulary.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Rental price per villa Sunday - Thursday: Rp 1,, - 2,, Saturday: Rp 1,, - 2,, Big day: Rp 1,, - 2,, for max 20 people per villa. Latin Portuguese alphabet Portuguese Braille.
This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. Os melhores contos by Machado de Assis series Col. Seventeen-year-old Nogueira, a native of the provinces living in Rio de Janeiro for his studies, has arranged with a neighbor to go to midnight mass. His young wife, daughter of a poor shopkeeper, does not understand his art.
She is drawn instead to popular music and those who play it, above all to a mediocre law student who is back in Rio de Janeiro for the holidays. Machado de Assis, Brazil's greatest novelist, also excelled in the short story. A School Story by Joaquim Maria Machado de Assis and 1 more Chekhov noted that if, early in a story, mention was made of a rifle hanging on the wall, it would eventually have to go off. Hanging on the window frame of the schoolhouse in Machado de Assis's "A School Story" is not a rifle, but a paddle, complete with five holes drilled in it.
Three yet One by Joaquim Maria Machado de Assis and 1 more "Her gaze was not absent, as it had been shortly before; instead, it was fixed on the flowers on the wallpaper that lined the room.
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She noticed, for the first time, that the flowers were daisies. And she shifted her gaze from one to the next, to see if the pattern was the same, and she found that it was.
Is that not delightful? Daisies painted on paper.