Manual Rhythms of Irregular Hearts: The Story of a London Sabbatical Gone Wrong

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And now at the age of 66, he is showing little signs of slowing down. He still sees patients for three full days a week and spends the rest of the time on research and teaching. I enjoy what I'm doing. I could never do only research, patients are the most stimulating part.

All of my research is patient-related and it's extremely important that I see patients. And over the next few years, I am sure he will be doing all he can to ensure that the use of hydrochlorothiazide and combination of ARBs with ACE inhibitors become a thing of the past. Reducing risk in children requires the same evidence-based approach as adults, says Prof. The most recent figures from US national surveys suggest that the prevalence has discontinued its steady increase and may have levelled off.

It is clear that obesity is associated with an increased level of risk for cardiovascular disease in adults and Prof Daniels believes it is becoming increasingly evident that the same is true for children and adolescents. There are a number of lines of evidence to support his assertion, such as trends in the USA which show an increase in the overall average blood pressure of children but also an increase in the prevalence of hypertension in children. Cholesterol can also be high in children, although it has remained relatively stable across national surveys in the paediatric population, in contrast to the increases seen in obesity and blood pressure.

And type 2 diabetes—traditionally thought of as an adult condition—has now become a paediatric problem. The youngest patients are aged 11 or 12, but Prof. Type 2 diabetes is a potent risk factor for cardiovascular disease in adults, and the time from onset of diabetes to cardiovascular disease is around 20 years. If adolescents experience the same natural history of disease—a question which has yet to be answered—then at a very young age they will be at risk of cardiovascular disease.

With the first cases of type 2 diabetes being seen in adolescents in the s, and a bigger increase in the s, these now young adults could develop cardiovascular disease within the next 10—20 years. What remains to be seen is how big a problem this will become. Epidemiologic studies show that the risk factors that make up the metabolic syndrome cluster in children as they do in adults. Daniels warns that the question of whether this has the same clinical significance in children is still up in the air.

Robert C Noble (Author of A Dose of Death)

That is, do paediatric patients with this cluster of risk factors have, because of the cluster, a higher risk for cardiovascular disease, or is it just a sum of the individual risk factors? Following on from that, is there an underlying unifying mechanism in the metabolic syndrome? While it is clear that obesity is a risk factor, is it central obesity, is it related to insulin resistance, and is it the same in every patient who has metabolic syndrome features?

Risk factors tend to track over time, which means that children who fall into a certain rank are likely to stay in a similar rank when compared with their peers when they are older. Whether or not children's risk factors actually get worse as they get older is less clear, but data suggest that obesity and cigarette smoking are likely to have a negative impact. The good news is that there are interventions that work on some risk factors like obesity, high blood pressure, lipid and lipoprotein abnormalities, and diabetes. The problem, until recently, has been the lack of good measurements for the atherosclerotic process.

Until 5—10 years ago, the best evidence was from autopsy studies. Risk factors were measured in children and those who died of accidental causes at a later age had autopsies done to look at the atherosclerosis in the aorta and in the coronary arteries. Today the leading candidates for evaluating atherosclerosis are ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, says Prof. New techniques have enabled researchers to show that when a drug is given to children with high LDL cholesterol, it lowers their cholesterol level when compared with a placebo and improves their carotid intimal medial thickness, a non-invasive measurement.

Drugs have also shown to be effective in lowering high blood pressure in children. Other interventions apart from medication have been successful in modifying risk factors. Daniels has shown that a DASH-type diet, which is high in fruits and vegetables, high in whole grain products and focuses on low fat dairy products, can lower blood pressure in adolescents with hypertension.

His group has also shown that bariatric surgery in adolescents with type 2 diabetes who are severely overweight can result in dramatic improvements in their diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is a particular research interest for Prof. He is currently running a study in obese children with and without type 2 diabetes. Follow-up will determine whether or not they develop changes in risk factors or changes in cardiovascular variables by including echocardiography and carotid intimal medial thickness. While many of the tools used to reduce risk in adults are available for use in children and adolescents, there is less information about efficacy and risks, and most studies have been relatively short term.

