Currently from 7 to 8 percent of the student body comes from foreign countries. One suspects that the percentage will increase to 15 to 20 percent, given Church growth outside North America.
Brigham Young University in the New Millennium - BYU Speeches
Still, the increasing quality of BYU will be a magnet for students no matter where they live. One suspects that racial and cultural diversity at the university will increase faster than overall Church growth. Convert growth rates are higher outside North America, and my impression is that conversion rates for Hispanic and black Americans are higher in North America when compared with the rate for Caucasians.
There will be strong, natural forces increasing the racial, ethnic, and cultural mix on campus. Although some universities may struggle to maintain on-campus enrollment, it will not be a problem for BYU in the coming years. Increased Church membership is a key reason, but there are others. Face-to-face discussions, seminars, and labs led by an expert and aided by new technologies will continue as the most effective form of learning. Also, the university as a physical space will continue to provide a forum for social interaction.
Young people will desire association with each other in educational as well as other social settings as they prepare to make marital choices. This will be true of young LDS adults even more than their nonmember counterparts because of Church teachings regarding the importance of the marriage decision. On-campus education will be streamlined over time with the aid of technology. Lectures, data, class assignments, reading materials, exams, and other tutorial materials will be online and on CD-ROM. Students will access online information from their homes before they arrive, from their dorms after arrival, from the library, from other buildings on campus, and eventually by antennae from any location.
When used appropriately, new technology has the capacity to reduce lecture time and allow for more discussion groups, seminars, and labs. To the extent that technology increases learning effectiveness, it may increase opportunities for students to be involved in research projects and free up time for faculty research. We believe that students will be able to spend a semester off campus with some courses taught at a distance. Pilot projects exploring these possibilities are underway.
Most of the courses at present are on paper and through the mail. During the past year approximately 20 university courses have been converted to the Internet.
#2: The Transformation of the General Education Curriculum
Plans call for 50 courses on the Internet by the end of , with or more courses available electronically within the next five years. The new Internet courses are enriched well beyond their paper predecessors. Payment for the course may be done over the Internet, and a password is given that allows access to the course. Eventually all of the materials will come over the Internet. Hot links access video materials that include the professor describing course objectives, outlining the course, and lecturing.
The Changing Landscape of Higher Education
Hotlinks embedded in the course also take students to other Web sites and to the CD-ROM that contains enriched materials. The first person to sign on was a member in Japan. The first person to complete the course was a young, nonmember woman at a university in California. She was studying comparative religions and received permission to take the BYU course as part of the series. As the number of Internet courses multiplies, so will the number of students served across the world—and at a much reduced cost.
We expect the number of students enrolled in distance learning courses to multiply many times as students learn about the courses on the Web. The quality of interactive multimedia material available online will improve considerably with time and will become even more effective in both transmitting knowledge and in providing a learning experience. The number of full-time students on the Provo campus will remain at 29, The percent of Church college-age students at BYU will decline from 3 percent in to 1 percent or less by First, we must focus our resources and energies to provide a world-class education for on-campus students.
As new initiatives are put forward, we also must be willing to drop programs that are less valuable. We must concentrate our efforts. In addition, our students will have special qualities not always found on these other campuses. It is vital that we provide them with a first-class educational opportunity. The foundation is in place to do this. That is a major advance from the third-tier rankings of recent years. Although I appreciate the move up in the rankings, the magazine still underestimates the quality of a BYU education.
The new ranking did make some adjustments for the effects of missions on freshman retention and on graduation rates. However, these factors would improve further if we could take into account the full impact of missions. Also, 25 percent of the weighting is based on how we are viewed by the administrations of other universities. Although they learn something about our quality from the students we send them for graduate work, most administrators are not involved in teaching. Over time, however, they will come to know more about us through our students and our research. The second condition to be met so that BYU continues playing a central role in the kingdom is that we leverage the excellence on campus to provide educational opportunities for LDS students who are unable to come here.
