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Another form of Tengeriin us is the bezoar stone, which is used in rainmaking magic. No shamanist ritual starts without the invocation of Father Heaven, Mother Earth, and the ancestors. When a new bottle of liquor is opened, the top portion of the contents is poured into a container, taken outside, and offered to Father Heaven, Mother Earth, and the ancestors.

This ritual, called tsatsah, is a very crucial one in the religion of Mongolia and Siberia. Housewives also offer milk and tea in the same way, walking around the ger flicking the liquid three times in each of the four directions. Women are required to keep their kitchens and cooking utensils clean because to allow them to become dirty is an insult to Father Heaven. Prayers and offerings are made to Tenger on holidays and at times of sacrifices to the mountain spirits. There is also a special sacrifice to Father Heaven in times of mergency which is a private ritual.

Rainmaking rituals directly address Tenger, and are held at oboo shrines dedicated to Tenger and the mountain spirits. The crown of the head has a small piece of Tenger residing in it; it is the point of connection between the individual standing in the center of his world and heaven above. At death, the star goes out. Mother Earth Gazar Eej , like Father Heaven, is not visualized in human form, but for what she literally is, the earth from which we draw nurturance and nourishment.

She is also called Itugen, and the names for shamans, especially female shamans, are variations on the name yadgan, utgan, udagan, etc. This implies that shamans, have a very strong association with the veneration of Mother Earth. Her daughter, Umai, is the womb goddess and caretaker of the body souls roosting in the World Tree. Mother Earth and her daughter Umai are appealed to for fertility. Another daughter of Mother Earth and Father Heaven, Golomto, the spirit of fire, is spoken of as begotten by flint and iron.

Father Sky, Mother Earth, and Heavenly Objects

Sitting beneath the smoke hole in the center of the earth, the sunlight falling upon it from above and being created by products of the earth, minerals and plant materials, fire is a re-enactment of the original union between heaven and earth. The light of the fire is a reminder of the light of Heaven, and its heat recalls the nurturing quality of Earth.

Like trees, all human beings draw strength from the Mother Earth below as well as receiving the energy of Father Heaven through the crown of the head.

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The sun and moon are the eyes of Tenger; they are also seen as two sisters, and their essences are fire and water. Their light represents the power of Tenger shining eternally upon the earth. The Homeric Cyclopes were in a later age localized in Sicily, and came to be identified with the Cyclopes of Hesiod.

They were imagined as assistants of Hephaestus, and as helping him to forge lightnings for Zeus and arms for heroes in the bowels of Aetna or on the Aeolian islands. A third variety of Cyclopes were the giants with arms to their belly as well as to their shoulders, whom Proetus was supposed to have brought from Lycia to. In works of art the Cyclopes are represented as giants with one eye in their forehead, though there is, generally an indication of a pair of eyes in the usual place. With their king Eurymedon, they are destroyed for their wickedness.

Hesiod makes them the sons of Gaea, sprung from the blood of the mutilated Uranus. Neither Hesiod nor Homer know anything of their struggle with the gods Gigantomachia , the story of which seems to be a reflexion of the myth of the Titans, and their contest with the gods, and to be associated with local legends. The two are often confused by later poets. The place of the contest was Phlegra, or the place of burning. Phlegra, was always localized in volcanic regions. In the earlier stories it is on the Macedonian peninsula of Pallene; and in later times on the Phlegraean plains in Campania between Cumae and Capua, or again at Tartessus in Spain.

Led on by Alcyoneus and Porphyrion, they hurled rocks and burning trunks of trees against heaven.

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But the gods called Heracles to their assistance; a prophecy having warned them that they would be unable to destroy the giants without the aid of a mortal. Heracles slow not only Alcyoneus, but gave the others, whom the gods had struck down, their quietus with his arrows. As Enceladus was flying, Athene threw the island of Sicily upon him.

Polybotes was buried by Poseidon under the island of Nisyros, a piece of the island of Cos, which Poseidon had broken off with his trident, with all the giants who had fled there. Besides these, the following names are given among others: In the oldest works of art the Giants are represented in human form and armed with harness and spears.