There is also little information in children about novel risk factors, such as inflammation. To complicate matters, the pharmaceutical industry has historically avoided studies in younger patients, but the last 5—10 years have seen increasing interest. In the USA, mortality associated with cardiovascular disease has been declining, but the concern is that the childhood obesity epidemic might reverse those trends and produce a generation that has more heart disease and has it at a younger age.

At the moment, heart disease patients are most commonly in their 50s and 60s, but patients have been seen in their 30s and 40s. The link between Hammersmith and Pisa started more than 30 years ago when Paolo Camici was embarking on his career. Now Professor of Cardiovascular Pathophysiology at the Hammersmith, Camici, was set to take his internal medicine exam in with Professor Luigi Donato, MD, who was director of the newly created ICP and also in charge of the schools for cardiology and nuclear medicine. When it came time for the exam, Prof. Donato was away so a young assistant named Attilio Maseri, MD, acted as examiner.

It was the first time the two had met. The ICP had opened in and was primarily focussed on cardiovascular research, with hospital beds for research and catheter labs, the only labs for about km. Camici graduated from medical school in and secured an interview with Prof. Because of his thesis in pharmacology he was assigned to work with Prof. Maseri's senior assistant, Prof. Antonio L'Abbate, MD, who was in charge of the animal lab. When he started at the ICP in his experience of London was connected to a love of rock music—he sang in a band—but September brought the first professional visit.

He was sent by Prof. Donato to attend a 2-week course in clinical pharmacology at the Hammersmith, organized by Prof. Camici continued his clinical training and research in Pisa, but life was to change in , when Prof. Maseri announced at the Christmas party that he was leaving to take up the chair of cardiology at the Royal Postgraduate Medical School in Hammersmith.

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He had two research interests at the time—using tracers to map glucose deposition in the heart and using radioactive microspheres to measure myocardial blood flow—both in animals. The first medical cyclotron in the world had been built at the Hammersmith in and in Hammersmith got the first positron emission tomography PET scanner.

The principle uses of the PET scanner were to measure blood flow and to measure glucose metabolism, but the experiments could be done in humans. Camici started to visit Hammersmith and with colleagues there did validation studies in animals—his blood flow measurements with microspheres were used as the gold standard to validate rubidium as a new tracer. During and , he went back and forth with samples and got to know the people in London. He was then offered a position as research fellow and took a sabbatical from his assistant professorship in Pisa to spend 18 months in London, from January until July One friendship that was particularly important was with Dr Terry Jones, who was in charge of the unit.

The experience produced an important paper which showed the changes in glucose metabolism that occur in patients following an episode of myocardial ischaemia. He was happy to return to Pisa in and resume his clinical work and to start using the new PET bought by Prof. Donato in his absence, but the link with Prof. Maseri was getting stronger because of his involvement in Prof.

Both cities had their plus sides—Prof. Camici had enjoyed a good social life and a nice flat in London,. Brody wanted to address a major public health issue: Brody leveraged the concept that molecular alterations in relatively accessible epithelial cells that line the upper airway could serve as biomarkers for the early detection of lung cancer among smokers. They developed a gene-expression signature in these cells that can accurately distinguish smokers with lung cancer from those without the disease and serve as a clinically relevant biomarker.

In nature, plants produce minute quantities of terpenes to serve a number of different functions. Some are flavors and fragrances, others are anti-fungal and anti-viral and still others are insect repellents. Despite their enormous potential commercial value to the flavor and fragrance, insect repellent and pharmaceutical industries, terpenes have been underexploited because of high production costs.

