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Petition - mit dem Herzen ohne Namen gezeichnet by Johann Geben, nehmen und die by Johann Die traditionslose Tradition verstehen - Understanding the traditionless tradition by Johann Ein Fenster zu zugangzureinsicht. Raimund 52 Dec David NS 56 Dec Danilo 29 Jan 1: Vorapol 19 Jan 1: Samanera Ratana Selao 55 Jan 1: Nina 91 Jan 6: Administration 6 Events Dec Winter Solstice Dec Herzlich Willkommen im Arbeitsforum von zugangzureinsicht.

Anregungen, Fehler und Tadel auf zugangzureinsicht. Translation of the Mahavaga by Ven. Cheav Villa December 14, , Johann December 10, , Don't follow fools and see the many goodness of ma Kong Sokdina December 10, , I have to g ask you about the breath relaxation, meditatii Cheav Villa December 10, , Sophorn December 10, , Johann December 09, , Cheav Villa December 09, , Sophorn December 08, , Cheav Villa December 07, , For me at this time; it should use cognitive behavio Khemakumara December 03, , Moritz December 03, , Roman December 03, , Kong Sokdina December 03, , Sophorn December 02, , Cheav Villa December 01, , Johann December 01, , Cheav Villa November 30, , Cheav Villa November 29, , Samanera Ratana Selao Sie finden hier viele Informationen und vielleicht sogar neues rund um Zugang zur Einsicht.

October 04, , July 13, , June 24, , November 20, , Das Individuum tritt hierbei in den Vordergrund.

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Diversity personale Vielfalt ist in jedem Unternehmen vorhanden und muss gemanagt werden. Hier findet eine Konfrontation mit unerwarteten Rahmenbedingungen statt z. Diese Phase wird auch als Krise griech.: Die Krise birgt Chancen und Risiken.

Achtsam leben Tag 2 - Balloon Meditation

Dabei gibt es Erfolge und Misserfolge. Menschen die Vision nicht verstanden und verinnerlicht hat. Vision und Strategie kommunizieren: Kurzfristig sichtbare Erfolge planen: Welche Potentiale gibt es? Vision und Strategie kommunizieren. Wie werden Informationen optimal vermittelt? Kurzfristig sichtbare Erfolge planen. Wie werden erste Erfolge sichtbar gemacht? Ich muss Kernaussagen machen: Was Mitarbeiter wirklich wissen wollen! Wie Information wirklich effektiv ist! Wie gehe ich vor? Kommunikationsziele bestimmen Wozu wird das Konzept gebraucht? Wer sind die Zielgruppen und Adressaten der Kommunikation?

Kernbotschaften bestimmen Was sind die Kernbotschaften und Inhalte der Kommunikation? Verstanden ist nicht, was A sagt, sondern nur was B versteht. Damit diese Informationen aber auch wirken, d. Wissensarme und Wissensreiche — und nichts erreicht, weil auch nicht verstanden wird. Man muss allen Beteiligten aufzeigen, dass miteinander reden positiver ist und mehr bewirkt, als sich gegenseitig abzugrenzen: Grundidee des Life Event Cycle Lebenszyklusanalysen stellen ein traditionelles Marketinganalyseinstrument dar Porter , ff.

Die bisherigen ersten Kundenbedarfslebenszyklus- bzw. Vielleicht braucht man dann statt einer Limousine einen Avant. Wenn wir dann ein solches Fahrzeug nicht im Portfolio haben, laufen wir Gefahr, genau diesen Kunden zu verlieren. Up-Selling-Potenzial genutzt werden, d. Es erscheint plausibel, dass sich auch der Bedarf an Kommunikation in Inhalt und Umfang je nach Lebensphasen bzw. Wenn es Unternehmen gelingt, den Phasen des Life Event Cycles entsprechend sinnvoll die Kommunikation in Umfang, Inhalt und Form anzupassen, lassen sich Effizienzvorteile in der Kommunikation erzielen.