But in course of time their attributes became terrific, awful faces, long hanging hair and beard, the skins of wild animals for garments, trunks of trees and clubs for weapons. In the latest representations, but not before, their bodies end in two scaly snakes instead of feet see cut. In the Gigantomachia of Pergamos, the grandest representation of the subject in antiquity, we find a great variety of forms; some quite human, others with snakes' feet and powerful wings, others with still bolder combinations of shape; some are naked, some clothed with skins, some fully armed, and others slinging stones.

Homer speaks sometimes of one, sometimes of several, but without any definite statement about either number, name, or descent.

Hesiod makes them the daughters of Gaia Earth , sprung from the blood of the mutilated Uranus. Euripides is the earliest writer who fixes their number at three, and considerably later we find them with the names Allecto "She who rests not" , Tisiphone "Avenger of murder" , and Magaera "The jealous one. They punish, without mercy, all violations of filial duty, or the claims of kinship, or the rites of hospitality ; murder, perjury, and like offences; in Homer even beggars have their Erinys.

The punishment begins on earth and is continued after death. Thus they pursue Orestes and Alemaeon, who slew their mothers, and CEdipus for the murder of his father and marriage with his mother, without regard to the circumstances by which their offences were excused. Their principle is a simple one, "an eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth. For the punishment of the evil secures the well-being of the good, and by pursuing and destroying transgressors the Erinyes prove themselves benevolent and beneficent. They were worshipped in Athens under the name of Semnai , and had a shrine on the Areopagus, and the hill of Colonus.

Fresh water and black sheep were offered to them in sacrifice. The terrible picture drawn of them by Aeschylus in his Eumenides , as women like Gorgons, with snakes for hair, bloodshot eyes, grinding teeth, and long black robes with blood-red girdles, was softened down in later times. They appear as maidens of stern aspect, with snakes in their hair or round their girdles and arms, torches, scourges, or sickles in their hands, generally in the costume of huntresses, and sometimes with wings as a sign of the swiftness of their vengeance see cut.

They are generally represented as torturing the guilty in the world below, but as sometimes appearing on earth, to excite to crime and throw men into madness. As in course of time the Italian god became identified with the Greek, he was regarded as a son of Saturn and of Ops, the deities deemed to correspond to the Greek Uranus and Rhea respectively. From Jupiter comes all that appears in the heavens. As Lucetius from lux, "light" he is the bringer of light, the cause of the dawn of day, as well as of the full moon at night. Just as the calends 1st of each month are sacred to Juno, so the ides 13th or 15th , which are full-moon days, are sacred to Jupiter.

On these his special priest, the flamen dialis, offers him the Idulia, a sacrifice of a white lamb. While he watches over fair weather, he also controls all other weather; as Fulgurator and Fulminator "flasher of lightning" and as Tonans or Tonitrualis "thunderer" he brings down those fearful storms which were familiar to Rome; as Pluvius he sends a fertilizing rain. Any place, or thing, struck by lightning was supposed to be sacred to Jupiter as having been taken possession of by him, and thus it needed a particular dedication.

As the god of rain, there was instituted in his honour at Rome a festival of supplication, called aquoelicium. In this the pontifices brought into Rome from the temple of Mars outside the Porta Capena a cylindrical stone called the lapis manalis rain-stone , while the matrons followed the procession with bare feet, as did also the magistrates, unaccompanied by their insignia. In the same character he was appealed to by the country-folk, before sowing time and in the spring and autumn, when a sacrificial feast was offered to him.

He and Juno were worshipped before the commencement of the harvest, even before any sacrifice to Ceres. Throughout all Latium, the feast of the Vinalia q. He was honoured in all Italy, after Mars, as the decider of battles and giver of victory; this was specially the case at Rome, where, as early as the days of Romulus, shrines were founded to him as Stator "he who stays flight " and Feretrius to whom the spoils taken by a Roman general in the field from a hostile general were offered.

He watches over justice and truth, and is therefore the most ancient and most important god of oaths; he was specially called on by the fetiales q. Not only the law of nations, but also the law of hospitality, is under his special protection, and while he causes his blessing to fall on the whole country, he is also the god of good fortune and blessing to the family.

His gracious power does not confine itself to the present alone; by means of signs comprehensible to experts, he reveals the future see AUSPICIA and shows his approval or disapproval of a contemplated undertaking. He was worshipped of old on the Alban Hill, by the Latin people, as their ancestral god, under the name of Iuppiter Latiaris or Latialis ; at the formation of the Latin league he was honoured as the god of the league by a sacrificial feast, which they all held in common; even after its dissolution the sacrifice was continued under the superintendence of the consuls.