Nookatone, one of three sesquiterpenes that Allylix is working with, is a grapefruit flavor that will be produced using yeast grade fermentation. Allyix recently licensed technology to a leading clean technology company to produce a specific class of terpenes for use in the development of fuels and fuel additives. Allylix was acquired by Evolva in In , many people were touting fiber optic cables as the answer to growing consumer demand for bandwidth. Amati Communications Corporation began as a research project by Prof. This interaction provides unique insight into abnormalities in healthy appearing tissue that are too small to be seen with an endoscope or microscope.

American BioOptics LLC ABO is a medical device company founded to commercialize a novel optical technology platform for cancer screening and detection. Amyris applies its industrial synthetic biology platform to convert plant sugars into a variety of molecules -- flexible building blocks that can be used in a wide range of products. This building block molecule forms the basis for a wide range of products from specialty products such as cosmetics, perfumes, detergents and industrial lubricants, to transportation fuels such as diesel and jet fuel.

A variety of new molecules with different applications are under development. Amyris is a renewable products company providing sustainable alternatives to a broad range of petroleum-sourced products. AnswerDash provides this help by overlaying onto the periphery of existing web pages a small tab that, when clicked by visitors, expands into a panel containing questions commonly asked about the host web page. By clicking on one of the common questions, a visitor receives the corresponding answer. The panel then shrinks back into a tab, allowing the visitor to continue with their web-based task, having received instant, self-service help with no typing and only a few clicks.

AnswerDash provides contextual, self-service help for websites, improving the online experience that businesses deliver to their customers. The research investigated web-scale analytics about questions that users have regarding website functionality and content. Seeing how the tool worked, they realized that providing instant answers to website visitors was not limited to an academic research setting; businesses could benefit by making the information their customers need available quickly and easily.

Upon making that realization, forming a company to commercialize their work was an obvious choice. An aortic aneurysm is a bulge that develops in the largest artery in the human body. Placement of endografts tubular stents that channel blood flow away from the aneurysm have become the preferred method of treatment. Unfortunately, many patients have branch arteries surrounding the aneurysm that do not allow for proper anchoring of an endograft.

The AortaFit is the result of company founder and vascular surgeon Benjamin Starnes seeing a need and finding the solution. As chief of vascular surgery at the University of Washington UW , specializing in the treatment of aortic disease, he was often frustrated with the lack of treatment options for patients with complex AAA disease.

Starnes began to manually modify standard endografts to account for the branch arteries around aneurysms. His methodology was extremely effective and saved patients the trauma of open surgery, but it was very time consuming, expensive and required high level of expertise to perform. Starnes began working with UW researchers to automate the process. Research institutions can use this system as a test-bed for new developments in surgical robotics.

RAVEN is designed to be an extensible, robust, and programmable research tool to allow researchers in engineering, surgery, and computer science to experiment, innovate, and collaborate. In late , Applied Dexterity was founded to sell and provide ongoing support for the RAVEN systems, which are now installed in 18 laboratories worldwide. Aptamers have shown great potential to replace antibodies in biosensors, point-of-care diagnostics, therapeutics, and all of the areas currently dominated by antibodies.

The AlloSwitch concept was developed at Syracuse in collaboration with fellow chemistry professor Bruce Hudson as an ultrasensitive method to detect binding to the nucleocapsid protein from HIV Hudson and Borer had collaborated for many years in anti-AIDS research, however it became clear that AlloSwitch technology had wide application in contaminant sensing and drug discovery.

Farnam Jahanian and doctoral student G. The company boasts a 70 percent market share and customers around the world. In , Arbor Networks was named one of the twenty fastest growing private companies in North America. Learn more The company was launched in by University of Michigan computer science professor Dr. Jahanian serves as Chairman of the Board and Dr. Malan as Chief Technology Officer. Earlier networking research was supported by grants from the National Science Foundation. In the s, Dr. The company is a spin-off from Dr. When it was founded in , ArmaGen signed a patent agreement with the University of California that gave the company exclusive license rights to pending and world-wide issued patents comprising a broad patent estate covering multiple technology platforms for the delivery to the brain, and other organs, of drugs, recombinant proteins, and non-viral gene medicines.