Zielsetzung des Human Resource Management ist es, die erforderliche Arbeitsleistung zur Erreichung der Unternehmensziele bereit zu stellen. Betrachtet man den systemischen Wissenschaftsansatz, so ist ein Unternehmen ein soziales System, das aus Entscheidungen besteht und diese Entscheidungen selbst anfertigt Luhmann Mit Entscheidung ist nicht ein psychischer Vorgang, sondern Kommunikation, ein sozialer Vorgang, gemeint Luhmann Unengagement seitens der Mitarbeiter im Unternehmen weitgehend verhindert werden?

In jeder Kommunikation ist ein Inhalts- und ein Beziehungsaspekt wieder zu finden Watzlawick , welche der hier definierten sachlichen Dimension bzw. Bei der 1-Weg-Kommunikation, z. Ein wechselseitiger Ablauf von Mitteilungen wird als Interaktion bezeichnet Watzlawick Bei diesen Mitarbeiterereignissen ist eine differenzierte Kommunikation entsprechend der oben definierten Kommunikationsdimensionen sinnvoll: Auf der Unternehmensseite ist es erforderlich, realistische und extensive Informationspolitik zu betreiben.

Die Bewertung in der Phase der Einarbeitung kann daher wie folgt vorgenommen werden: Dies kann durch verschiedenste Ereignisse hervorgerufen werden: Die Bewertung der Kommunikations-Dimensionen lautet daher: Der Eintritt in die Routinephase bedeutet, der Mitarbeiter kennt die Aufgaben gut, es gibt wenige Herausforderungen in Bezug auf den Arbeitsinhalt. Die Information seitens des Arbeitgebers und die Beziehungs-Dimension hat hier eine geringe Bedeutung.

Die Bewertung ist entsprechend: Unengagement seitens der Mitarbeiter im Unternehmen hat. Transaktionen dienen Kappelhof Unternehmensnetzwerke sind alles andere als linear abzubildende Gebilde Ortmann Von diesen Organisationsformen bzw. Sie sind informeller Natur, sich selbst organisierend und lassen sich nicht steuern. Dennoch lassen sie sich kultivieren. Die Netzwerkorganisation kann als hoch verdichtete Unternehmung betrachtet werden, in der es keine Ansammlung mehr von Einheiten, Abteilungen, etc. Die Aufbauorganisation wird daher bedeutungslos, bzw. Netzwerkorganisationen weisen wie andere soziale Strukturbildungen bzw.

Ereignisse nehmen Effekte vorausgehender Ereignisse auf. Norddeutsche Hanse als Handelsnetzwerk. Die Zeitdauer jeder einzelnen Phase ist dabei variabel. Drei typische Lebenszyklen — im Sinn einer Netzwerkgenese — sind jedoch erkennbar Richter Die potenziellen Netzwerker sind in aller Regel offen und bereit, strukturelle und prozessuale Kompromisse einzugehen, bzw. In der Phase 2 der Strukturbildungs- bzw. Ausbauphase bedarf es der graduellen Stabilisierung durch Spezialisierung, Standardisierung, Formalisierung, ggf.

Wird diese Stabilisierung zu weit getrieben, entsteht eine zentral gelenkte, formalisierte und klar abgegrenzte Organisationseinheit — der Netzwerkgedanke und damit die wichtigste Motivation, z. Jede Entwicklungsstufe kann dabei auch mehrfach durchlaufen werden. Lebensphasen eines Kunden wesentlich effizienter Kommunikation betreiben. Literatur Aderhold, Jens Dienstleistungs-Management Service als strategische Erfolgsposition. Soziale Netzwerke sind anders. Relationship Marketing — Das Management von Kundenbeziehungen.

Organisatorischer Wandel, Institutionelle Einbettung und zivilgesellschaftliche Perspektiven. Die perfekte Botschaft im richtigen Moment. Harvard Business Manager, Februar , Zur Rolle moderner Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien. Annual Review of Sociology, 14, Grundlagen — Konzepte — Methoden. Die grenzenlose Unternehmung — Information, Organisation und Management. Neither markets nor hierarchy — Network forms of organizations. Research in Organizational Behavior 12, Greenwich, Die Selbstorganisation von Unternehmen in strategischen Netzwerken.

