Pezzi di tal genere erano adottati come canoni, modelli per lo studio di cui bisognava mantenere la posa, che non veniva mai alterata. Quanto al modello plastico, esso assumeva una funzione simile, pur se in una fase successiva nel lungo processo di realizzazione di un dipinto. Nelle sue biografie, emerge che si trattava di un procedimento molto comune,. Vasari accenna a questa categoria di modelli quasi sempre solo di passaggio, spesso attraverso aneddoti destinati ad arricchire il testo delle biografie.
Solo avendo concluso questi studi erano pronti per affrontare il modello vivo. Anche i pittori famosi usavano questi modelli nelle loro botteghe, non solo quando si esercitavano, ma durante la creazione delle loro opere. Due furono, tuttavia, i pittori duramente criticati da Vasari per essere ricorsi eccessivamente ai modelli plastici ausiliari,. Vasari avrebbe insistito una terza volta sul fatto che i modelli plastici erano la causa dei difetti nella pittura di Soggi.
A questo scopo, prese come esempio un tabernacolo realizzato a Prato da Antonio da Sangallo. Essi erano passati per le sculture antiche e moderne, per i modelli plastici, per il modello vivo e, soprattutto, avevano recepito il meglio della maniera dei loro maestri. Il problema di Soggi era essersi accontentato dei risultati raggiunti usando unicamente modelli di cera e creta. Critiche analoghe si ritrovano nella biografia di Battista Franco. Di fatto, un secolo dopo, Baldinucci ricordava ancora Genga come grande modellatore di creta e cera. In tali circostanze era quindi piuttosto ragionevole che Battista Franco ricorresse costantemente ai modelli plastici.
Armenini, nato a Faenza, aveva trascorso un periodo di apprendistato a Roma tra il e il Dirigendosi dunque a nord, intraprese un lungo viaggio fermandosi a Genova, Parma, Mantova, Piacenza, Milano e Venezia. Secondo lui, il pittore doveva seguire un rigido percorso per portare a termine la sua opera. Successivamente si fabbricavano i modelli plastici, impiegati per una verifica finale delle figure e della composizione.
Sicuramente i procedimenti adottati da Raffaello e dalla sua bottega si avvicinavano molto a quanto descritto da Armenini. Nel discorso vasariano, Raffaello era a sua volta citato per aver saputo fare tesoro degli insegnamenti dei suoi maestri. Ad ogni modo, tutti questi casi — Condivi, Michelangelo e Vasari, cui possiamo aggiungere quello di Giovan Battista Gelli — condividevano strategie simili. Michelangelo,trasformato in Ercole al bivio,aveva rinunciato al percorso piacevole e semplice in favore di un cammino tortuoso e difficile.
Avendo abbracciato questa idea, Vasari criticava aspramente gli artisti che nelle proprie opere lasciavano intuire, a causa di un aspetto secco, duro e artificiale, i laboriosi procedimenti necessari alla loro realizzazione. In Raffaello e Michelangelo queste scelte operative sembravano essersi definitivamente consolidate.
Rinascimento e Barocco, Torino: Luiz Marques , Campinas: Editora da Unicamp, Giovanni Silvestri, , V, pp. Francesco Tebaldini, , pp. Paolo, Idea del tempio della pittura, Milano: Paolo Gottardo Pontio, , p. Battista Sgava, , II, pp. Benedetto Varchi, nella prima delle quali si dichiara un Sonetto di M. Lorenzo Torrentino, , pp. Sulle critiche a Michelangelo a causa della mancanza di variazione nelle pose di queste figure, Cfr. Edizioni della Normale, Notizie dei professori del disegno, 7 v. Batelli e Compagni, , II, p. Antonio Baldo, , f. Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, v.
Les circonstances de ce voyage sont bien connues. Des prisonniers qui partagent la cellule avec le saint, il maintiendra les trois personnages assis au fond. Toutefois, dans le dessin de Sacramento, la figure est vue de plus haut: Quand, en revanche, il.
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Dans ce cas, le rapport avec Suavius ne vise pas seulement la silhouette des figures: Rien de commun avec Suavius. I pittori europei nel Cinquecento. Milan, Jaca Book, Goltzius, ; traduction et notes par J. Denhaene, Bruxelles, , p. Rubinstein, Renaissance Artists and Antique Sculpture. UUB st f Pour une illustration de la tapisserie,cf. Paris, Grand Palais, , cat. Jestaz avec la collab. Bacou, Paris, , V, p. Sur le Grand Scipion, voir aussi, en dernier lieu, T. Giuliano, Arco di Costantino, Milan, , avec toutes les illustrations.
Le Logge di Raffaello. Bijdragen tot de kunstgeschiedenis der Nederlanden, Gand, , I, p. Disegno e disegni, Rimini, , p. Denhaene, Lambert Lombard, op. VI, , 71, p. Der Statuenhof des Belvedere im Vatikan. Akten des internationalen Kongresses zu Ehren von R. Pietrangeli, Mayence, , p. Dacos, Fiamminghi a Roma Une autre version est reproduite dans N. Checa Cremades et B. Renaissance et humanisme…, op. Pour la gravure, ibid. Lambert Lombard peintre…, op.
Vanderhoeght, Het Rockoxhuis Antwerpen, Anvers, , p. Hendrick, Lambert Lombard et son temps. Sacramento, Crocker Art Museum. Londres, Victoria and Albert Museum. Jadis Padoue, Eremitani, chapelle Ovetari.
Why is the Vatican Laocoon fig. Why would a man who is being, together with his two sons, mortally wounded, not stand up, or, on the contrary, fall down completely? And why does this unnatural position, after all, does not seem so strange to us? Let us remember how the story goes.
The literary tradition related to the myth of Laocoon, as in the case of so many mythological characters, does not maintain a single version, but rather develops many variations introduced by the numerous authors who have treated the subject. According to this version, the Trojans debated about what was to be done with the wooden horse left by the Greeks in front of the city gates; some suggested burning it, others throwing it from the cliffs, others still dedicating it to Minerva. The third view finally prevailed, and the Trojans, believing that the war was over, held a high festival to celebrate the supposed peace.
At that moment, however, two serpents sent by Apollo appeared and attacked Laocoon and one of his sons. The portent alarmed Aeneas and his family to such an extent, that they decided to escape immediately. There is no hint, therefore, of any demerit on the part of the victim. If Arctinus, however, does not attribute any guilt to Laocoon, in the 5th century BC a hubris is introduced at the root of the events which would result in his death: The idea of guilt seems to have been retained in a tragedy by Sophocles on the Laocoon subject, from which, unfortunately, only a few fragments have subsisted.
Also as in Vergil,Laocoon is immolated together with his two sons. The main reference to the Laocoon myth, however, the one which has made it so familiar to modern and contemporary people and by which it is normally identified, is undoubtedly in the second book of the Aeneid. The hero tells how the Achaean sailed to the island Tenedos so that the Trojans would believe that they were returning to Greece, but instead deposited before the city gates the insidious wooden horse, whose internal cavity bore armed warriors.
The Trojans were unsure about what to do with the simulacrum when Laocoon, a priest of Neptune, rushing inflamed before a crowd, exhorted his countrymen not to trust the Greeks and their gifts. As pointed out by R. His action of flinging his spear at the horse, characteristic of a strong man in his prime, reinforces the impression of a firm and decided personality. In this same moment, however, Sinon suddenly appears with his hands tied,and with a deceitful speech,seeks to convince the Trojans to introduce the wooden horse inside the city walls: Sinon had practically convinced the crowd, when a terrible event occurred to give credence to his tale in the eyes of the Trojans: His death is compared by the poet to the sacrifice of a bull: The Trojans were then convinced that Laocoon was killed because he had offended Minerva by throwing his spear against the sacred simulacrum, and at last brought it into the city walls.
Believing that the war was over,they celebrated the supposed peace. When night fell and the Trojans were asleep, Sinon opened the horse and liberated the warriors hidden inside it, while the Greek fleet. In this moment, Aeneas is visited in dreams by Hector, who, crying, exhorts him to escape: Meanwhile, the battle begins; Aeneas, awakened by the cries of the people and the sound of the weapons, prepared to fight and join his countrymen.
The hero then sees Helen, who, frightened, tries to hide; furious, he wants to kill her, when his mother appears to him in a second vision, again exhorting him to abandon Troy — doomed to destruction — and escape. Aeneas rushes home, and, taking on his shoulders his father Anchises — who holds in his hands, not stained with blood, the penates — begins his flight accompanied by his wife Creusa and his son Iulus. While proceeding to the city gates,nonetheless,Aeneas realised that his wife was no longer with them; leaving his father and son in a safe place, he returned to look for her, when her specter suddenly appeared to him in a third vision: Returning to the place where he had left his family, Aeneas finds many other countrymen, who were ready to follow him.
They all set off,then,on the long journey which would take them to Italy. Although the cause-effect relationship between the attack of the serpents and Aeneas flight consequently the foundation of Rome is not, there. The high relief given to the laocoontian episode in comparison to the previous texts, on the other hand, may be explained by the fact that Vergil was writing a poem to celebrate Rome, and therefore trying to accentuate every element that concerned its mythical origins. Through a metaphor of maximum density and poetic value, i. So far, it is not difficult to understand why this political interpretation of the myth found such a fertile ground when, in January , the statuary group was exhumed up on a Roman hill, the Colle Oppio.