In so doing, the targeted proteins are eliminated and the cancer cell is no longer able to grow. In contrast, traditional drugs function as inhibitors, temporarily binding to and blocking the function of certain proteins. Biomedical The work conducted at Yale University was supported by research funding from the National Institutes of Health. The company addresses this critical issue across multiple diseases with therapies for ocular diseases, cancer, and tissue and organ transplant.

They use bioinformatics methods to design and develop new peptide drugs and the latest in biomaterials and drug delivery to design long-lasting biodegradable nano- and microparticles to deliver their therapeutic peptides to different locations in the body. The first target for their novel drug delivery strategy is vision loss, specifically diabetic macular edema DME. They are additionally developing drugs for other indications including Neovascular wet Age-Related Macular Degeneration NVAMD , liver cancer, triple negative breast cancer, small cell lung cancer, brain cancer, and skin, limb, and organ transplant.

AsclepiX Therapeutics is creating breakthrough next gen therapies for angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis diseases. Their desire to see their work move from the lab to helping patients, led them to create AsclepiX to further develop and commercialize their technology. The company uses a proprietary technology platform to generate compounds that inhibit the Protein Kinase and Phosphatase family of proteins.

Kinex Pharmaceuticals, now called Athenex, is developing next generation anti-cancer drugs that target the molecular basis of disease. A second compound is in pre-clinical testing. Biomedical The original research conducted at University at Buffalo was supported with funding from the National Institutes of Health. Audyssey Laboratories has developed world class sound technologies for home, business and automotive use. Over the past 10 years Tom and Chris have conducted research in audio signal processing, acoustics, and psychoacoustics.

The results of their interdisciplinary research have been published in more than technical journals and several books. One of the most challenging problems that they addressed was the comprehensive understanding of the negative effects of room acoustics on sound reproduction. No other facility in the world had the scientific expertise and the resources to fundamentally examine and solve this problem.

Pisa and Hammersmith: a 30-year history

Learn more about their innovation here. Sunil Bharitkar, Philip Hilmes, Prof. Tomlinson Holman, and Prof. The hybrid silicon photon integration platform the company is commercializing will enable a new generation of integrated photonic devices. Aurrion is a privately held company located in Santa Barbara, CA. Fang developed the hybrid silicon laser platform, demonstrating the first electrically pumped lasers on silicon. Seth Donahue and researchers at Michigan Technological University thought it was a question worth asking. Aursos was founded in March of The company has licensed Dr.

Why is it that, while humans begin to show reduced bone mass and strength after even short periods of inactivity, black bears can hibernate for up to seven months and emerge without any loss in bone mass or strength? Aursos is based upon patent-pending research discoveries from the laboratory of Dr. Seth Donahue at Michigan Technological University. The company has continued to sponsor research and validation of the technology in Dr. Biomedical The research validating Dr. Aursos, with partner Proteos, Inc. This platform technology can be readily incorporated into existing coatings of virtually all types, greatly extending useful lifetimes in a number of industrial applications.

AMI's innovations translate to increased value for coatings producers and users alike. Recoating intervals are lengthened, minimizing labor costs and equipment downtime. Additionally, by extending coating lifetimes, environmental impact is minimized. Autonomic Materials AMI is focused on developing and commercializing breakthrough low-cost, self-healing polymer systems for high performance coatings and structural composites.

Scott White, professor of aerospace engineering at the University of Illinois, founded Autonomic Materials in This multidisciplinary research team has been developing breakthrough technologies in the area of self-healing materials for a decade.