Using distance learning courses is one approach, but there are other ways as well. Through faculty collaboration with scholars across the world, scholars at other institutions will learn to value us as a people and, therefore, create opportunities for qualified LDS students to enter their halls of learning. May I illustrate the possibilities with a short video.
The video depicts BYU faculty and students working with faculty and students at the other locations, sharing computer hardware and software, and designing products. The video also shows BYU faculty and students teaching students at Ricks College how to operate the computer equipment and other pieces of equipment on campus. Because the distance learning connection is over the Internet, the communications costs are very low. The engineering video illustrates the potential power of distance learning in a number of settings. My purpose in showing the video, however, is to illustrate the collaboration between BYU and two of the finest universities in the world—the Institute of Technology in Monterrey, Mexico, and the University of Tokyo.
What if there were LDS Japanese or Mexican students interested in learning how to use the engineering software? Could they be invited to participate with the other students in Monterrey or Tokyo? Or if BYU could certify student quality, would a Brazilian university admit an LDS student who had not traveled the prescribed admissions path? I believe the day will come when our reputation and credibility will open doors for LDS students wherever they may be. As we look forward to the next century, we must build links in a natural way between BYU and the best universities in the world.
Faculty collaboration is one means. Faculty and student exchanges are another. Visits to this campus by educational leaders is a third way. The natural ties and associations BYU has with other institutions will open doors for our young people in foreign nations to obtain an education. Retired professors and their wives will be called on missions to serve as tutors in foreign countries to help young adults complete BYU Web courses and prepare for entrance exams. If our reputation is strong enough, LDS students living outside the U.
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For the above to happen, BYU must be a world-class university. If we are covenant disciples, we will not neglect the gifts we have to offer, and our sacrifice will build a Zion university that excels. Over time, faculty and administration must work together to attract and support the finest LDS faculty available as well as outstanding non-LDS scholars who share our values and support our mission.
If the destiny of Brigham Young University is to become world-class, from where will the financial resources come? Fortunately the board of trustees is committed to building an extraordinary institution. It is my sense that the Church will continue funding BYU near current levels, with moderate annual increases. In addition, capital donations from individuals, foundations, and corporations are beginning to supply the university with resources that will make a difference. Four years ago President Rex Lee initiated a capital campaign with the approval of the board of trustees. Amazon Giveaway allows you to run promotional giveaways in order to create buzz, reward your audience, and attract new followers and customers.
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Amazon Music Stream millions of songs. Amazon Drive Cloud storage from Amazon. Alexa Actionable Analytics for the Web. But it is also clear that the value of the skilled trades is rising relative to "symbolic work. This compares with one-third 33 percent of job openings in the high-skill occupational categories and 22 percent in the service occupations," report Harry J. Holzer and Robert I. There will be implications for higher education: Accordingly, accommodating these demands will require increased U.
Not only will there need to be a supply of such courses and programs to train these middle-skill workers, but the placement of the pedagogical value of practical skill above theoretical skill could have important consequences for a broad range of curricula, especially general education. All students might benefit from a curriculum that introduces them to the trades. Camille Paglia has claimed:. We need a sweeping revalorization of the trades.
The pressuring of middle-class young people into officebound, paper-pushing jobs is cruelly shortsighted. Concrete manual skills, once gained through the master-apprentice alliance in guilds, build a secure identity. In a period of global economic turmoil, with manufacturing jobs migrating overseas and service-sector jobs diminishing in availability and prestige, educators whose salaries are paid by hopeful parents have an obligation to think in practical terms about the destinies of their charges. That may mean a radical stripping down of course offerings, with all teachers responsible for a core curriculum.
But every four-year college or university should forge a reciprocal relationship with regional trade schools. More higher education institutions might develop their own colleges of the trades, in addition to colleges of the arts and sciences, business, and engineering. James Duderstadt, the former president of the University of Michigan, once noted that his school had watched its funding from the state diminish so much over the years that it had been "forced to evolve from 'state-supported' to 'state-assisted' to 'state-related' to what might only be characterized as 'state-located.