According to a letter written in by Francesco da Sangallo, at the time only eleven years old, Michelangelo himself went to the site of the excavations; Francesco also tells us that his father, Giuliano, immediately. He also names the artists who carved it: Those names would re-emerge when, in , a spectacular group of sculptures, signed by those same artists, were found in Sperlonga.
Both in the times of Vergil and in , therefore, the Laocoon could symbolize the rebirth of Rome; its political potential was certainly noticed by Giuliano della Rovere, then Pope Julius II, who promptly acquired the sculptures, to the detriment of many illustrious gentlemen — including the Cardinal of S. Pietro in Vincoli, the Cardinal of S.
Giorgio and the Conservatori themselves, who intended to place them up in the Capitolio. The first letters written about the exhumation of the group invariably mention Vergil,Pliny,and the fact that Laocoon was performing a sacrifice. So does Bonsignore Bonsignori, Giovanni Sabadino degli Arienti and Filippo Casavecchia, for example, in letters written less than a month after the discovery of the group. The rhyming of both.
On the left Laocoon appears being attacked by the serpents, having next to him an altar on which a calf is burning. His two sons, still encircled by the reptiles, lie lifeless on the ground. The connection between the story of the Trojan priest and the representation of a sacrificial ritual is, again, the keynote of a work which probably constitutes the most famous modern representation of the Laocoon myth produced before In his seminal article of — Pagan Sacrifice in the Italian Renaissance — Fritz Saxl points out the high interest Italian artists took in the representation of Pagan sacrifices, which were not conceived as incompatible with Christian beliefs.
The fundamental importance of the sacrificial ritual — and its representation — has been amply recognised in diverse fields of investigation,be it theological or anthropological,historical or artistic, philosophical or sociological. A moment of maximum unity between men and divinity, it is placed at the epicentre of every religious ritual, and contains in itself the elements. Christianity inherited, both from Paganism and Judaism, the fundamental concept of sacrifice, and many different characteristics belonging both to sacrificial ceremonies and conceptions from the Graeco-Roman and Jewish world are preserved in Christian tradition.
In such images Pagan sacrifice was in general introduced sotto voce in the composition, more frequently under the guise of some decorative feature in the architectonic structure simulating either painting or sculpture. Warburg referred many times to the generic insertion of ancient scenes en grisaille, usually simulating reliefs,in works representing Christian scenes.
For example, Saint Sebastian, at our right hand side, wears a vine garland in his hair, in a clear allusion to the ancient Bacchic rituals. Saint George, on our left hand side, offers, with his left hand, three fruits — probably pomegranates — to the Virgin. Although these fruits constitute, in Christian iconography, a symbol of the Resurrection, they are not traditionally related to St George, but rather to another dragonkiller,i.
The analogy is confirmed by the clear quotation of the celebrated bronze statue of Hercules, also holding the Hesperides fruits, which since the end of the 15th century had stood in the Conservatori Palace, in Rome. Christ is bound to a column which stands symmetrically at the centre of a construction structured by eight pillars forming four arches partly in ruins; his torturers,archaeologically dressed in the Roman manner except for the soldier in the foreground, at the right, who is naked , completely fill the space around the victim.
Diverse figures relate directly back to classical models: Crowning this real pasticcio of ancient quotations — to use the expression employed by Blume — the engraver chose, for the figure of Christ, nothing less than the central figure of the famous Vatican Laocoon, almost exactly copied by the artist from the group. The utilisation of the laocoontian model goes beyond the pure wish of formal quotation from the Antique. What makes the identification between Christ and Laocoon possible is the sacrificial nature. Just like other traditional Hebrew types such as Isaac or Melchisedek, Laocoon here functions as a Pagan typological allusion to Christ and his sacrifice.
In Italy, from the second quarter of the 13th century onwards — namely with the Crucifixions of Giunta Pisano and Cimabue — the model of the dead Christ on the cross was practically omnipresent. Michelangelo breaks this tradition by representing him alive, twisted and suffering. This is also the answer to the question formulated at the beginning of this paper, i. If one looks closely enough, there can be no doubt that the rectangular object on which the priest is sitting down is, in fact, a sacrificial altar.
The two texts emphasize the fact that the Laocoon group is so deeply rooted both in our visual collective memory and cultural repertoire that it takes a scholarly work to actually rescue its original meaning and connotations. Settis opens his book by quoting the letter in which the Italian poet Cesare Pavese compares himself to Laocoon: Io sono come Laocoonte, he writes only six days before committing suicide.
Settis points out that even though the Laocoon group constitutes a Pathosformel, it remains suspended between the crystallization of art and the very authentic pains of life. Which one is ours? Certainly it is the expression of suffering which seems to captivate most of viewers nowadays, as well as the nature of this expression in the footsteps of the debate generated by Winckelmann, Lessing and Goethe in the XVIII century.
Maybe one of the main elements we have inherited from the conception according to which Laocoon is an innocent sacrificial victim is the fact that, for most contemporary observers, he looks like an essentially good man suffering the arbitrarity of fate. Moreover, his visual identification with the image of Christ on the cross seems to have forever transformed him into a kind of saint, just like in the 20th century the atheist Ernesto Che Guevara would be sanctified by the — maybe unintentional, or maybe not — click of a local photographer when he was killed in the Bolivian jungles.
Natur und Antike in der Renaissance, Cat. The Fragments of Sophocles. Cambridge University Press, 3 vols. According to the reconstruction made by C. Based on these last words, Robert concludes that in this version both sons die Robert, , p. Gubbio Scuola Tipografica, , pp. Studi di poesia latina in onore di Antonio Traglia.
Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura, v. The Myths of Hyginus. University of Kansas Press, , p. Philipp von Zabern,, part 1. Panofsky in Early Netherlandish Painting. Harvard University Press, 2 vols. The Warburg Institute, , p. Renaissance master bronzes from the collection of the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna.
For an hypothesis according to which it was commissioned to Moderno by the Cardinal Grimani, cf. Statueten, Reliefs und Plaketten. Anton Shroll, , p. Similarities with the version given to the right arm of the Trojan priest by the Montorsolian restoration of may suggest a later date, although that could be by no means later than , the. Gnomon, 63, 4 , pp. Miniature of the Aeneid representing the Laocoon episode.
Drawing representing the death of Laocoon. Destroyed during the Second World War. Originally made for the tomb of Girolamo della Torre and his son Marco Antonio. Presently in Paris, Louvre. Bologna, San Giacomo Maggiore. Vatican Museums, Belvedere detail. Sottoscrive invece senza riserve il Buona notte si. Dopo tanti fastidiosi appelli per una rivalutazione impossibile, chi non si sentiva disposto ad augurare, col Longhi, la buonanotte al signor Fattori?
Si identificano qui i primi dissensi. Pur appartenendo a generazioni successive, Longhi, nato nel ad Alba,nella provincia di Cuneo,e Argan,nato nel a Torino, condividono lato sensu una stessa cultura. Tutti i bambini di quegli anni si erano nutriti della morale civica di Cuore di Edmondo De Amicis, ambientato tra e nella Torino di Umberto I e Longhi conservava un bel ricordo di questo romanzo per ragazzi, secondo Gianfranco Contini.
La questione era drammaticamente complicata a causa del prolungamento del bellicismo della I Grande Guerra nel nazionalismo fascista. Il Manifesto degli intellettuali fascisti, ispirato al pensiero di Giovanni Gentile, pubblicato il 21 aprile Natale di Roma , dichiarava che: Dobbiamo trovare da soli la nostra giustizia. Come si disegnano, sullo sfondo di questo sostrato culturale comune, le esperienze formative dei due piemontesi?
Appena laureato, nel , Longhi lascia Torino per inseguire con una borsa di studio la scuola di perfezionamento di Adolfo Venturi a Roma. Il critico letterario Giacomo Debenedetti, grande amico di Argan, definisce la sua esperienza di quegli anni come: Avevano conosciuto Gobetti, forse Gramsci, di cui a noi era impossibile conoscere gli scritti proibiti. Croce era per noi il nostro vero maestro: A questo singolare parallelo tra Bisanzio e le diverse forme di totalitarismo del XX secolo, Longhi ritorna ancora, nel , per spiegare a un incauto storico nordamericano, E.
Il mio testo diceva anzi, precisamente: Giudizio sul Duecento, scritto alla vigilia della Guerra nel e pubblicato nel Non si tratta qui di provare a stilare un inventario delle differenze. Chi aveva in mente, il Tosi, nel suo nuvoloso omaggio? Inoltre, Longhi fu sempre reticente a ogni analogia esplicita tra la forma visiva e la teologia. Partendo da tali premesse, il Rinascimento, agli occhi di Longhi, non avrebbe potuto non risultare totalmente trasfigurato.
Ogni tentativo di risposta a questa domanda presuppone affrontare la questione della natura del rapporto tra i diversi livelli di significazione che vi convivono. Di certo Argan non incorre in una critica riduttrice del pensiero hegeliano. Da cui il fatto che si possa ricondurre il pensiero di Argan a un Hegel possibilmente mediato da Croce, che nel affermava nel suo Breviario di Estetica: La distinzione giusta era invece tra due concezioni del colore: Nello stesso manifesto fondatore della sua rivista Paragone, del , scrive a riguardo: Da tali premesse, le conclusioni: Per Longhi, invenzione formale e concetto rimangono, per natura, categorie eterogenee e, in potenza, reciprocamente ostili.