Indeed, the foam is so novel that within a few weeks of news announcing its intent to commercialize the technology, Auxadyne was contacted by top sporting equipment companies and companies making medical devices and ballistic vests. Department of Veterans Affairs to develop a product that could aid amputees with prosthetic limbs. My invention solves those issues. Department of Veterans Affairs. Avid is working to develop novel molecular imaging agents that allow the detection of the earliest stages of these diseases, before clinical symptoms develop.

Avid has demonstrated proof of mechanism in human trials with these agents. These agents have the potential to revolutionize early diagnosis and monitoring of disease. In , Avid became a wholly owned subsidiary of Eli Lilly and Company, the 10th largest pharmaceutical company in the world. Avid is a clinical-stage, product-focused molecular imaging company with significant expertise and IP in the field of molecular brain imaging. Hank Kung at the University of Pennsylvania. Every day, people suffer traumatic injuries or undergo surgical procedures that impact the function of their peripheral nerves.

Peripheral nerves provide the pathways for both motor and sensory signals throughout the body and their damage can result in the loss of function and feeling. In order to improve surgical reconstruction and regeneration of peripheral nerves, AxoGen has developed and licensed patented and patent-pending technologies, which are used in its portfolio of products. AxoGen is a regenerative medicine company focused on the science, development and commercialization of technologies for peripheral nerve regeneration and reconstruction to help patients suffering from traumatic injuries or undergoing surgeries that impact the function of their peripheral nerves.

Muir and his colleagues developed a technique for harvesting and treating nerve tissue from cadavers to remove cells and other tissue, leaving sterile hollow nerve channels through which the patient's own nerve can regenerate. In addition, Axonia Medical will pursue opportunities for use of TENGs as a direct neural interface for programmable machines and computers e.

Axonia Medical is pioneering a revolutionary approach to repair and restore damaged peripheral or central nervous systems using tissue-engineered nerve grafts TENGs.

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Axonia Medical leverages the ground-breaking discoveries by Dr. Douglas Smith at the University of Pennsylvania regarding the growth of nerve axons to produce 3-dimenstional tissue-engineered nerve grafts that can repair and restore damaged regions of the nervous system. Axonia Medical was formed by Dr. Biomedical The research that led to the technologies behind Axonia was supported with grants from the Department of Defense and the National Institutes of Health.

AzERx , a new company based on the research of three Arizona State University ASU professors, was formed in May to develop a drug that would be beneficial to people who have suffered a specific type of stroke induced by a subarachnoid hemorrhage in the brain.

In February , the company was acquired by OrthoLogic, Inc. OrthoLogic is today known as Capstone Therapeutics. Arizona Engineered Therapeutics Inc. The primary compound of AzERx is based on the research of Dr. Fulton School of Engineering. Their AZX is a novel synthetic pre-clinical amino acid peptide, one of a new class of compounds in the field of smooth muscle relaxation and fibrosis. AZX is currently being evaluated for commercially significant medical applications such as the treatment of pulmonary disease, the prevention of hypertrophic and keloid scarring and intimal hyperplasia.

Capstone has an exclusive worldwide license to AZX The company creates innovative space solutions, enables more accurate weather forecasts, drives insightful observations of the planet, delivers actionable data and intelligence, and ensures that those who defend freedom go forward bravely and return home safely. Ball Aerospace pioneers discoveries that enable customers to perform beyond expectation and protect what matters most.

During the early days of the space program, Ed Ball hired R. Arthur Gaiser as director of research and product development in These early leaders were intent on pursuing government contract research to connect the company with a larger pool of scientific manpower and receive follow-on benefits from the resulting manufacturing process experience.

David Stacey, to evaluate a weighing device that the company was developing.

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Stacey was named technical director, bringing six CU colleagues with him. Today Ball Aerospace continues to have strong ties to CU, partnering on research, offering learning opportunities for students and providing career opportunities for many CU grads. Banyan Biomarkers is the leader in developing blood test-based diagnostic products for the detection of traumatic brain injury TBI. Detecting these biomarkers will provide the indications of brain trauma essential for earlier intervention and management.

