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It happened 57 times in A similar cognitive error informs the impulse to see Apple as unique. Not that the wealth creation has been so gangbusters of late. Up about 5 per cent a year since , the return trails the annualized rate of 9 per cent in the past nine decades. Going by the highest share-price estimate among analysts, Amazon and Microsoft will be the next to reach that milestone over the next 12 months.

Part of the equation is inflation. Based on data compiled by the Federal Reserve, stocks are almost as expensive as they were during the dotcom era, when judged against gross domestic product.

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Other valuation arguments say Apple is cheap. Even as its profits have surged fold in the past decade, investors have steadfastly refused to pay a higher multiple for the stock. Another objection says that Apple and companies like it are pretty much synonymous with the rally: Everyone knows that gains in benchmarks owe a lopsided debt to a tiny cohort of giant companies. The West Australian Friday, 21 September Business Chevron Right Icon Markets. Will Apple become the first trillion-dollar company? Unlike the UK switch, the switch from long scale to short scale took time.

As of [update] most English language publications use the short scale. Some Afrikaans publications briefly attempted usage of the "American System" but that has led to comment in the papers [70] and has been disparaged by the " Taalkommissie " The Afrikaans Language Commission of the South African Academy of Science and Art [71] and has thus, to most appearances, been abandoned. Outside of financial media, the use of billion by Bangladeshi, Indian and Pakistani English speakers highly depends on their educational background.

Long and short scales - Wikipedia

Some may continue to use the traditional British long scale. In everyday life, Bangladeshis, Indians and Pakistanis largely use their own common number system, commonly referred to as the Indian numbering system — for instance, Bangladeshi, Pakistani, and Indian English commonly use the words lakh to denote thousand , crore to denote ten million i. Googol number Googolplex number Names of large numbers Names of small numbers Orders of magnitude numbers Hindu units of time which displays some similar issues.

A Dictionary of Modern English Usage. Google Books ngram viewer. Retrieved 26 April Retrieved 2 April Retrieved 31 January Who wants to be a trillionaire? Retrieved 11 May Linguist List Mailing list. Retrieved 24 July How many is a billion? Retrieved 7 May The Little Green Handbook. Archived from the original on 27 September Retrieved 19 August Archived from the original on 7 August Retrieved 28 July MS " in Middle French. Retrieved 25 October The American Mathematical Monthly. Mathematical Association of America.


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Retrieved 17 July Retrieved 1 March De Asse et partibus eius Libri quinque in Latin. Retrieved 7 August Retrieved 23 June National Institute of Standards and Technology. Retrieved September 13, Journal Officiel in French. Archived from the original PDF on 20 January Zimbabweans play the zero game".

Retrieved 13 July Zimbabwe abandons its currency". Retrieved 27 October Reserve Bank of Australia. Retrieved 22 August Retrieved 21 August Al Jazem English-Arabic online dictionary. Retrieved 6 June Bi-Weekly Eleven in Burmese. Retrieved 13 August Retrieved 25 June Javanese English dictionary Tuttle Publishing: Retrieved 2 July Archived from the original on 18 March Retrieved 17 January This translates into English as: Spelled byllion in the 15th century when it meant a million millions ; in the 16th century it meant a thousand millions.

It is an arbitrary alteration of the start of million by inserting the Latin prefix bi- , meaning twice.

How Big is a Trillion Dollars?

It means a thousand millions. It is an outdated synonym of Milliard. According to a decree of , the word Billion received a new value, to wit a million millions 10 12 , which has not come into common usage. Instituut voor Nederlandse Lexicologie. Retrieved 15 September Retrieved 3 May Retrieved 15 August Archived from the original on 14 July Retrieved 16 July Retrieved 20 May Knuth's up-arrow notation Conway chained arrow notation Steinhaus—Moser notation. Hyperoperation Tetration Pentation Ackermann function Bowers's operators. Infinitesimal Number systems Number names Orders of magnitude List of notable numbers Indefinite and fictitious numbers Extended real number line Power of two Power of 10 Long and short scales Titanic prime Gigantic prime Megaprime Largest known prime number.

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Retrieved from " https: Views Read Edit View history. This page was last edited on 20 September , at By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. To next named order of magnitude: The word million was not used in any language before the 13th century. One of the earliest references is William Langland 's Piers Plowman written c. Covet not his goods for millions of money. Le Triparty en la Science des Nombres par Maistre Nicolas Chuquet Parisien an extract from Chuquet's original manuscript French mathematician Nicolas Chuquet , in his article Le Triparty en la Science des Nombres par Maistre Nicolas Chuquet Parisien , [22] [23] [24] used the words byllion, tryllion, quadrillion, quyllion, sixlion, septyllion, ottyllion, and nonyllion to refer to 10 12 , 10 18 , Most of the work was copied without attribution by Estienne de La Roche and published in his book, L'arismetique.

With the increased usage of large numbers, the traditional punctuation of large numbers into six-digit groups evolved into three-digit group punctuation. In some places, the large number names were then applied to the smaller numbers, following the new punctuation scheme. Thus, in France and Italy, some scientists then began using billion to mean 10 9 , trillion to mean 10 12 , etc.


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  7. The majority of scientists either continued to say thousand million or changed the meaning of the Pelletier term, milliard , from "million of millions" down to "thousand million". The first published use of milliard as 10 9 occurred in the Netherlands. The short-scale meaning of the term billion was brought to the British American colonies. The first American appearance of the short scale value of billion as 10 9 was published in the Greenwood Book of , written anonymously by Prof. Isaac Greenwood of Harvard College [13].

    Long and short scales

    France widely converted to the short scale, and was followed by the U. Nevertheless, by the mid 20th century France would officially convert back to the long scale. Fowler 's A Dictionary of Modern English Usage [4] noted It should be remembered that "billion" does not mean in American use which follows the French what it means in British. One such request was accompanied by a draft French Government discussion paper, which included a suggestion of universal use of the long scale, inviting the short-scale countries to return or convert. The matter of the International System of Units was eventually resolved at the 11th General Conference in The question of long scale versus short scale was not resolved and does not appear in the list of any conference resolutions.

    SI also notes the language-dependence of some larger-number names and advises against using ambiguous terms such as billion, trillion, etc.

    The French Government confirmed their official usage of the long scale in the Journal officiel the official French Government gazette. British prime minister Harold Wilson — British prime minister Harold Wilson explained in a written answer to the House of Commons that UK government statistics would from then on use the short scale.

    The Italian Government confirmed their official usage of the long scale. Canada [shortscale longscale note 1]. For everyday use, but short or long scale may also be in use [other scale note 1].