Proust, meglio di qualunque altro esempio, mostra come si distinguono queste maniere. Non appartiene a questo esercizio di ritratti in contrapposizione cedere allo spirito di paragone. Se ci fosse spazio per una conclusione, sarebbe quella che ognuno di loro incarna,non solo una traiettoria esemplare,ma un tipo di intellettuale e forse perfino un tipo di intelligenza.
I bizantini di Longhi, come. Lo affliggeva il fato che la nuova generazione non la vivesse se non come ignoranza: Il fenomeno era serio. Traduzione italiana di Elisabetta Santoro. Oltre ai testi citati, con ampia bibliografia, cfr. Si veda anche il sito Memofonte diretto da Paola Barocchi e, al suo interno,. Per finire, la voce del Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani http: Sul gran numero di studiosi che gli fanno omaggio nel ,si vedano gli Studi in Onore di Giulio Carlo Argan, Roma, Multigrafica Editrice, , 2 volumi, a cura dei suoi discepoli, con la presentazione di Maurizio Calvesi.
A riguardo, Giuliano Briganti ha scritto: Uno schieramento di parti avverse, ostili, ora apertamente ora subdolamente aggressive, in cui tutti fummo coinvolti e che, se si. A cura di Laura Laureati. Milano, Archinto, , p. Casabella, 73, gennaio Per quanto riguarda Tiepolo, spesso diminuito da Longhi rispetto a Paolo Veronese e a Pietro Longhi, si veda, fra tanti, un brano del Viatico per cinque secoli di pittura veneziana del Pinelli, Nel segno di Giano.
Roma, Carocci editore, , p. Ripubblicato in Studi e note, Roma, Bocca, ,pp. XIV, Firenze, Sansoni, , pp. Roca Di Amicis, Roma, Riuniti, , pp. Va ricordato il modo in cui Bandinelli concludeva nel il suo percorso: Pubblicato nel nella raccolta Rime e Ritmi. Apud Eugenio Garin, Cronache di filosofia italiana, Proporzioni, III, , pp.
Firenze, Sansoni, , pp. Garin, Cronache di filosofia italiana, Bari, Laterza, , 2 volumi; A.
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Opere Complete, Firenze, Sansoni, , 2. E occorreva forse meno di questa decantazione zelante degli elementari figurativi per rincamminare la pittura italiana? XIV, Firenze, Sansoni, , p. Studi e note, Roma, Bocca, ,p. Milano, Mondadori, h t t p: Debenedetti, Saggi Critici, Mondadori, Panofsky, Studi di Iconologia. Il Rinascimento da Brunelleschi a Brueghel.
Lucia, Intellettuali italiani del secondo dopoguerra. Impegno, crisi, speranza, Napoli, Guida, , p. I, Firenze, Sansoni, , p. Roberto Longhi nella cultura del nostro tempo, op. In, Studi e note, Roma, Bocca, ,p. Ricerche sulla pittura veneta i X, Firenze, Sansoni, , p. Ripubblicato in Ritratti di opere e di artisti,a cura di A. Roma, Riuniti, , pp. Ripubblicato nella stessa raccolta postuma a cura di A. Ripubblicato in Ritratti di opere e di artisti, cit. Da, casta parens, Iessaea propago, Da, virgo, aeternum virgo, quae sola furentum Nequitiamsacropraestascompescerepartu, 5 Da, praecor, et Veneres et quos malesana uetustas Aligeros finxit dementia numina fratres Exturbare, nouo longe et dispellere cantu.
Fertur in antiquis Peniaeque Porique hymanaeis NatusAmor,natauixdegenitrice,frequenti 10 Dum mensa ebria inter se celebrant conuiuia Diui Stellato in folio, uiridique Diespitris horto, Dum mens ebria Caelitibus, dum nectare dulcis Et dulci Ambrosia saturis pulcherrima rerum Quasgignisit,fasiamtumobuersaturimago. Altera de pelago, pharetrati mater Amoris Nascitur et Paphias olim sibi uendicat arces, Aegyptumque altasque Erycino in uertice sedes. Verum alias etiam Veneres ambage retenti Falsorumdiuumpriscicecinerepoetae, 20 Quis uarios et ludo submittere amores Coepere et uariis implere poemata monstris.
Hinc Cypro exiliunt puerorum multa uolantum Agmina, quae rutilis facibus, quae corpore nudo Quaequearcuetuariaterguspulsantepharetra 25 Circumeant terras, maria, aera, aethera, Caelum. Vt quemquam tetigere furit sic perdita cursu Phoebeo ut perhibent quomdam Peneia Daphne. Sic Phoeben stimulant petere Endymionis amati Congressumetceleresfirmaresubaetherebigas. Scilicet in furias ignemque incurrere diuos Finxerunt quoniam pecudum uolucrumque natantumque Omne genus ruere in Venerem inspexere, hominesque Propeterea et bella et caedes inferre cruentas. Quando etiam infernas magno inflammatus amore Coniugis ereptae est ausus tentare latebras 45 Threicius uates.
Neptunique alta propago, Pirithoum Stygias fidum ut sequeretur ad umbras Lucida Taenarei subiit penetralia Ditis. Sed quid ego ambages uana aut commenta secutus? Causa bonoque, bonique umbrae reddenda; quod in se Splendeat inque animo facili vestigia firmans Haereatactutumetstimuleturavaravoluntas 55 Et caeca illa quidem claro sed lumine mentis Ducta, boni extremam conatur tangere metam. Si primum fontemque boni summumque tonantem Ardes ingenti conatu ingentibus alis QuastibineccaeranecfiloDaedalusolim 60 Aptarit firmo sed glutine mater amoris Alma fides casti flammatos feruidus axes Egredere et pietas tibi nomina fecerit ardens Atque amor atque charis plausu celebrata frequenti.
Si rerum species iam contemplator ab alta Namque ubi membrorum vultus discordia concors Fulserit et grata fuerit compage revincta Ipsa oculos afflat subito celerique meatu Labitur affecti tacita ad penetralia cordis: Et tractum incendit generatque in pectore flammam Illecebris fotam placidis gratoque decore. Temporis at paruo spatio decor ille recedit, Disperitetflammaintenueseuanidafumos. Praeceditque etiam nam ni fax illa retenti Seminis urgeret non surgeret ipsa libido.
Sed parce ad sobolem necque non meta ipsa uoluptas. Nam si plus nimio cupis oblectarier inde Surgit amarities et mille incomoda uitae. Scilicet hanc legem primaeua ab origine rerum 95 Affixit natura parens mortalibus inque Perpetua incidit solido ex adamante columna. Ut semper multos uenus immoderata dolores Afferat innumeras labes morbosque necemque Etcuruaeantediempretendatdamnasenectae.
Momento extinguit uno Quidquid anhelanti conatu exhauseris horae Dimidio et celeri refugit post terga volatu. Quam cito dilapsa est veneris iucunda libido. Nec repetita potest ulla retinerier arte: Effugit et Scythico Borea et uiolentior Euro. Ac ueluti Cribro si lympham inferre pararis Quo magis infundas tanto magis effluet humor. At qui nam extiterit pharetrati fructus amoris Cum tela in uacuum defixit plurima pectus: Cumque ossa in cinerem face multa omnesque medullas Verterit Argiuo periit cum pergamos igni Testis et Inachias quae multa est flamma per urbes Digressa et Lybicos etiam populata penateis.
Quid memorem infande iugulatum Agamemnona dextra Coniugis? Quid referam extinctam Boeotia ad arua furentum et Discerptam manibus nimio feruore puellam? Quid puerum manibus laniatum Acteona narrem? Testis Stesichoro uati cantata calyce. Testis est ipsa suos igneis quae ferre recusans Idaliam ambracio restinxit lampada fluctu. Etquiseruilemdoctusuersaretumultum Drymachus insano iugulum postponit amori. Quaeque olim ad scopulos multorum ex ossibus albos Etcantuallectaetnatiuoinductafurore Et quae Circaeos Ithacensis turba furores Haurit et humanas facies exuta ferarum Induitur uultus, dominaeque ad iussa superbe Immundis stabulatur haris.
Sic improba Gorgon In saxa, in marmor stupidos conuertit amantes. Sic transformatos habitus consuere uetusti Cultores sophiae, tenui mandare papyro. Seu qui Palladias arces tenuere biformi CecroperegnatasseuquitenuereCrotona Quos una instituit Smyrnae telluris alumnus Unde noua emersit mutandae fabula formae. Hinc Theodori atque hinc Graii Callisthenis ora Inque alios conuersa modos et in ora ferarum. Quamvis quae cecinit fuerit puer atque puela. In quod mox se se deceptus pyxide uertit Lucius antiquae renouans figmenta Crotonis. Illuc Thallides et Pantho cretus et alta.
Ergo agite o Iuuenes spurcum ablegate furorem Quo brutum ex homine induitis quo Pergama quondam Arserunt quo iactat amans incendia, flammas. Sirenum a scopulis rapido discedite cursu [curru] Vela date ac nunquam uobis terra illa petenda est Circaeo praetensa sinu: Nunquam Ephyres portum si mens non laeua subite. Effugite et cursu celeri Sybaritida terram. Vnum etiam uobis Iuuenes praeque omnibus unum Praedicam, uestrae uobis si cura pudoris [salutis], Si casti vos tangit honos, si cura pudoris,. Huc etenim nimium nimiumque nocentia monstra Migrauere truces Scyllaeque et Gorgones, atque Harpyiae in mediis posuere sedilia templis.