Accurate and early diagnosis in acute care environments can significantly simplify decisions about patient management including whether to admit, discharge or to administer other time consuming, expensive and often inaccurate diagnostic tests including computed tomography CT and magnetic resonance imaging MRI scans. Simple, rapid diagnostic tools will immensely facilitate allocation of the medical resources required to treat TBI and other brain injuries in military cobat and civilian emergencies. There is currently no simple point-of-care blood test that emergency room physicians can use to establish whether a patient has brain trauma, or how severe it is.

These programs have focused on neuroproteomic approaches for identifying potential brain injury biomarkers, and the use of animal models and clinical studies to reveal relationships between biomarkers and brain injury. These studies have produced an extensive pipeline of potential biomarkers which have been licensed to Banyan Biomarkers.

Biomedical The enabling research was focused on developing a fast way for military doctors to diagnose traumatic brain injury in the field and was funded by the Department of Defense. Until then, they are focused on improving treatment for people with diabetes. The founders of Beta Bionics hope that there will one day be a cure for diabetes. Boston University professor Ed Damiano, along with Firas El-Khatib, Ed Raskin, Serafina Raskin and Gibb Clark, founded Beta Bionics in as a public benefit corporation committed to serving in the best interest of people with type 1 diabetes and their families.

Beta Bionics hopes to have its first product on the market by the end of BioFront Technologies provides kits and services that enable the detection of food allergens and infectious diseases. Department of Agriculture-funded research in the lab of Dr. Kenneth Roux to develop monoclonal antibodies for use in identifying and characterizing major allergenic proteins in tree nuts.

His research has been continuously funded by the National Institutes of Health for more than two decades and has also been supported by funding from the Environmental Protection Agency. BioMarck recently announced that the United States Patent and Trademark Office issued the company two new patents enhancing its intellectual property portfolio in support of its current lead drug for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The company is also collaborating with commercialization partners for nearer-term applications.

The affordability, speed and simplicity of the technology are expected to make the routine use of genetic information feasible for genetic diagnostics, personalized medicine and biomedical research. BioResource International BRI is a global biotechnology company focused on the discovery and development of enzymes to enhance and protect animal and human health.

Research conducted by Dr. John Shih of the Department of Poultry Science at North Carolina State University resulted in several inventions related to improving animal health and nutrition. Biomedical Development of the technology was supported by funding from the U. The company is a leader in translating neural engineering innovation into products making it a key partner for the National Institutes of Health, DARPA the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and leading university and industrial research centers worldwide.

Blackrock has the largest portfolio of FDA-cleared and CE-marked products those approved for sale in Europe for neuro-electrophysiology research. Solzbacher had spent many years researching and developing implantable technologies that could help bridge this gap. Rather than start from scratch, the two built their company on top of an existing legacy of high-tech innovation that began with Bionic Technologies, a spin-off from the University of Utah in , which was later taken over by Cyberkinetics Neurotechnology Systems, Inc.

The foundational technologies at the heart of Blackrock Microsystems were developed with support from the Department of Defense and the National Institutes of Health. The company builds software for situational awareness and control to unleash the combined power of humans and machines. Since its founding it has filed for several patents related to haptic control of telerobotic systems.

Prior to the founding of the company, federal research funding supported the graduate studies of co-founder Fredrik Ryden during work on his Ph. BioBlower products are based on patented technology that uses compressive heating to sterilize air. No chemicals, radiation or filters are required. Additionally, a BioBlower moves as well as sterilizes the air, eliminating the need for fans required in HEPA filtration, radiation and other competitive technologies.

Potential applications include healthcare facilities, military, homeland defense, emergency response, pharmaceutical production, and food production, among others. The company is currently completing a DOD contract to scale up the BioBlower technology to allow for protection of an entire building from external biological attack.

