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Please Choose a Product. Price after trial Starting Price starting today. Even though the movement behind inserting "under God" into the pledge might have been initiated by a private religious fraternity and even though references to God appear in previous versions of the pledge, historian Kevin M. Kruse asserts that this movement was an effort by corporate America to instill in the minds of the people that capitalism and free enterprise were heavenly blessed.
Kruse acknowledges the insertion of the phrase was influenced by the push-back against Russian atheistic communism during the Cold War, but argues the longer arc of history shows the conflation of Christianity and capitalism as a challenge to the New Deal played the larger role.
Swearing of the Pledge is accompanied by a salute. An early version of the salute, adopted in , known as the Balch Salute, which accompanied the Balch pledge, instructed students to stand with their right hand outstretched toward the flag, the fingers of which are then brought to the forehead, followed by being placed flat over the heart, and finally falling to the side.
In , Francis Bellamy created what was known as the Bellamy salute. It started with the hand outstretched toward the flag, palm down, and ended with the palm up. Because of the similarity between the Bellamy salute and the Nazi salute , which was adopted in Germany later, the US Congress stipulated that the hand-over-the-heart gesture as the salute to be rendered by civilians during the Pledge of Allegiance and the national anthem in the US would be the salute to replace the Bellamy salute.
Removal of the Bellamy salute occurred on December 22, , when Congress amended the Flag Code language first passed into law on June 22, The composer, Irving Caesar, wrote and published over songs in his lifetime. Dedicated to social issues, he donated all rights of the musical setting to the U. A July 29, House and Senate resolution authorized the U. Government Printing Office to print and distribute the song sheet together with a history of the pledge.
Other musical versions of the Pledge have since been copyrighted, including by Beck , Lovrekovich and , Roton , Fijol , and Girardet Gobitis , ruled that students in public schools, including the respondents in that case— Jehovah's Witnesses who considered the flag salute to be idolatry —could be compelled to swear the Pledge.
Which of the following symbols represents “is an element of”?
Barnette , the Supreme Court reversed its decision. Jackson , writing for the 6 to 3 majority, went beyond simply ruling in the precise matter presented by the case to say that public school students are not required to say the Pledge on narrow grounds, and asserted that such ideological dogmata are antithetical to the principles of the country, concluding with:. If there is any fixed star in our constitutional constellation, it is that no official, high or petty, can prescribe what shall be orthodox in politics, nationalism, religion, or other matters of opinion or force citizens to confess by word or act their faith therein.
If there are any circumstances which permit an exception, they do not now occur to us. In a later case, the 11th Circuit Court of Appeals held that students are also not required to stand for the Pledge. Requiring or promoting of the Pledge on the part of the government has continued to draw criticism and legal challenges on several grounds. One objection is that a democratic republic built on freedom of dissent should not require its citizens to pledge allegiance to it, and that the First Amendment to the United States Constitution protects the right to refrain from speaking or standing, which itself is also a form of speech in the context of the ritual of pledging allegiance.
In , linguist Geoffrey Nunberg said the original supporters of the addition thought that they were simply quoting Lincoln's Gettysburg Address , but to Lincoln and his contemporaries, "under God" meant "God willing", so they would have found its use in the Pledge of Allegiance grammatically incorrect and semantically odd. Prominent legal challenges were brought in the s and s by Jehovah's Witnesses , a denomination whose beliefs preclude swearing loyalty to any power other than God, and who objected to policies in public schools requiring students to swear an oath to the flag.
The first case was in , when two children, Lillian and William Gobitas , ages ten and twelve, were expelled from the Minersville, Pennsylvania, public schools that year for failing to salute the flag and recite the Pledge of Allegiance. In a case brought by atheist Michael Newdow , whose daughter was being taught the Pledge in school, the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals ruled the phrase "under God" an unconstitutional endorsement of monotheism when the Pledge was promoted in public school.
Newdow , an appeal of the ruling, and rejected Newdow's claim on the grounds that he was not the custodial parent, and therefore lacked standing, thus avoiding ruling on the merits of whether the phrase was constitutional in a school-sponsored recitation. On January 3, , a new suit was filed in the U. District Court for the Eastern District of California on behalf of three unnamed families.
Citing the precedent of the ruling by the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals, Judge Karlton issued an order stating that, upon proper motion, he would enjoin the school district defendants from continuing their practices of leading children in pledging allegiance to "one Nation under God.
In , in the Florida case Frazier v. Alexandre , a federal district court in Florida ruled that a state law requiring students to stand and recite the Pledge of Allegiance violates the First and Fourteenth Amendments of the U.
Pledge of Allegiance - Wikipedia
In , a Montgomery County, Maryland , teacher berated and had school police remove a year-old girl who refused to say the Pledge of Allegiance in the classroom. The student's mother, assisted by the American Civil Liberties Union of Maryland, sought and received an apology from the teacher, as state law and the school's student handbook both prohibit students from being forced to recite the Pledge. Rio Linda Union School District. On November 12, , in a unanimous decision, the United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit in Boston affirmed a ruling by a New Hampshire lower federal court which found that the pledge's reference to God does not violate non-pledging students' rights if student participation in the pledge is voluntary.
In September , a case was brought before the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court , arguing that the pledge violates the Equal Rights Amendment of the Constitution of Massachusetts. Bauman dismissed a lawsuit, ruling that "… the Pledge of Allegiance does not violate the rights of those who don't believe in God and does not have to be removed from the patriotic message. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the U.
For the general topic of oaths of allegiance, see Oath of allegiance. For other uses, see Pledge of Allegiance disambiguation. For the book, see Under God book.
How many words are in the Pledge of Allegiance?
Criticism of the Pledge of Allegiance. Retrieved 29 August Retrieved June 14, Retrieved January 24, The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved November 1, NOW with Bill Moyers. Their History and Meaning. Archived from the original on September 23, Retrieved January 8, Retrieved September 4, Code , Title 4, Chap. Retrieved 22 September Cultural Movements and Collective Memory: Retrieved October 23, National Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution. Congressional Record 91 Cong. Christopher Publishing House, Youth's companion.
Archived from the original on September 27, A Biography of Francis Bellamy: Author of the Pledge of Allegiance. The Pledge of Allegiance: A Revised History and Analysis, — Religion and the Law in America: An Encyclopedia of Personal Belief. Retrieved June 16, Retrieved February 4, God in the White House". Nielsen Business Media, Inc. Retrieved July 2, Barnette , U.
Harland , F. The Journal of Educational Research. Archived from the original on March 16, Retrieved March 11, Governmental religious expressions are not harmless". Retrieved May 3, Retrieved February 3, Alexandre , F. May 31, ". National School Boards Association. Archived from the original on March 15, Retrieved February 25, Retrieved March 12, Retrieved January 11,