Nec non quae Atlantem olim, et quae Titana parentem Agnorunt, arteis nec dedidicere vetustas, Semiferaeque etiam caprearum rupe recentis Mutauere domos Babylonis, et aurea tecta. Atque super sacra sidunt Acheloides aede Huc quantum Caerae sicula depromitur hybla, [herba] Huc huc Cecropius quicquid cogebat Hymettus. Moly ueni, ueniat districtus et ensis Ulyssei Constanti auertens magicos molimine cantus.
Vanaque sopiti ludens praestigia [insomnia] sensus, Et potis Idaliam glacie interspergere flammam. Si uobis natura suos iniecerit ignes, Nec sit pertesum thalami, nodique iugalis, Quaerite concessos diuina lege Hymenaeos. Prima autem fiat de moribus, ultima fiat Quaestio de forma, dotemque exquirite, qualem Antiquo in Latio, ueteri uel in Hellade mille Mille olim quaesita procis noua nupta parabat Quis non Euadnes citius caperetur amore Ut [Et] casto illius digito fuluum inderet aurum?
Protesilae tuam quis non uelit ante maritam Quam Leda genitam; quamuis pulcherrima, quamuis Et ratibus mille et bello repetita decenni? Aut quis non uilem mundi muliebris amictum, Et tenuem Cophinum priscae de more Sabinae Optarit potius casta cum coniuge secum Ferre Domum? Caelibe si uultis uitam traducere lecto Continuocastisrestinguitefontibusignes Et venerem [veneres] gelido, venerem [veneres] submergite ponto, Qua patet ad Boream semper glacialis Hiberne [Hyberne]: Pervolitent mentem atque oculos, facibusque, malignis Si instillare uelint tacitum in praecordia virus [Instillare velint tacitum in praecordia virus] Aligerifratrespuerorumturbauolantum, Vos subito ut leuibus difflauerit aera pennis Turba nocens duro pennas praecidire ferro.
Ferrea mens nulli Veneris obnoxia culpae, Ensis adest Iuuenes quo mollis in aera penna Dissecta [Dessecta] est: Tum loca diuerso coelo quaerenda salubris Aeris in spatiis alia in regione manendum est, Ex animo ut citius facies uanescat [abolescat] amata. Nunquam luminibus committite [committere] lumina, quando Lenis amor, quem quis dudum frigere putaret Saepe arsit uultu conspecto, atque illice forma Exciuit flammas quantasque sub Ilio alto NonTenedosuiditnonincolaTyburisalti Spectauit, sceuo est cum Roma incensa Nerone [Neroni].
Vertenda est facies, nec blando uerba susurro Excipienda plagis quis non capiatur [caperetur] iniquis? Quas menti semper uacuae, semperque petenti IllecebramsensusfallaxAmathusiatendit? Spectandum instabile hoc quodcumque hic digitur [degitur] aeui Delitium [Delicium] et vanum et fluxum mistumque dolore. Sucurrantque nulla homini sincaera voluptas. Acherontia turba Quod nunquam inspexit [aspexit]. Quo nullam sic affligere quemquam Fama est inferna durarum a sede sororum. Ipse siti in mediis ardebat Tantalus undis, At nunquam refugas labris compreendere lymphas Olli posse datum. Sed cum se gurgite mersat Altius hic uasto et caua guttura pandit hiatu Humorem absorbens auidas sitis aspera fauces: Neque non de fonte liquores P[r]ompsit acidalios gelido Venus ipsa, sed hausit [sumpsit] Ab calida Phlegethontis aqua quae semper opacos Conuoluit fumos igneis [ignes], incendia, flammas.
Nec uobis animo exciderit nec corde tenaci Quam multis olim exitium mortalibus ingens Attuleritregnaetdeleueritinclytacaecus Humana in mente exercens sua sceptra Cupido. Ante oculos etiam macies uersetur amicam In faciem succo tum successura salubri Cum senium rugas secum portarit aniles. Quod certe et morbi miseraeque incommoda vitae Ingeminant foeda ut confecta cadauera tabe. Hinc operae pretium est mortis meminisse tremendae Terribiliexcinditquaevitaegaudiafalce. Hinc subeant animi aeternae sub tartara poenae Quis Venus et Veneris male dulcia furta secuti Plectuntur: Exempla virorum Accedant Venerem immundam qui uerberum [verbere] torto Et silice et rigido domuerunt saepe cubili Quique niuem insiliens Veneris superasse calores Dicitur, occurat, retegens noua semina fraudis Infernae.
Nec non qui caeci spicula amoris Quique illas quondam sub inani pectore curas Consertas spinis, Erycinae munera saeuae Deludens se se in spinas destrusit acutas. EtquifallacistempsereCupidinisarcus Obrepant menti: Vos etiam monitos Iuuenes iterumque iterumque Optarim obscenum casto ut pellaris amorem Pellitur ut clauo clauus, nec ad alta Platonis Vos specta [spectra] aetheriae aut Veneris simulachra relego.
Hunc redama aspiciens [adspiciens] foedatos puluere crines Atque coronatam dumis pungentibus illam, Fronte[m] illam, nutu totum quae illustrat Olympum. Quaeque catenatum nutu tremefecerit Orcum. Aspice [Adspice] purpureo madefactum sanguine corpus, Disiectumque latus, distentaque brachia, clauis Transfixasque manus, plantasque: Scilicet haec rerum onipotens, qui temperat orbem Matris Acidaliae flammas, puerumque perosus Pertulit,eriperetteteutdefaucibusOrci, Ut secum aeternae sequereris praemia [gaudia] palmae, Quae castus praebebit amor sine fine futurus Foelix, aeternoque arsurus munere foelix.
O que fica para ti? O que te resta? Nem, perseguida, pode ela ser retida por arte alguma. Por que eu relembraria Agamemnon degolado pela infame direita da esposa? Por que narraria Acteon dilacerado por obra dos jovens? Ah, Acteon que se exprimia por seus membros demasiado lacerados. Queres outra coisa quando te envolves a alma em diversos corpos? Illustrissimi ac doctissimi principis Jo. Francisci Pici Mirandulae domini,… De venere et cupidine expellendis carmen. Item ejusdem Laurentius et Geminianus hymni. A segunda, reproduzida no Googlebooks, foi editada por G.
Ou na poesia italiana dita fidenziana, i. Erasmo a ela se refere em um de seus. Il 19 settembre , Giovanni Francesco Pico , Signore di Mirandola e conte di Concordia, firma a Roma una celebre epistola indirizzata a Pietro Bembo E Leandro Alberti compiange la sua morte con queste parole: Nel , Pico e Bembo sono a Roma per ragioni molto diverse. Nel sposa Giovanna Carafa , figlia di Giovanni Tomaso Carafa, di Napoli, Conte di Maddaloni e di Cerreto, che, come il marito, difendeva fervorosamente Savonarola, con il quale mantenevano entrambi una corrispondenza epistolare. Era questa la ragione del suo soggiorno a Roma quando scrisse la prima epistola a Bembo, nel settembre Giovan Francesco scrive, quindi, una replica non datata alla risposta del grande letterato veneziano.
In effetti, i due grandi letterati si accorgono di trovarsi davanti a un fatto nuovo: Dichiara, infatti, che a Roma, dove accorrono da tutte le parti, gli artisti: Maria Novella, vicario generale dei conventi domenicani in Italia e professore di esegesi biblica nello Studio fiorentino, cardinale Giovanni Dominici, che aveva appena sottomesso a Salutati il manoscritto del suo Lucula noctis. Infatti, Boccaccio fu oggetto della censura religiosa di S. Leone X non avrebbe fatto altro che approfondire questo culto delle sculture antiche.
In occasione della sua entrata a Roma nel per celebrare la sua assunzione alla cattedra pontificia,fu eretto davanti al palazzo del cardinale Andrea della Valle un arco di trionfo sul quale era stata disposta una specie di antologia delle sculture antiche conservate,fino ad allora,nelle collezioni romane. La maggior parte dei Cardinali sono iti ad vedere.
Non deve sorprendere, quindi, che il bersaglio principale della cri. Le sculture di Venere a Roma e la preminenza della Venus felix Riesumata in un momento e in un luogo incerti,forse nei dintorni di S. La figura materna tiene nella mano sinistra qualcosa che Cupido,suo figlio, rappresentato sulla punta dei piedi, cerca di raggiungere. Eos Iulius secundus Pont. Max accersiuit e romanis ruinis, ante paululum erutos, collocauitque in nemore citriorum illo odoratissimo constrato silice, cuius in meditullio Caerulei quoque Thybridis est imago colossea. Giulio II, Pontefice Massimo, le ha fatte.
Il disegno attribuito a Antonio da Sangallo nella Albertina inv. Innanzitutto, le statue di Venere che ornavano i giardini e le collezioni di personaggi importanti della Curia. Accanto a queste due Veneri e al torso Ciampolini,. Pico aveva letto spesso in Plinio, Tacito, Svetonio e Tertulliano lo strategemma di Pompeo che, per sottrarsi alla vigilanza repubblicana, aveva eretto davanti al suo portentoso teatro un tempio. E finalmente, e non meno importante: Abbiamo fatto riferimento agli elogi entusiastici tessuti alla Venus felix da umanisti e poeti del Cinquecento, come pure a numerosi studi e opere che hanno trovato in essa origine o ispirazione.
