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Additional info for Human Aggression: Theories, Research, and Implications for Social Policy. Donnerstein for hundreds of years, students have debated the reasons of aggression and the capacity to minimize its occurrence. Human Aggression brings jointly the world over well-known specialists discussing the most up-tp-date mental study at the motives and prevention of aggression. Anderson -- Affective aggression: Rowell Huesmann -- Aggression and the self: Baumeister and Joseph M.
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Hulsizer -- Harmful effects of exposure to media violence: Smith and Edward Donnerstein -- Male violence toward women: White and Robin M. Kowalski -- The confluence model as an organizing framework for research on sexualy aggressive men: Malamuth -- Temperature and aggression: Anderson and Kathryn B. In the current review this research evidence is critically assessed, and the psychological theory that explains why exposure to violence has detrimental effects for both the short run and long run is elaborated.
One of the notable changes in our social environment in the 20 th and 21st centuries has been the saturation of our culture and daily lives by the mass media. Correspondingly, the recent increase in the use of mobile phones, text messaging, e-mail, and chat rooms by our youth have opened new venues for social interaction in which aggression can occur and youth can be victimized — new venues that break the old boundaries of family, neighborhood, and community that might have protected our youth to some extent in the past. These globe spanning electronic communication media have not really introduced new psychological threats to our children, but they have made it much harder to protect youth from the threats and have exposed many more of them to threats that only a few might have experienced before.
It is now not just kids in bad neighborhoods or with bad friends who are likely to be exposed to bad things when they go out on the street. The streets also provide wonderful experiences and help youth become the kinds of adults we desire. Rather our response should be to understand the dangers on the streets, to help our children understand and avoid the dangers, to avoid exaggerating the dangers which will destroy our credibility, and also to try to control exposure to the extent we can.
Different people may have quite different things in mind when they think of media violence. Similarly, among the public there may be little consensus on what constitutes aggressive and violent behavior. Most researchers, however, have clear conceptions of what they mean by media violence and aggressive behavior. Most researchers define media violence as visual portrayals of acts of physical aggression by one human or human-like character against another. This definition has evolved as theories about the effects of media violence have evolved and represents an attempt to describe the kind of violent media presentation that is most likely to teach the viewer to be more violent.
Movies depicting violence of this type were frequent 75 years ago and are even more frequent today, e.
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Violent TV programs became common shortly after TV became common in American homes about 55 years ago and are common today, e. To most researchers, aggressive behavior refers to an act that is intended to injure or irritate another person. Aggression can be physical or non-physical. Of course, the aggressive behaviors of greatest concern clearly involve physical aggression ranging in severity from pushing or shoving, to fighting, to serious assaults and homicide.
In this review he term violent behavior is used to describe these more serious forms of physical aggression that have a significant risk of seriously injuring the victim. Violent or aggressive actions seldom result from a single cause; rather, multiple factors converging over time contribute to such behavior.
Accordingly, the influence of the violent mass media is best viewed as one of the many potential factors that influence the risk for violence and aggression.
Furthermore, a developmental perspective is essential for an adequate understanding of how media violence affects youthful conduct and in order to formulate a coherent response to this problem. Most youth who are aggressive and engage in some forms of antisocial behavior do not go on to become violent teens and adults [ 1 ].
Still, research has shown that a significant proportion of aggressive children are likely to grow up to be aggressive adults, and that seriously violent adolescents and adults often were highly aggressive and even violent as children [ 2 ]. The best single predictor of violent behavior in older adolescents, young adults, and even middle aged adults is aggressive behavior when they were younger.
Thus, anything that promotes aggressive behavior in young children statistically is a risk factor for violent behavior in adults as well. In order to understand the empirical research implicating violence in electronic media as a threat to society, an understanding of why and how violent media cause aggression is vital.
In fact, psychological theories that explain why media violence is such a threat are now well established. Furthermore, these theories also explain why the observation of violence in the real world — among the family, among peers, and within the community — also stimulates aggressive behavior in the observer. Somewhat different processes seem to cause short term effects of violent content and long term effects of violent content, and that both of these processes are distinct from the time displacement effects that engagement in media may have on children.
Time displacement effects refer to the role of the mass media including video games in displacing other activities in which the child might engage which might change the risk for certain kinds of behavior, e. This essay is focusing on the effects of violent media content, and displacement effects will not be reviewed though they may well have important consequences. Most theorists would now agree that the short term effects of exposure to media violence are mostly due to 1 priming processes, 2 arousal processes, and 3 the immediate mimicking of specific behaviors [ 3 , 4 ].