Some of these institutions, like the University of Michigan, are reaching the stage where they may begin to consider cutting off what is left of state support and functioning instead as a private institution. It is possible that large state institutions, many of which already receive relatively smaller and smaller percentages of their funding from state government sources, will declare financial independence from the state and, as a result, will obtain governing independence as well. This is part of a much broader trend toward privatization in higher education—meaning, among other things, that the burden of support is increasingly falling on individuals.
This has recently been demonstrated in the California system. Because of its devastating budget situation, which has necessitated increasing tuition system-wide, more individuals are bearing the costs of higher education. This is especially noteworthy when looking at rising textbook prices. Over the past few years, the costs of textbooks have outstripped the rate of tuition increase.
For many community college students, textbook prices are often cost-prohibitive, preventing many students from continuing their studies. These prices come as a shock for many parents and students who have attended public schools and for whom textbooks were a public educational technology, like a blackboard or desks and chairs, and thus were part of the overhead of a public education.
While we continue to speak about the public benefits of higher education—society needs educated citizens, businesses need trained workers—the costs of these public benefits are increasingly being born by individuals and private entities. Recently, the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania announced that it had established a lifelong "knowledge partnership" with graduates of its program.
According to the announcement, all graduates of Wharton will have the opportunity to return for free, one-week executive-training professional development every seven years—in effect, a sabbatical for "alumni. We place "alumni" in quotation marks as a way to signal a newly emerging relationship with matriculated students.
Today, when students graduate from an institution, they become "alumni"—former students who are no longer a daily part of the community and who are connected to the college or university largely as a potential funding source. But more higher education institutions will continue their formal relationships with matriculated students after graduation. Indeed, the degree will not mark the end of the relationship but, rather, the passing of one phase of that relationship to another.
Students may seek certificates from a college or university early in their careers, earn a degree or advanced degrees later in their lives, and return periodically for short courses and other professional development opportunities throughout their careers. In effect, the student never leaves or matriculates: This is not just a metaphorical connection; it is an ongoing and active relationship. Students will pay a lifelong tuition fee to belong to this network and will receive what amounts to "service after the sale" after graduation. When they change jobs and require new skill sets, they will look to their alma mater for continued training.
They will seek career counseling and indeed will continue to keep a university-affiliated career counselor "on retainer" throughout their careers. When they retire, many of these students will access their alma maters for cultural and intellectual opportunities that may not have been of interest to them or that they may not have had time for when they were younger.
As they age, the institution will be a source of "brain exercise" just as a membership in a gym provides physical exercise. All of these services will be factored in to the cost of education, which will be extended across a lifetime, not just four to six years. As students find information and knowledge from alternative sources, they will look to their colleges and universities as networks of service and professional relationships. But focusing strictly on technology trends blinds us to other environmental factors that are drivers for change in higher education.
Indeed, these trends will likely have an impact on IT departments. For example, as colleges and universities alter their connections with alumni, developing lifelong relationships and continued service models, these institutions will need more robust tracking tools and metrics to assess their students' career paths. Invisible college networks will surely require reliable IT platforms. IT professionals will need to reassess pedagogy and curriculum as programming and coding join the roster of general education competencies. Those colleges and universities that understand how to harness and leverage these tectonic shifts in the larger environment will be best positioned to lead disruptive innovation in higher education.
Olson and John W. Paradigm Publishers, , p. University of Notre Dame Press, , p. Sternberg, College Admissions for the 21st Century Boston: Harvard University Press, , p. On perceptions of tenure, see Cary Nelson, "Parents: Princeton University Press, , p. Wagner, The New Invisible College: Science for Development Washington, D. Brookings Institution Press, , pp.
Duderstadt, The View from the Helm: University of Michigan Press, , p. Staley and Dennis A. Comments on this article can be posted to the web via the link at the bottom of this page. Focusing strictly on technology trends can obscure other environmental factors that are drivers for innovation in higher education.