Questo giudizio sembra davvero affrettato. La poesia colpisce per la crudezza di alcune immagini, ma anche per un altro fatto: Venus coelestis o aetheria o urania e Venus vulgaris o pandemia . Come si sa, la tradizione mitografica attribuiva alle due Veneri origini diverse: Per duplicem Venerem, de quo in symposio Platonis, nihil aliud intelligere debemus, quam duplicem pulchritudinem, sensibilem et intelligibilem.
Sappiamo, pure, che si infastidisce quando, nel , viene a sapere che il Perugino aveva intenzione di rappresentare nuda ossia, come Venus aetheria la Venere che la sua inventio prevedeva vestita ossia, Vulgaris . Filostrato, il Vecchio, il cui Eikones era stato appena pubblicato Aldina, ,era formale nella sua descrizione di una scultura di avorio: Ad ogni modo, non si devono perdere di vista due fatti. Come mostra Stefano Carrai: Nei termini di questa stessa contrapposizione si devono intendere anche le scene dipinte come medaglioni in rilievo alla base delle colonne che fiancheggiano la Venere e Cupido di Gossart , citata sopra: Ma prima ancora di Correggio e di Gossart, fra il e il , il tema di Venere raggiunge il suo apice nella cultura figurativa del primo quarto del Cinquecento.
In esso Pico afferma che: Non si conosce la data esatta o e nemmeno la lingua in cui fu originalmente scritta questa opera influente come affiora in un brano del trattato di Giuseppe Betussi, citato sotto e della quale furono subito fatte edizioni in italiano, spagnolo e francese. Il perche in tutte le generationi degli huomini e medesimi erono philosophi e sacerdoti, e non senza ragioni cosi era. In uno dei suoi quaderni di appunti sulle antiche misure romane, Angelo Colocci, Segretario di Giulio II e eminente rappresentante del platonismo curiale del secondo decennio, scrive: Colocci riprendeva qui una categoria fondamentale di Ficino, ripetuta alla fine del suo Commento sulle due Veneri: Infatti, nel secondo progetto, pure del http: Il suo rifiuto del culto dei modelli antichi era, del resto, sistematico e avveniva in diversi ambiti.
Alla fine del nostro percorso. Traduzione di Letizia Zini Antunes. Schmitt, Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola and his critique of Aristotle. Vita Hieronymi Savonarolae, Firenze: Giovio, Elogia veris clarorum virorum imaginibus apposita. Quae in Musaeo Ioviano Comi spectantur, Venezia: Cito dalla traduzione italiana, Elogi degli Uomini Illustri, a cura di F.
Descrittione di Tutta Italia di F. Sui rapporti fra Leandro Alberti e Pico, entrambi inquisitori terribili, cfr. Atti del Convegno Internazionale di Studi. Bononia University Press, Art History, 11, 22, , pp. Travi, 4 volumi, vol. Petri Bembi Veneti de imitatione liber unus. New York, , reprint , Parte II, pp.
Loescher, e M. Mirabilia Romae editum Francisco Albertino Florentino. Romani Morin, , cap. De statuis ac picturis, p. III della seconda edizione delle Vite di Vasari: Penny, Taste and the. The Lure of Classical Sculpture. Bembo, Prose e rime, Torino: IV e a Giovanni da Vigonza ep. Dazzi, Il Mussato preumanista, Venezia, Per il confronto con Giovannino a Mantova, cfr.
Journal of the History of Ideas, 56, 1, , pp. Branca, I Classici Mondadori, , p. Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, 28, , pp. Witt, Hercules at the Crossroads. Varese, Milano, Napoli, , pp. Disponibile anche in rete. Huizinga, Erasmus , Hamburg, , pp. New York, , pp. Thinking about what we saw in this conference, we found, at this moment, four different kinds of poetic action: Surely this will also resonate in our individual researches.
However, much remains to be debated and to mature about it. A gente pode fazer casa do jeito que a gente quiser? Art Based Educational Research. The arts and the creation of mind. Barbosa, Ana Mae e Amaral, Lilian org. Irving, Rita and Cosson, Alex de Vancouver, Pacific Educational Press. SP, Editora Martins Fontes. In this paper arts-based, and art practice research methodologies are discussed in master and doctoral research projects, in the context of art education, introducing arts-based theses projects from the programme of Art Education in Aalto University, in Finland.
The paper explores three claims within arts-based methodology. The claims are discussed through and with the research project examples. These claims and their challenges and potentialities are presented and discussed for current and future arts-based research. Arts-based, art practice, art education, methodological pluralism, singularity In this paper, arts-based, and art practice research methodologies are discussed in master s and doctoral research projects, in the context of art education, in Aalto University, in Finland.
I discuss these claims, and their challenges and potentialities for current and future arts-based research methodology. First, I provide examples of three arts-based projects. Two of them are master s theses and one is a doctoral dissertation, all from Aalto University. Later, I will discuss how the claims and arguments are addressed in these projects, and the challenges they raise for future research. Because of the brief amount of time allocated for presentations, however, this paper necessarily abbreviates the complexity of the claims and arguments, and passes over additional concepts and critiques involved with arts-based research.
The first example is a MA thesis from Varpu Eronen: Our Thunderstorm routs around experience. Varpu started her project after an astonishing experience; her family s summer cottage burned down because of a thunderstorm. She re-searched the phenomena of an extraordinary experience through different visual, narrative and theoretical methods. Varpu used still and moving images, and made a series of paintings. In her exhibition, there were also found objects from the ash. In my opinion, the most effective visuals were her photos taken day after the fire, in which she lives the trauma through performative action, which she also discusses through writing.
As research materials she used journal texts, memories, reflections, visions, narratives, photographs, and videos taken in the deserted houses. After exploring the sites as aesthetic experiences and later as social places, she used the houses as a long-term gallery space for her own photographs. Employing site-specific theories, the deserted houses became internal and metaphoric landscapes.
The objects inside of the houses and the people that visited the houses gained meanings that helped to Elina represent and reflect the stranger within herself. In this sense, while exploring conceptions of a deserted house as a third space, she was also able to uncover her own story. In it, I explore art pedagogical dimensions of dialogue and encountering with the Other. The arts-based project is grounded in the collaborative art practice of a person with autism and an art educator.
I discussed the possibilities of a collaborative art practice to help create an ethical and pedagogical relationship with the Other, Self and the Levinasian Third. The pre-determined pedagogical goals and desires were challenged, along with understandings of disabled and phenomenological body experiences. By editing the video documentation and creating new interpretations, I explored the possibilities of describing, discussing and interpreting the collaboration visually. However, similarities are found with how the research questions and foci areas are set. Foci are in societal, cultural, political, philosophical or educational phenomena, rather than on artistic phenomena.
In my research, the interest is in pedagogy and collaboration. In Varpu s work, the research focus is directed to explore questions of identity, and in Elina s thesis, the site and place are in focus. The significance of singular experiences is emphasized in all of them. Arts are then used as a method of getting to know about the phenomena. At the same time, they are personal research projects. As typical to the arts-based projects, the researchers are deeply engaged and part of the research subject. This is perhaps the reason why the method seems so suitable for art education.
Pedagogues are often interested in developing their own understandings of self, and therefore may incorporate a personal level into the research. However, the singular nature of arts-based research does not mean that it would be out of reach for other people quite the contrary. When something is deeply singular it usually makes most sense to us.
Not all of our summerhouses need to burn down, for example, for us to understand the nature of Varpu s thesis: The unique character of arts-based research methods relies upon singular experiences, which cannot be separated from personal level. Arts-based research project can never be repeated as such in another research context and still it makes sense to the others and helps other projects to form similar kinds of new knowledge. Personal and subjective experience becomes commonly shared experience, and a tool for others.
The subjective knowledge that is constructed through individual and artistic experience transforms into critical research knowledge through critical reflective analysis.
This is especially apparent in Varpu s project, in her performative images where she is using her own body. She is not taking pictures of herself as much as she is using herself as in instrument to bodily explore the phenomena she is studying. Similarly Elina uses her own body when visiting and spending time in the deserted houses. In my own research, while giving myself as an instrument by making collaborative art with my artistic partner with autism, the research focus was not on my own art making, but in the events of encountering and learning about our being-with-together while making.
The second claim Methodological pluralism and diverse interpretations make the research process more complex, but difficult to assert in a research context. The examples presented earlier used multiple methodologies. Varpu used, for example, arts-based methods, narrative and auto-ethnographic methods, and theories from memory research, site and place and psychoanalytical theory. Often, arts-based research projects use methods such as participatory action research, pragmatist methods, ethnography, or phenomenological, hermeneutic approaches, and, as it is the case in Elina s work, ideas of critical pedagogy, post-structuralism, postmodernism, inquiry-based, dialectical, and rhizomatic approaches.
The methodological pluralism has been criticised as trying to do too much. Mira Kallio-Tavin and Thomas Kaarni While methodological pluralism can also be understood as a type of richness, its relationship to diverse interpretations should be explored more carefully. Diversified and multi-layered interpretations need to be contextualised: Diversified interpretations can become an issue with research results. Are the referential significances clear enough to make sufficient arguments for the research results?
Or, is the idea of clarity already in contradiction to the singular nature of arts-based research methodology? The third claim An artistic part of an arts-based research project should not be a separate art project attached to the study, but a lived part of the flesh of the work, which crosscuts the entire work.