The external stimulus can be inherently linked to a cognition, e. The primed concepts make behaviors linked to them more likely. When media violence primes aggressive concepts, aggression is more likely. To the extent that mass media presentations arouse the observer, aggressive behavior may also become more likely in the short run for two possible reasons -- excitation transfer [ 6 ] and general arousal [ 7 ].
First, a subsequent stimulus that arouses an emotion e. For example, immediately following an exciting media presentation, such excitation transfer could cause more aggressive responses to provocation. Alternatively, the increased general arousal stimulated by the media presentation may simply reach such a peak that inhibition of inappropriate responses is diminished, and dominant learned responses are displayed in social problem solving, e.
The third short term process, imitation of specific behaviors, can be viewed as a special case of the more general long-term process of observational learning [ 8 ]. In recent years evidence has accumulated that human and primate young have an innate tendency to mimic whomever they observe [ 9 ]. Observation of specific social behaviors around them increases the likelihood of children behaving exactly that way.
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Specifically, as children observe violent behavior, they are prone to mimic it. Long term content effects, on the other hand, seem to be due to 1 more lasting observational learning of cognitions and behaviors i. During early, middle, and late childhood children encode in memory social scripts to guide behavior though observation of family, peers, community, and mass media. Consequently observed behaviors are imitated long after they are observed [ 10 ].
Such attributions in turn increase the likelihood of children behaving aggressively [ 12 ]. As children mature further, normative beliefs about what social behaviors are appropriate become crystallized and begin to act as filters to limit inappropriate social behaviors [ 13 ]. Long-term socialization effects of the mass media are also quite likely increased by the way the mass media and video games affect emotions.
The Impact of Electronic Media Violence: Scientific Theory and Research
Repeated exposures to emotionally activating media or video games can lead to habituation of certain natural emotional reactions. For example, increased heart rates, perspiration, and self-reports of discomfort often accompany exposure to blood and gore. One more theoretical point is important. Observational learning and desensitization do not occur independently of other learning processes.
Children are constantly being conditioned and reinforced to behave in certain ways, and this learning may occur during media interactions. At the same time, because some video games are played together by social groups e. These effects, including effects of selection and involvement, need to be explored. Given this theoretical back ground, let us now examine the empirical research that indicates that childhood exposure to media violence has both short term and long term effects in stimulating aggression and violence in the viewer.
Most of this research is on TV, movies, and video games, but from the theory above one can see that the same effects should occur for violence portrayed on various internet sites e. Children are also spending an increasingly large amount of time playing video games, most of which contain violence. Video game use peaks during middle childhood with an average of 65 minutes per day for 8—10 year-olds, and declines to 33 minutes per day for 15—18 year-olds [ 16 ].
Meta-analyses that average the effects observed in many studies provide the best overall estimates of the effects of media violence. Two particularly notable meta-analyses are those of Paik and Comstock [ 18 ] and Anderson and Bushman [ 19 ]. The Paik and Comstock meta-analysis focused on violent TV and films while the Anderson and Bushman meta-analysis focused on violent video games.
Paik and Comstock [ 18 ] examined effect sizes from studies published between and When the analysis was limited to experiments on physical violence against a person, the average r was still. This meta-analysis also examined cross-sectional and longitudinal field surveys published between and For these studies the authors found an average r of.
Finally, the average correlation of media violence exposure with engaging in criminal violence was. Anderson and Bushman [ 19 ] conducted the key meta-analyses on the effects of violent video games. Their meta-analyses revealed effect sizes for violent video games ranging from.
This has been done with the above meta-analyses, and the numbers are very large. For example, Paik and Comstock [ 18 ] show that over , cases of null effects would have to exist in file drawers to change their overall conclusion of a significant positive relation between exposure to media violence and aggression. While meta-analyses are good of obtaining a summary view of what the research shows, a better understanding of the research can be obtained by examining a few key specific studies in more detail. Generally, experiments have demonstrated that exposing people, especially children and youth, to violent behavior on film and TV increases the likelihood that they will behave aggressively immediately afterwards.
In the typical paradigm, randomly selected individuals are shown either a violent or non-violent short film or TV program or play a violent or non-violent video game and are then observed as they have the opportunity to aggress. For children, this generally means playing with other children in situations that might stimulate conflict; for adults, it generally means participating in a competitive activity in which winning seems to involve inflicting pain on another person.
Children in such experiments who see the violent film clip or play the violent game typically behave more aggressively immediately afterwards than those viewing or playing nonviolence 20, 21,