Developmental Processes of Cooperative Interorganizational Relationships. Informationsorientierte und verhaltenstheoretische Grundlagen. Schneller Aufstieg in die Champions League. Der Kundenbedarfslebenszyklus als wichtiges Managementtool. Management von Netzwerkorganisationen — Zum Stand der Forschung. The source and consequences of embeddedness for the economic performance of organizations: American Sociological Review, 61, Warum sie eine wachsende Rolle spielen.

Moderation in Netzwerken — Theoretische, didaktische und handlungsorientierte Betrachtungen aus einer internen Perspektive. Moderation in regionalen Netzwerken. Ablauforientiertes Projektmanagement — Modelle, Verfahren und Anwendungen. Selbstwahrnehmung des Erfolgs durch die Unternehmungen Michael Boenigk 3. Im Mittelpunkt der Marketingkommunikation steht der Dialog mit den aktuellen und potentiellen Kundinnen und Kunden einer Unternehmung. Aufgabe der Public Relations ist dagegen der Dialog mit allen anderen Bezugsgruppen, wie z. In Tabelle 4 sind die Ergebnisse zusammengefasst.

Zusammenarbeit zwischen Unternehmungen und Agenturen Insgesamt arbeiten 71 Prozent der Unternehmungen im Rahmen der Kommunikation mit Agenturen zusammen. Planung der Kommunikation Die zentrale Grundlage erfolgreicher Kommunikationsarbeit ist ein geplantes Vorgehen. Es bestehen verschiedene Richtlinien und Planungsinstrumente, die helfen, die Kommunikation abzustimmen und an der Strategie auszurichten.

Entscheidend ist dabei, dass diese Richtlinien und Instrumente schriftlich definiert und bekannt sind und somit eine gewisse Verbindlichkeit besitzen. Wie Tabelle 9 zeigt, wird dies auch bei einem Teil der befragten Unternehmungen so gehandhabt. Tabelle 10 fasst die Untersuchungsergebnisse zusammen. Kommunikation in Schweizer KMU Auch branchenspezifisch bestehen hinsichtlich der Verwendung der externen Kommunikationsinstrumente und -mittel Unterschiede.

Markenbildes ist ein wesentlicher Eckpfeiler erfolgreicher Kommunikationsarbeit. Dies zeigen auch die Untersuchungsergebnisse. Auch die inhaltliche Integration der Kommunikation, u. Tabelle 15 fasst die Untersuchungsergebnisse zusammen. Probleme der Kommunikation Integrierte Unternehmens- und Markenkommunikation. Strategische Planung und operative Umsetzung. Statistisches Jahrbuch der Schweiz. Kleinunternehmen in der Schweiz — dominant und unscheinbar zugleich.

Beobachtung und Steuerung eines organisationalen Risikos. Public Relations in der Schweiz. Praxis in kleinen und mittleren Unternehmen. Country Image and Consumer Nationalism. In real life, however, each crisis and each conflict is unique and the consequences incalculable. During the winter of Denmark, a country with a positive image all over the world, suddenly found itself in the center of an international religious and political hurricane. In this maelstrom, the Danish-Swedish dairy conglomerate Arla became the target of a boycott. Arla was by far the foremost loser in the Cartoons-of-Mohammed episode.

With hindsight one can ask the question, could the company have applied a different strategy, and should it have been better prepared for conflicts such as the Mohammed episode? The Mohammed cartoons1 On September 30, , the Danish newspaper Jyllandsposten published a series of 12 caricatures of the prophet Mohammed. At that time, the management of the Danish dairy Arla probably did not pay any special attention to the event.

However, four months later they learnt in a very concrete way what the concept of consumer nationalism could mean for a global business. They knew 1 The description of the process is based on the daily news published in the www-editions of the following journals and newspapers: They also knew the concept of corporate crisis and knew that it is [was] usually triggered by a sudden event and attracts media publicity in a very short time. Nevertheless, the copy of Jyllandsposten on September 30th did not result in any action, anywhere.