Art practice is a particular way of conducting research and a specific method for learning, knowing and researching. The researcher gets to search issues that other researchers could never reach, when standing at two or several positions at the same time. In the first arts-based dissertations in Finland, the artistic part was sepa.
The problem with this model is that another person could have written the research text. So, it was relevant to ask, why one person should make both things, the art production and theory part, if they would not create anything new together? This is not the situation, however, in all three examples. They explore the phenomena by using art practice as a crucial method of knowledge building. This is also the part of the arts-based method that gets the most criticism. The hybrid conflation of art making and knowledge building, putting together praxis and poiesis, can be understood as preoccupation of practices of self-exploration and self-rendering.
The criticism is current with arts-based research projects, which only justifies choices based on the will of the artist, or creativity, in a way that the research itself becomes something slippery and too eclectic, leaving no room for critical assessment of the methodology. Choices that seem to be done on an intuitive base, and which are difficult to explain through language, should not be discussed as something mystical. Often, there are difficulties to find words in a research topic that is based, for example, on embodied, multi sensorial, and experience-based knowledge.
It is, however, important to realize that in a research context these processes of knowing should be critically discussed an argued. Aalto University, Department of Art, Unpublished master s thesis. A Critique and a Proposal. Encountering self, Other and the third. Researching the crossroads of art pedagogy, Levinasian ethics and Disability studies. In the deserted house artsbased research about the sense of place.
This paper is a response, not a refutation as Pariser s doubts will endure as persistent challenges that arts-based and artistic research must address. Historically, the current university system never dealt with the issue of how art is a research activity, it simply presumed that whatever artists do must be research. Therein lies a problem that haunts us to this day. Research must demonstrate criteria and only those artistic practices that meet these criteria may be called research. Through criteria we make judgments of quality. Arts-based and artistic research do not engage will all kinds of aesthetic relationships; they focus on those that provoke desires to concentrate attention in order to attempt to grasp new possibility.
The question is, when is aesthetic relationship research? There needs to be a serious re-examination of how art might be research, how it is a training of mind that many students could benefit from, and effect a change in academia from the current system that tends to nurture only the talented few.
Arts-based and artistic research is about changing the foundations of how we conceptualize the role of art within higher education. Each of the fourteen chapters in John Dewey s Art as Experience suggest successive criteria for judging arts-based and artistic research. The establishment of criteria is important to sound research methodologies that open and explore new imaginative possibility. These are substantial; they deserve close examination.
En ello radica un problema que nos persigue hasta hoy. Research universities face new challenges. Do the social sciences really need arts-based research methodologies? Should these even be tolerated? How should universities align their artistic programs to the European Union s mandate of the Ph. Already, before the Ph. Pariser provocatively questions the motives of those who advocate these new directions. In this paper, I propose to move through Pariser s arguments in the sequence he presents them.
This paper is a response, not a refutation. At the end, Pariser s doubts remain. They will not go away; they will endure. If we were to follow the argumentation of the philosopher Karl Popper , that these criticisms remain would be proof that arguments in favour of arts-based social science research or artistic research are false. Zygmunt Bauman refers to this aesthetic philosophical stance as freischwebend, in literal translation from the German, to hover above.
Knowing requires not knowing, a state of being lost in order to find. The American educational narrative researcher Valerie Janesick in preparation speaks of arts-based methods as opening minds, allowing us pause in our realizations of what is not yet within our scope of comprehension, and sharpening our attention to experiences that we may encounter, but as yet still remain unknown. Of Art and Research There was a time when the training of artists was separate from universities.
For example, in the United States, an institution like the School of the Art Institute of Chicago is affiliated to a museum, not a university. In the United States, this separation broke down in the wake of the Second World War when returning soldiers were given financial support to attend university. To the amazement of authorities, large numbers of these soldiers wanted to study the fine arts, not as historians, philosophers, or aestheticians, but as practitioners. They wanted to paint, sculpt, and write poetry.
Son sustanciales, por lo que merecen un examen minucioso. Pariser cuestiona provocativamente los motivos de aquellos que abogan por estas nuevas direcciones. Al final, las dudas de Pariser permanecen. Estas dudas no van a desaparecer sino que van a continuar.
Saber requiere no saber, un estado de perderse con el fin de encontrar. In a capital driven educational system s rush to money, the thorny issue of how exactly art-making is a research activity was glossed over with the quip that whatever artists do must be research. One problem in artistic practice serving as a research model is the absence of peer review.
While external grant funding may provide some level of oversight of museum curatorial decision-making, there is no guarantee that decision-making panels are composed of scholars. Bodies charged with funding decisions might be composed of donors and neo-liberal vested interests. Collectors buy what they like; gallery dealers tend to exhibit what they think they can sell. It is difficult to analogize this system to social science research, and yet this is what research universities do.
Is this an essentialist flaw in how we conceptualize the role of arts in academia? Is placing the art in the context of research universities just wrong headed, leaving the arts in a position of little respect? Thus, are the efforts to revitalize the claims to artistic research, or arts based research, just another of a continuing series of the arts attempting to shroud themselves in academic clothing in order to maintain a convenient cash stream? Here, and throughout this critique, I maintain that forms of artistic practice and forms of arts-informed inquiry may rise to the level of research, but not all artistic practice and forms of arts-informed inquiry, on an essentialist level, are research.
There are infinite ways to make art; however, research must demonstrate criteria and only those practices that meet criteria may be called research. Judgment and Values as Research Here I want to pause and to remember the work of Elliot Eisner, who as Pariser rightly notes, first promoted the concept that something called artsbased research could apply to the social sciences.
Eisner s original contribution to this endeavour was a methodology called educational criticism that employed the skill of connoisseurship for making judgments of quality Eisner, Judgments of quality was an intriguing idea in the field of research, for it was no longer the job of the researcher to find how much or how many, or what quantity of X resulted in what amount of Y. Rather, a critical task of an evaluator was to render a judgment, based on an aesthetic sense of a whole, if something were worth doing.
En esto radica un problema que nos persigue hasta hoy. Los coleccionistas compran lo que les gusta; los galeristas tienden a exhibir aquello que piensan que pueden vender. In short, if Y is worthless, what interest do we have in knowing that X can produce a lot of it? This brings us to questions not simply of scientific effect, but of values. Values spring forth out of ethics, a limb that the tree of philosophy tell us belongs to the branch of ontology. The other great limb on the branch of ontology, next to ethics, is aesthetics.
The arts are not sainted disciplines where all activity is inherently good. Not all arts activity is inherently rewarding. Dewey stated that the one common substance of authentic art is sincerity. However, in a world where arts activity may quickly garner fame, incredible wealth, privilege along with ego inflating flattery, there is no guarantee that sincerity has anything to do with it.
Therefore Dewey s criteria of sincerity refers to a kind of art making, a subset.
It does not presuppose that all the things we may wish to call art or visual culture demonstrate sincerity. Second, Pariser cites that vast intellectual empires have been built on the study, interpretation, assessment and emulation of works of art. These disciplines have methodologies and accepted practices. Why do we need arts-based research? There are two problems.
One relates to artistic research, the second relates to arts-based research in the social sciences, yet in both cases the problem relates exactly to the vast array of methods of interpretation, assessment and emulation of works of art. First, regarding artistic research, these methods deal with finished objects; they do not deal with making the object. However, artistic research regards the method of production as research, and thus opens up new territory that these other methods do not recognize.
Second, regarding arts-based research in the social science, the object under consideration was fluid. Eisner s educational criticism is deeply influenced by academic literary criticism, but the object of analysis was not a fixed novel, or painting, or a scripted dramatic performance, it was directed at analysing classrooms with the assumptions that teachers strove to create an aesthetic moments, and maybe even aesthetic wholes in their daily practice. Similarly, Sarah Lawrence Lightfoot eschewed the tough scientific stance of telling it like it is warts and all, and instead advocated a method of program evaluation call portraiture in which the evaluator attempted to Yo creo que no.
Lightfoot s research is a highly aesthetic practice, for the researcher to shape a whole, that will allow others to see a path to new possibilities of action. Emotional centeredness may also be called aesthetic relationship. The arts traffic in felt experience. To understand human interaction scientifically, one must come to grips with the role of felt experience in and between research participants. However, as aesthetics is a fluid term, what may pass as aesthetics relationships can also be about promoting self-satisfaction, diversion, and complacency 1.
So art s based and artistic research do not engage will all kinds of aesthetic relationships, they focus on those that provoke desires to concentrate attention in order to attempt to grasp new possibility. Just like Nelson Goodman asked, when is art, the question is, When is aesthetic relationship research? Because art has enjoyed within academia the unquestioned position for the last half century that anything that is done in art is research, no doubt the thought that artistic research is a subset of artistic activity causes alarm with people who want to defend vested privilege.
The individuals who are attempting to define artistic-based research and arts-based research are not the ones who are contributing to the draining the word of meaning. That slippage occurred when Pariser s Trojan Horse was brought inside the walls of the academy sixty years ago. Arts-based and artistic research is an attempt to restore meaning. There is another conceptual changed to higher education that brings the issue of arts-based research to the fore.
That is in the changing concept of the university itself. Until quite recently, universities were unquestioned meritocracies, where talent was identified and the best and the brightest groomed for elite positions within our cultures. These positions generally conveyed wealth and social status. There was little, if any concern for those who fell off along the way.