The chief seat of his worship in Rome was the Capitol, where he was honoured as the ideal head of the State, as the Increaser and Preserver of Roman might and power, under the name of Iuppiter Optimus Maximus "Best and Greatest". It was there that his earthenware image was enthroned, with the thunderbolt in its right hand.

It stood in the centre of the temple begun by Tarquinius Superbus, the last of the kings, and finished and dedicated in the first year of the Republic. In the pediment of the temple was the quadriga, the attribute of the god of thunder, while the chambers to the left and right were dedicated to Juno and to Minerva respectively. Here the consuls, at their entry into office and their departure to war, made their solemn vows; hither came the triumphal procession of the victor, who was clad in the festal garb of the god, and who, before offering to Jupiter the customary thank-offering of white oxen, prayed to his image and placed in his lap the laurel-wreath of victory bound about the fasces.

Hither poured in, to adorn the temple and to fill its treasures, countless multitudes of costly votive offerings from the State, from generals and private citizens, and from foreign kings and nations.

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When, after its existence for years, the ancient temple was destroyed by fire in B. The image of the god was a copy in gold and ivory of the Olympian Zeus q. The temple was burnt down again A. As was natural for the most exalted god of the Roman State, he had the most splendid festivals in his honour. Amongst the greatest of these were the ludi Romani, the ludi magni, and the ludi plebeii. Under the Empire the Capitoline Jupiter was recognised as the loftiest representative of the Roman name and State, whose vicegerent on earth was the emperor.

As his worship gradually spread over the whole empire, he finally became the representative of the pagan world in general. He was often identified with the native gods of the provinces, including the sun-god of Heliopolis and Doliche in Syria, who, from the 2nd and 3rd centuries A.

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Antoninus built for the former the magnificent temple of Heliopolis, or Baalbec. He was similarly identified with various Celtic and German gods, especially those who were worshipped on Alpine mountain-tops as protectors of travellers. Her attributes combine, with Hellenic conceptions, a great many features of Eastern, especially Phoenician, origin, which the Greeks must have grafted on to their native notions in very old times.

This double nature appears immediately in the contradictory tales of her origin. To the oldest Greeks she was the daughter of Zeus and Dione and is sometimes called that name herself ; yet from a very early time she appears as Aphro-geneia , the "foamborn" see URANUS , as Anadyomene , "she who rises" out of the sea, and steps ashore on Cyprus, which had been colonized by Phoenicians time out of mind; even as back as Homer she is Kypris , the Cyprian.

The same transmarine and Eastern origin of her worship is evidenced by the legend of the isle of Cythera, on which she was supposed to have first landed out of a sea-shell. Again, the common conception of her as goddess of love limits her agency to the sphere of human life.

But she is, at the same time, a power of nature, living and working in the three elements of air, earth, and water. As goddess of the shifting gale and changeful sky, she is Aphrodite Urania , the "heavenly," and at many placesin Greece and Asia her temples crowned the heights and headlands; witness the citadels of Thebes and Corinth, and Mount Eryx in Sicily. As goddess of storm and lightning, she was represented armed, as at Sparta and Cythera; and this perhaps explains why she was associated with Are Mars both in worship and in legend, and worshipped as a goddess of victory.

The moral conception of Aphrodite Urania as goddess of the higher and purer love, especially wedded love and fruitfulness, as opposed to mere sensual lust, was but slowly developed in the course of ages. As goddess of the sea and maritime traffic, especially of calm seas and prosperous voyages, she was widely worshipped by sailors and fishermen at ports and on seacoasts, often as the goddess of calm, while Poseidon was the god of disturbance Next, as regards the life of the earth , she is the goddess of gardens and groves, of Spring and its bounties, especially tender plants and flowers, as the rose and myrtle; hence, as the fruitful and bountiful, she was worshipped most of all at that season of the year in which her birth from the sea was celebrated at Paphos in Cyprus comp.

But to this, her time of joyful action, is opposed a season of sorrow, when her creations wither and die: In the life of gods and men, she shows her power as the golden, sweetly smiling godess of beauty and love, which she knows to kindle or to keep away. She outshines all the goddesses in grace and loveliness; in her girdle she wears united all the magic charms that can bewitch the wisest man and subdue the very gods.