The cartoons did not evoke any clamour in the international media until a Norwegian Christian magazine republished the pictures in its January issue. Now the reaction was immediate. The Arabic states asked the Danish government to take action against Jyllandsposten, but to no avail. On January 20th, religious leaders in the countries of the Near East advised their fellow citizens to stop buying Danish products.

The following Monday shops had removed Danish products, including brands of Danish butter and cheese, from their shelves, or marked them with yellow tape. During the acute stage of the crisis, after the Arab News called to a boycott on Danish and Norwegian products, many non-Danish foreign products were also boycotted, due to the confusion and ignorance of the consumers.

People were worried about the origin of all foreign products and shopkeepers had, in order to mitigate the loss of sales of products other than Danish ones, to hang signs indicating the banned brands Anholt After the boycott appeal by the Muslim clergy, the conflict snowballed.

On January 28th, the Danish ambassador wrote an article to be distributed to the Arabic media, but the Saudi press did not carry it. On January 29th, Libya decided to close its embassy in Denmark. The world media reported on demonstrations in Gaza city; Norwegian and Danish flags were burnt or sprayed with paint. From the first to the third of February, the demonstrations continued; in a photo published in the Swedish newspaper Expressen the demonstrators are holding up Danish and Norwegian flags soiled with footprints. The Iranian government broke off all business contacts with Den- Country image and consumer nationalism mark.

On February 6th, the Danish Embassy was attacked in Teheran. The demonstrations spread to Pakistan. In Damascus, Syria, demonstrators set fire to the Scandinavian embassy but the next day the foreign minister of Syria sent his apologies to the Nordic governments. In addition, flags [in Turkey] were burnt in Turkey in protest over the cartoons of Mohammed. European reactions to the conflict sympathised with Denmark and Jyllandsposten.

By February 5th, the cartoons or some of them had been reprinted in many daily newspapers, in Germany, France, Spain, Switzerland, Hungary and Italy! According to the report in The Guardian of February 3rd, opinions in Germany had hardened in favour of editors daring to publish the pictures. The Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung not only published the caricatures but called for them to be published in as many newspapers as possible as a gesture of solidarity. Across the divide, the Turkish prime minister Erdogan expressed the Muslim point of view: As regards the reputation of Denmark in the western world, the Mohammed episode was positive.

The Norwegian Christian weekly Magazinet reported on the episode on July 11th as follows: Many of them commented on the episode from the point of view of the freedom of speech and supported Jyllandsposten and the Danish government. According to Anholt , the overall assessment of Denmark remained only a little behind the situation before the Mohammed episode, while in the ranking by Egypt, Denmark had dropped from 15th place to the bottom of the list.

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The Arla-Mohammed case also defined the borders of European solidarity: The Mohammed cartoons episode was like a bush fire which started in one small place, but spread rapidly in the dry grass and favourable winds. Arla — innocent victim? In all wars, civilians are the victims. In this war, the victim was the DanishSwedish dairy conglomerate Arla. For Arla the boycott seemed to destroy the work of 40 years in just five days.

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Arla representatives stated that they had found themselves in the middle of a game in which they had no part. Country image and consumer nationalism Arla must have been aware of the risks involved in doing business in a politically inflammable area but this crisis obviously surprised the company because it combined the characteristics of a sudden and of a smouldering crisis. The cartoons were published in Denmark in September but it took almost four months before the fuss really got under way. Then suddenly, everything took place within a few days. During the months when the fire was smouldering, Arla obviously did nothing beyond business-as-usual in the Moslem countries.

When the fire flashed, Arla started a public campaign to dissociate itself from the cartoons, which was doomed to failure. The best Arla could do in that situation was to try to maintain a dialogue. The public needed concrete objects for their fury besides burning flags and shouting catchwords. The behaviour of people was propelled by their strong religious identity, which blocked all messages by Arla. It is highly likely that the people on the street did not know much about Denmark or Arla.