These individuals were the accepted collateral damage necessary in the pursuit of the blood sport of excellence. No presupone que todas las cosas que se pueden llamar arte o cultura visual demuestran sinceridad. Instead, the governmental bodies that support education tend to ask what have all students learned on graduation. This is a profound shift in focus, for now the collateral damage, those left in the ditches at the side of the road of academia and the wreckage produced in arts schools in particular can no longer be swept aside and accepted as the necessary price of culture.
All disciplines now must answer this question of inclusion and the value of learning that all students receive. Some disciplines that have an unquestioned neo-liberal value, such as medicine or engineering, are immune to these concerns, but other disciplines run the risk of being marginalized or removed altogether from academia. Witness the status of Latin in American universities. What students learn through making art is a serious question.
That students learn to make cool stuff does not strike me as enough of an answer. Along these same lines, in the current climate, it is unlikely that external program evaluators will be impressed with the identification of the one graduate in the last ten years who had an exhibition in a New York City. Therefore, there is a need to seriously re-examine how art might be research, how it is a training of mind that many students could benefit from, and more than simply the nurturing of the talented few.
Arts-based and artistic research is about changing the foundations of how we conceptualize the role of art within the academy. This is not expediency, this is about asking hard questions that have been glossed over in the post-war climate that equated capital exchange with learning, as well as unexamined ideas about meritocracy, now challenged by unprecedented attempts to open education to a broad socio-economic spectrum. It is now well established that our neo-liberal art markets can sustain a lively cultural spectacle without any input from academia. At best, university programs solely devoted to cultural production bare a striking similarity to business programs.
Tuition fast tracks you into the business the Master of Fine Arts MFA as Master in Business Administration MBA and as Adorno foresaw the culture industry is best served with marketing analyses and marketing plans to deliver objects that the neo-liberal market wants. Students get hip to winning formulas and insider trades. At worse, studio programs may be variations on Ponzi schemes, that seemingly engage the student in a world of the arts as long as they pay tuition, only to reveal that whole operation has been a bit of sham and fairy tale once the student graduates but new suckers come in to keep the whole thing going.
El concepto cambiante de la propia universidad. Estos puestos generalmente implican riqueza y estatus social. Se trata de un cambio profundo en el enfoque, por Regrettably, the business model and the Ponzi scheme are two operations that academia has promoted for the last half century and these models have vested interest.
There are good reasons to think again, and consider artistic practice as a form of pure research that is about learning to think. In short, we need to look for new pathways. Eisner s question when he introduced educational criticism is still pertinent, might the arts inform the conduct of social science research in meaningful ways?
He did not declare the answer; he asked the question. To attempt to carve out a new understanding through research does not strike me as an unnecessary incursion but rather a necessary intervention to rescue a dysfunctional operating system. International higher education is in crisis. We are in the midst of a profound shift of what Western Industrial countries consider to be the goals of education. Arts-based research and artistic research are not academic power grabs; they are works of salvage to protect the best traditions of aesthetic philosophy.
Indeed, research and inquiry are not highly specialized activities conducted by people in white lab coats at universities. Research and inquiry are ubiquitous and necessary to creating profound aesthetic experiences that reshape our daily decisions of how we seek to be in the world. In an example from Dewey, dining may do more than satisfy hunger, but a particular moment, a particular meal, in the right context, may in fact reorient one s own philosophies and belief about food. In American Pragmatic philosophy, knowledge is not only something that one has and can possess, but it is also something to quest for.
In Pragmatic philosophy, a function of inquiry is not only to confirm what is and secure it, but there is also a function of opening a door to what may be. Dewey called this a metaphysical outcome, a shaping of future action. Even with the philosophy of science, maintaining only a narrow deductive conception of research is problematic, as the ability to reframe problems, to imagine new possibilities may be lost. Pariser s cites Denis Phillips s critique of Eisner s claim that research should advance human understanding Phillips, Phillips criticizes this position as opening the door to charlatans and destructive practices.
Que los estudiantes aprendan a hacer cosas interesantes, no me parece que sea una respuesta suficiente. En el peor de los casos, en los programas de estudio puede haber variaciones. However, I would respond that Leary fails the Pragmatic test as to whether the outcomes of action encourage growth that creates a more inclusive society. Here, the outcomes were medically dangerous and sometimes resulted in death or permanent impairment. Leary s claims to advanced understanding needs to be held up to Pragmatic critique.
They don t pass the test. Phillips also evokes the mindless activity of Jackson Pollock, an artist who we now recognize through fractal analysis was meticulously researching the world around him. Our analysis of Pollock s work causes us to see the world anew, to reconsider the power of perception, and what we might see. Pollock s work meets the criteria of Pragmatic research.
Thus in Phillips examples we can see one instance of somatic practice alteration of the body through ingestion of drugs that is questionable in its claim to advance human understanding, and another instance of somatic practice, the drip paintings of Jackson Pollock, that enlarges our understanding of the possible. Critique and Criticism Pariser questions if there are criteria for arts-based research that would allow us to render judgments as to its quality in advancing human understanding.
Dewey provides several, and I will discuss these in detail at the close of the paper. Here, it is important to note that Dewey s foremost criterion is whether the work reconfigures our sense of space and time. Therefore a pleasing photograph of flowers, or a picture of the beach, while perhaps pleasant to look at, providing a nice sense of colour in the living room, and otherwise amusing, would not be a piece of research, for it simply reinforces what we already know. Art disrupts, ruptures, and provokes. These result in breakings, which in turn demand synthesis.
Breakings and synthesis would be a second criterion. Eisner follows Dewey, but this is not a demand for all arts-based research to be based on Dewey. But all arts-based research is required to establish criteria for what constitutes understanding.
In his criticism of Eisner, Phillips claimed that artsbased research was not open to skeptical scrutiny and criticism. Certainly with Eisner s brand of artsbased research this is not the case. For Eisner, a personal feeling of joy, satisfaction, or what Dewey would call an experience, was cause for celebration, but in itself this was not research. Testimonies about how the art cause personal transformation were not enough. Arts-based research had to change the perception of the reader.
To address these issues, Eisner advocated three criteria to question and critique works of arts based: We don t want to be left having to take the researcher s testimony at face value. As emotionally moving as a story may be, it only becomes research when we can see what we will do with this.
What is the magnitude of the impact? Eisner maintained, and I agree, that arts-based research must open the minds and hearts of the readers of research for the improvement of classroom practice. I believe this is critical for a practice that wishes to claim the title of research. Many arts-based researchers disagree with what they describe as Eisner s formalist ends. These theorists insist that the arts must play a role of permanent disruption and resistance, for places of synthesis are simply new arenas of neo-liberal economic and social control.
Disruption is not alien to Dewey. He claimed that the role of art s qualitative reasoning was that it was a form of thinking distinct from and subversive to semiotics. Qualitative reasoning undermined meaning, confounded, made one aware that one had experiences beyond what words could say. This was not to be triumphant moment to celebrate the inadequacy of language, but rather a prompt to a quest to reconfigure language more fully to felt reality.
Eisner, never left things in aesthetic disarray, but like Dewey saw the provocation to imbalance as an impulsion to integrate the provocation in a way that one regained balance, from which provocation began again. There is an endless process of rupture and synthesis. Perception is critical to both. The outcome is growth. El arte, produce rupturas y provoca. Heidegger a speaks of how the past comes to us from the future. These new methods do not necessarily build on the past as if we were constructing a wall, stone carefully laid on stone.
Instead, arts-based methods may draw attention to a new wall, previously not seen in the field, and which is suddenly in plain view. How we may make sense of Dewey, and see a work like Art as Experience in a new light is an example. Pariser s final appeal to Phillips is in making the claim that research is a quest for truth, and art can make no truth claims.
In an analytic philosophical sense, art does not traffic in truth. Instead, art traffics in what it is possible to consider. Pariser says, Artists do not disprove each other s work. These worlds do not disprove each other, they are new imaginative possibilities, and how these imaginative possibilities allow viewers to construct their own worlds is a criterion for research. Here in the paper, Pariser pauses to wonder if the debate is one of semantics: That research can only be a predefined set of operations to address a defined problem seems overly narrow.
Every teacher knows that following the lesson plan is the garden path to hell. There would seem to be a need for research that seeks to find the conditions that define a problem. It would not be unreasonable that such a search could begin in exploring relationships of qualities. That we need to parse one as research and the other as inquiry seems unnecessary and unhelpful to both.
Pariser speaks of two areas where artistic practice and research have forms of engagement that overlap. He cites pattern finding and play. Here what we want to call research comes down to how broad a scope of definition one is willing to employ. As Dewey observes, scientific research pattern finding narrows a problem by eliminating distractions, in arts-based research pattern finding often widens the problem by including within the pattern forms not previously recognized.
I believe that including both methods in our definition of research does not dilute the term but rather renders it more robust. El resultado es el desarrollo. Siegesmund, ; Siegesmund, Pariser s own example of Richard Feynman shows the role of play if furthering the scientific imagination. Dewey might add, that Feynman s ability to see the world anew and reorder space and time was not just a scientific achievement but was also an aesthetic one. The statistician Edward Tufte claims that quantitative information has become so complex that the only way for it to be readily understood within our civic discourse is through aesthetic artsbased representations.