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It may also have been less important for them to know whether or not the boycott harmed the company or Denmark economically. Butter and cheese were, for the people, icons of the infidel. The boycott ended officially in April Although, some supermarkets had already started to sell Arla before the official annulment and this was due to the lack of alternatives. The costs of the episode to the owners of Arla were high but, contrary to the forecasts of some analysts, Arla recovered from the losses quickly.

Arla naturally wanted to regain the confidence of its Muslim customers and tried to make its way back on the shelves of the Middle Eastern supermarkets by way of an active marketing approach. In March , the specialists were still considering whether Arla could recover from the crisis Mercer Arla had already been on the Near East market for 40 years and the products Lurpak butter and Puck cheese had been extremely popular in many countries.

These products had, actually, gained the status of a national brand and become part of the local supermarket landscape. It was to be expected that the Near East consumer would behave like consumers in many previous boycott campaigns; people are not ready to sacrifice their consumption habits completely, and after a while, they return to their old familiar products. On the one hand, the Muslim world is regarded as a strong religious entity, which forms a good network for collective behaviour, on the other hand, in the Arla boycott consumers were expected to change their food consumption habits — something that is known to be very resistant to change.

For Arla, there was one more obstacle working against their brand, which remained to be overcome; Arla products had been marketed as products made in Denmark. Obviously, one move that the market expected from Arla was to somehow disclaim the Mohammed cartoon episode, which Arla did not do, probably because it would have publicised the issue all over again. The fact that Arla butter and cheese were back on the shelves of 3, shops and supermarkets in the Near East and Saudi-Arabia may, however, reveal more about the nature of the boycott than demonstrate the success of the PR strategy Arla applied to regain its market.

Nationality and country-of-origin marketing The country of origin of products as a fifth element in the marketing mix has lost some of its relevance during the process of globalization. One reason is the blurring of the concept itself. There are products where some parts have Country image and consumer nationalism been produced in one country, but assembled in another, or manufactured in one country but designed in another. In many cases, the country of origin has been omitted from the product information, or the country of origin is restricted to refer to the origin of the brand only.

Nissan, for instance, is sold as a Japanese car, and Volkswagen as a German car, regardless of the country in which the car has been assembled. Similarly, Arla has been sold as a Danish brand independent of the country in which the products were made. Despite the significant complexity of the concept of country-of-origin information on the global market, it may nevertheless be relevant for marketing, at least for new markets, where the consumer is unfamiliar with the products.

Marketers can emphasize COO information when the country enjoys positive stereotypes and minimize the reference to COO in cases where the country suffers from negative associations. Boycotting as a collective consumer behaviour Boycotting is a coercive marketplace tactic applied by a group of consumers to influence the behaviour of a target party, usually a company, by withholding purchase of its products. For an individual, participation in boycotting means sacrificing deep-rooted consumer habits for the benefit of some collective goal. The motive for joining the boycott may be anger, injured self-esteem, or defamation of religious or other collective values.

Boycotting a brand or a producer is not an unfamiliar phenomenon on the food market and companies have learned to expect boycotts to fade away in a short time with no major impact on the business. Strategic options An exporter, who wants to suppress country-of-origin associations has two options: In addition, the company can show responsibility as a corporate citizen in the target culture, for instance by investing in the target community.

Etterton lists five possible tactics for use in a boycott situation: In , Hanne Niss published a study on the use of the country-of-origin theme in the international marketing of Danish products. She showed that Danish exporters of foodstuffs, designer goods and agricultural products were more inclined to use the country image of Denmark to promote their products abroad than exporters of industrially manufactured goods. The majority of the foodstuff and dairy producers interviewed in her study used country-of-origin in their marketing communication.

One of the interviewees stated: The food Country image and consumer nationalism industry obviously benefited from the strong favourable country-of-origin image of Denmark in its product category. It is understandable in the case of Arla that the country-of-origin was used in marketing. The national image obviously helped to establish the brand identity of its products and to penetrate the Near East and Arab market. On the basis of data from the GMI assessment in which people in 35 countries were asked how they perceive various qualities about them, a National Proud Index was calculated.