In his view, the arts-based presentation of empirical information is the only way that we can have informed and open public debate around empirical issues. He sees the use of statistics and quantitative information, as now employed in debate, as clubs to silence the opposition, not as tools for opening discussions. Dewey would agree with Tufte, in that what the arts do is trouble the too-easy translation of experience and empirical relations into numeric quantities and linguistic symbols.
The arts show the slippage of meaning. The arts do this, according to Dewey, by drawing forth new meanings formed in the distinctive visual relationships of qualities that are unique to each visual medium. They do this not for our aesthetic enjoyment, but to challenge us to craft in symbolic thought fine-grained and more nuanced meanings that better correspond to the empirical realities in which we engage. Artistic practice has traditionally left these acts of interpreting and reflecting on the implications of slippage in the arts to scholars.
The artist has often removed him or herself from this task. In Pariser s example of Richard Feynman, Feynman s scientific breakthrough is possible because Feynman takes reflective responsibility for identifying the implications of the slippages he has encountered in his acts of play. Arts-based and artistic forms of research particularly the stage of artistic practice that leads to the Ph. Criteria in Arts-Based Research Pariser ends by citing Howard Gardner s concern for the lack of criterion in judging works of artsbased research.
It should be noted that Gardner muro, previamente no se ve, y de pronto salta a la vista. El modo como podemos dar sentido a Dewey, y ver una obra como El arte como experiencia bajo uno nuevo prisma, es un ejemplo. En cambio, el arte trafica con lo que es posible considerar. Los artistas no desmienten el trabajo del otro. Since that time, many proposals for criteria in arts-based and artistic research have come forward. The institution that Gardner has led and continues to be affiliated with, Harvard Project Zero, has even proposed sets of criteria.
Eisner proposed criterion for assessing doctoral work related to his methodology of Educational Criticism. Here I would suggest that one could see each of the fourteen chapters as successive criteria for judging arts-based and artistic research. I summarize them as follows: The Live Creature Art stems from our direct experience of the world and desire for experience to be communally shared.
Does the research break through these dysfunctional elements to authentic forms of living interaction that allows one to build broader understanding of one s environment? Ethereal Things Does the research imaginatively transform perception and experience into new realities that the reader can personally re-enter and thereby see, feel, and sense?
This is not a world distanced or disinterested. Having an Experience Does the research combine qualitative reasoning recognition of felt sensory somatic meaning rendered through the relationship perceptual qualities with the manipulation of symbols, linguistic, mathematical, auditory, or visual?
The Act of Expression Does the research allow medium to find a language. Does qualitative reasoning provide a road to language? The Expressive Object Does the research pull outward from the medium, an inscription of mind, or does the researcher only impose something to say on the medium? Las artes muestran el deslizamiento del significado. Los resumo de la siguiente manera: La Criatura viva El arte nace de nuestra experiencia directa del mundo y el deseo ser compartida en comunidad.
Substance and Form How does the qualitative reasoning in the research expand, mutate, and corrupt our existing semiotic code? The Natural History of Form How does the form of the research recognize a variety of tensions? How does the research struggle to see, rather than state, these tensions? The Organization of Energies Great research breaks balance. It moves us somatically. In so doing, new movement, shaped in time and space, appears. Does the research reconfigure our sense of time and space in way that allows us to place ourselves into different futures? The Common Substance of the Arts Does the work exemplify sincerity by reflecting on how we intervene into a context within a specific space and time?
The Varied Substance of the Arts Does the work demonstrate how language falls short for what needs to be said, and demonstrates how language allows us to wrestle through inscribed media to new possibility? The Human Contribution There is no inherent separation between sense and reason, desire and perception. These are all aspects of mind. Do the tensions captured in the research allow each of these dimensions to inform the other? The Challenge of Philosophy Does the research, by rooting itself in the here and now, evoke the possibility of a future and renders more intelligible the potential of our life?
Criticism and Perception Through the reconstruction of the experience of space and time, is there a synthesis for newly realized unity of the world that fosters more inclusive growth, or does it instil complacency? Art and Civilization Does the research help us to distinguish been art that generates mindful engagement, and art that promotes neo-liberal commodification?
These criteria are Dewey s. They are not exhaustive. Estos son todos aspectos de la mente. Thus, we can see that arts-based methods are building on foundations, just as Dewey was building on a foundation. Arts-based research can critique and expand existing knowledge. Who Needs Arts-Based Research?
Pariser notes Gardner s concern that arts-based methods are ultimately unfair to doctoral students. The existing demands of a dissertation are hard enough without tossing in artistic and aesthetic considerations as well. Again, Gardner raised these objects almost twenty years ago before the publication of Pauline Sameshima s Seeing Red , or Douglas Gosse s Jackytar It was made before the emergence to two scholars who as graduate students were closely linked to both Gardner and Eisner: Eisner established a dissertation award in his name at the National Art Education Association.
The award is presented annually to the outstanding dissertation that arises from the field of art education. There is no stipulation on methodology. Eisner s own dissertation was statistical, and while at Stanford, he would at times be called on as an external reviewer for dissertations on educational measurement. So there is no prejudice in what kind of dissertation will win, it is simply expected to be the one that holds the greatest impact for the future development of the field.
Two of the past three winners have been artsbased research. There are no restrictions on methodology. In recent years, quantitative studies have won. Yet here too, artsbased methodologies are competitive and have produced award winners. If we open our training to arts-based research, if we challenge ourselves to accept that Gardner and Pariser s concerns must be addressed, young scholars will emerge who can meet these demands. Furthermore, both of the two young scholars who won the Elliot Eisner Dissertation Award using arts-based methodology freely admit, that only through the permission to explore their research through the arts, where they able to reach resonance in their analysis.
Limiting their methods would have diminished their Estos criterios son de Dewey. Here art-based research does not dilute the contributions to what we might know, it enhances these outcomes. Arts-based methods are perhaps useful in the problem of secondary ignorance. In primary ignorance, a person knows what it is that they do not know.
Such a person is ready to learn. However, secondary ignorance is not knowing what it is you do not know. Such individuals are complacent, for they do not see a need for growth. Their worlds are conceptually complete; nothing more is needed. Even when told the limitations of their views, these criticisms are likely to be rejected as foreign or frivolous.
Furthermore, secondary ignorance is not limited to any particular socio-economic background or culture. For example, an argument could be made that mundane training in quantitative scientific research methods promotes the development of secondary ignorance by limiting researchers to asking a narrow range of questions. Only through an individual aesthetic experience one that as Dewey claims reshapes space and time would someone who is in secondary ignorance move to primary ignorance and thus be motivated to growth. Do all aesthetic experiences provide these moments? No, they do not. What we currently call aesthetic experience, can simply reinforce the complacency of secondary ignorance, and give comfort with the familiar: Therefore, parsing what kinds of aesthetic experience promote movement between secondary and primary ignorance, and which do not, is an appropriate task of research.
Yet we have not made this distinction in the past. As Pariser rightly points out, we have thrown a broad and loose net claiming that anything that we might call art can also be called research. Here I agree with him. These are dangerous waters that open the door to sloppy thinking at best and charlatanism at worse. Pariser asks, Who needs arts-based research? Social science needs arts-based research if it needs to have methodologies and methods that open and explore new imaginative possibility. The fine arts, to the degree that they wish to think of culture as widening inclusiveness, needs arts-based research.
However, he is right to ask for caution, in this time of change and a shifting academic power structure. Notes Richard Shusterman , in his essay The Aesthetic provides an excellent overview of the different ways the aesthetics can be conceptualized and identifies the Western intellectual tradition for conceptualizing aesthetics as a form of research. Tales individuos son autocomplacientes, porque no ven la necesidad de seguir creciendo. No, no lo hacen. Cultutre as the ideology of intellectuals. In, Intimations of postmodernity pp.
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Dos breves Estudios de Caso y un Recuerdo: Needless to say his impending visit created quite a buzz among grad students and the art community at large. Greenberg needs little introduction to this reading audience yet it doesn t hurt to reiterate that during the 50 s and 60 s he was perhaps the leading art theorist of the time and his influence on art practice and criticism then, including that in Canada, was still being felt into the late s, particularly among a dwindling cohort of artists working in abstract painting and sculpture. That is, artists who remained faithful to what we refer to as late-modernist formalism, a philosophy of arts autonomy, housed in non-objective, self-referential abstract art.
Indeed, much of this type of painting produced from the early-mid 70 s even into the 80 s was often said to be it s so bad it s good. Ironically, the slide into decadence of formalist abstraction made abstraction strangely popular again, this time for a postmodern generation of artists who put it to good and yes, ironic use. But to return to Greenberg s guest appearance at the university: What I can say however is that I and other It was an engaging 2 to 3 hours as our guest held court, recounting one anecdote after another about the 1 st generation New York School artists, their strengths, weaknesses, and legacy, and more broadly the history and problems of abstract art from a Greenbergian perspective.
We soaked it all in. Most memorable for me oddly enough though, was a minor incident upon our arrival at the Faculty Club. Before going into the restaurant we gathered in the vestibule, checked our coats and prepared to have a drink before receiving our call to a dining table.
As it happened I was standing next to Greenberg close to the bar. I ordered one too. The young barman, who was probably a student, was clever enough to recognize that Greenberg was a special guest and returned promptly with his drink, served in a sherry glass. Greenberg barked What is this? The barman said Your drink sir. To which Greenberg replied Serve it to me in a real glass, a whiskey glass.