The reputation as a producer of good beer and meat and dairy products may not have been the only motive for Denmark to use country-of-origin information in marketing. One of the interviewees from the Niss study also named the political neutrality as one of the motives: We are not associated with imperialism of any kind — we feel that our partners trust us. It is a form of consumer activism, usually triggered by some event that receives public attention and mobilizes the community to express their opinion. Consumer nationalism and consumer ethnocentrism often go hand in hand but the concepts are not synonymous.

Consumer ethnocentrism is the general belief held by consumers about domestic vs. Ethnocentrism may appear in a belief in the superior quality of domestic products: Jay Wang lists three circumstances, which increase the possibility of a consumer nationalistic reaction: On the other hand, the more consumers like the international brand, the more difficult it will become for them to express consumer nationalism when they discover that they dislike the parent country of the brand. The research data of Niss suggests that the significance of countryof-origin links declines when the product becomes familiar to the market.

Once the product has become familiar among consumers, the country of origin will not add any significant value to the brand concept.

Sprache, Kultur und Zielgruppen German

On the contrary, in countries where biases toward imported products are likely to influence product evaluations in a negative way firms take an additional risk if they stress the national origin of their products. In recent discussions, globalisation has been given several meanings. For some it means better availability of foreign products and services and the opening of world-wide markets, ease of communication around the world, and homogenisation of life styles, while for others globalisation may represent a threat to national sovereignty, cultural identity and a traditional cultural and spiritual values.

The concept is similar to a kaleido- Country image and consumer nationalism scope: For some scholars and practitioners globalisation is just a continuation of colonialism, while others see the process as spreading welfare all over the world. According to this way of thinking globalization is a profoundly dialectical process that generates outcomes that seem to be at odds with each other; it blots out local cultural elements on one hand, and reinforces, reconnects and modifies them on the other.

The rivalry between the two tendencies, globalisation and localisation, and the dialectical tension between the various landscapes or domains of communication complicates the choice between the different approaches to national cultures. On a practical level globalisation places a choice before an organisation; should one globalise or localise. All globally active companies have to choose between a uniform product line worldwide and regional differentiation.

The concepts of global marketing and global communication have proved to be ambiguous; a company adjusting to the global arena needs to choose between either standardisation of products and marketing communication and regional differentiation. They state that in different cultures consumers have different responses to product design, and even to colours, use products in different ways in different countries e. In this case, the last among the differences listed by Hassan et al. The Arla case illustrates the increasing need for environmental scanning and issues management on the part of all organisations in the global marketplace.

Country of origin effects: Global Market Insite Inc. Journal of Consumer Martketing 23, 3, Understanding the new bases for global market segmentation. Journal of Consumer Marketing 20, 5, The influence of country image structure on consumer evaluations of foreign products. International Marketing Review 22, 1, National image and international public relations. Paper read at the Euprera congress, Lisabon Matei, Sorin Adam Cultural and civilizational clustering in telecommunicative space. Can Arla beat the boycott? Country of origin marketing over the product life cycle.

European Journal of Marketing 30, 3, Management Decision 39,1, The Anholt National Brand Index. Consumer nationalism and corporate reputation management in the global era. Corporate Communications 10, 3, Packaging that speaks to you As a German consumer in Britain enjoying a popular fruit drink called Innocent Smoothie and lazily reading whatever there is written on its packaging, you might be in for a surprise: Someone is speaking to you personally.

You find yourself being told to "look after your smoothie", like after a precious little living being s. The discovery that the packaging texts of Innocent Smoothies are somewhat different from what one might be used to is the starting point for a preliminary contrastive study on a text genre that is not normally looked at much by linguists.

It is the aim of this paper to compare elements of the Innocent Smoothies packaging texts with German texts on the packaging of a similar product. Taking a text linguistic point of view, we set out to explore salient differences between the two texts. To discuss cross-cultural differences, we will apply House's dimensions of communicative preferences House , In the following the products will be introduced 2. On this basis, examples taken from the British and the German packaging texts will be compared in the light of the introduced concepts 5.

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Healthy fruit drinks with a message Smoothies are a kind of drink that is made of crushed fruit with a thick "smooth" texture which were first popular in the United States Belzer Innocent Drinks is just one of several companies that offer this kind of drinks on the British market, but it has been particularly successful.

In a recent publication on the brand, Simmons describes it as a business phenomenon that "clearly [ According to him ibid. After being established in further European countries, for example France cf. It is on this background that packaging texts as a potential marketing tool s. This is what motivated us to compare Innocent's packaging texts to those of a similar German product in the first place.

First, both are promoted as a healthy, pure fruit drink and sold in handy bottles containing one portion. Second, both products refer to a health campaign, which promotes the idea that everyone should have at least five different types of fruit a day. The campaign seems to be equally popular in Germany and the UK, as the websites from the respective countries illustrate: They can help you to maintain a healthy weight. They're an excellent source of fibre and antioxidants.

They help reduce the risk of heart disease, stroke and some cancers. They taste delicious and there's so much variety to choose from. But whereas in the case of the German product it is only because of their idiosyncratic, fruit-shaped form, in the case of the Smoothies, it is, as we will argue, above all, because of the texts on the packaging. Packaging texts as instrument of intercultural marketing While packaging texts have rarely been considered as an object for linguistic analysis see, however, Steves , it seems, they have not even been fully discovered yet by the specialists dealing with packaging.

Packaging itself has only most recently been looked at as a potential marketing tool. But consumer goods companies are [ Packaging texts, however, are not mentioned in these contexts, although packaging texts could certainly contribute to some of the aspects that make packaging an important marketing tool: In a more and more globalised world, cultural differences in consumer expectations will have to be taken into account just as they are for advertising: By contrast, British advertising needs to be more interpersonal to meet client expectations in persuasive strategies.

Overall, Leonhard believes that the future trend in advertising texts is towards expressing more emotions to create branding: Speaker and addressee, in this case the company and their clients, are not co-present in the communication situation, but there are manifestations of them in the text itself. The concept of metadiscourse that we will introduce in the next paragraph, allows to capture these traces in a systematic way.

Although the metadiscourse framework has so far been predominantly used for the study of academic texts, most recently it has also been applied to the study of business communication cf. The framework is equally well applicable to packaging texts, which can be seen as one text genre among others in business writing through which a company presents themselves and their product.

Metadiscourse builds on effective linguistic means as we will see in the examples, s. Functions of metadiscourse Hyland , 15 As summarised in the table above, textual metadiscourse covers expressions that the writer can use to guide the reader through the text; it covers "devices which allow us to recover the writer's intention by explicitly establishing preferred interpretations of propositional meanings For the purposes of this paper the earlier version is applied. They mark the author's epistemic assumptions. Devices include second-person pronouns, first-person pronouns, imperatives, questions, and asides that interrupt the ongoing discourse.

That these kinds of expressions are more widely used in the English packaging texts might also be attributed to cultural specifics, which will be presented in the next section. The analyses yielded a series of individual results, which together provided converging evidence pointing to a set of more general hypotheses about the nature of German - English cultural 16 For a detailed summary of the various studies see e.

achtsam arbeiten achtsam leben: Der buddhistische Weg zu einem erfüllten Tag (German Edition)

The pattern of cross-cultural differences that has emerged from these German-English contrastive-pragmatic analyses can be displayed along the following dimensions: Dimensions of communicative preferences in English and German According to these studies, English speakers were found to give preference to an interpersonal orientation, to indirectness and implicitness whereas German speakers were seen to prefer a more ideational orientation, to tend more towards directness and explicitness.

In the following section we will explore the cross-cultural differences between the German and the English text samples in the light of these communicative preferences. Comparison of German and English packaging text elements This section will compare characteristic features of the packaging texts. For this purpose, we have selected the following salient textual components of packaging: Use by Date and Correct Use 5. We will proceed by first discussing the German and then the English packaging. As Simmons , 63 describes it, "[t]here is a part of Dan that is deeply resistant to the examination of Innocent's language": We just chat with people on the labels.

It's the hardest thing in the world to analyse it. It's like analysing what I said to my dad on the phone last night. All it is, is the way Innocent speaks.


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