Buffalo BioBlower Technologies develops products that instantaneously sterilize high-volume airstreams; all spores, bacteria and viruses in the airstream are killed. John Lordi and Dr. Jim Garvey, are both professors. It is now the second largest firm in the electronic design automation industry. Cadence customers use their software, hardware, and services to overcome a range of technical and economic hurdles. Cadence bridges the traditional gap between chip designers and fabrication facilities, so that manufacturing challenges can be addressed early in the design stage.

CRL maintains a variety of collaborations with other research institutions and universities. But it is particularly involved with the University of California, Berkeley. It allows scientists with relative ease and precision to snip out a segment of mutated or damaged DNA to correct genes that are disease-causing, opening the door to potential treatments for diseases where there currently are none. Caribou was founded by scientists from the University of California, Berkeley to drive the commercialization of applications based on the remarkable nucleic acid modification capabilities found in prokaryotic CRISPR systems.

In , Rodolphe Barrangou, a former Chairman of the Board of Directors of Caribou and current scientific advisor, led the group that characterized CRISPR systems as a form of prokaryotic adaptive immunity that provides a critical line of defense against invading phages, plasmids, and environmental nucleic acids. Caribou co-founder Jennifer Doudna further advanced the technology by demonstrating in her UC Berkeley lab that Cas9 can be programmed to bind and cleave virtually any DNA sequence.

Biomedical Research funding from the National Institutes of Health and the National Science Foundation helped support the foundational research that led to these discoveries at the University of California. Once SituMap is installed on a large touch-screen display, often found in control centers, multiple users are provided a space for collaboration around a single screen.

SituMap also operates on tablets, which can be deployed in the field for in-situ mapping and decision making. CartoFusion Technologies is a geospatial technology company. The SituMap application was created in Dr. However, during an NSF-funded summer institute for disasters, an early version of SituMap was demonstrated and received an overwhelmingly positive response.

Subsequent requests to purchase SituMap by the participating first responders sparked the idea of commercializing the application and creating CartoFusion Technologies. The company offers more than high-quality and ready-to-use mouse primary cell types derived from genetically modified mice and more than 70 high-quality and read-to-use mouse primary cell types derived from several different wild type mice.

Cell Biologics is dedicated to the rapid development of significant basic and clinical research on the endothelium by saving investigators time, money, and laboratory costs in the production of consistent normal and genetically modified cells in a timely and reproducible manner. Cell Biologics provides genetically modified knockout or transgenic or normal mouse primary endothelial cells, mouse leukocytes, mouse bone marrow cells, and other mouse primary cell types for customized solutions to specific research problems.

This innovation could potentially improve outcomes in the treatment of heart muscle disease. It also serves as a platform for the repair of bone, cartilage, muscle and nerve tissues. The products being developed by Cell Habitats are based on research conducted at the University of Illinois at Chicago by Professors Brenda Russell, Tejal Desai now at the University of California, San Francisco , and Paul Goldspink now at the Medical College of Wisconsin on tissue engineering and how three-dimensional cellular interactions affect cellular functions, such as proliferation.

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The result is an inexpensive, small, and robust portable microscope that can be used anywhere. CDI is a leading developer of stem cell technologies for in vitro drug development, in vivo cellular therapeutics, and stem cell banking. CDI was founded in by Dr. James Thomson, a pioneer in human pluripotent stem cell research at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Cellular Dynamics International, Inc.

Thomson was licensed to the company. Within the field of nanopharmaceuticals, Cerulean Pharma is uniquely focused on a next-generation approach it calls nanobiology. Cerulean is focused on the therapeutic areas of oncology and autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Licensed exclusively from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology MIT , Cerulean uses its proprietary Nanocell technology to develop multi-compartmental nanoparticle-based therapeutics in which two or more drugs with varied release times are packaged within the Nanocell, allowing for sequential delivery of the drugs, optimizing the location, time and combinatorial effect of two therapies while minimizing toxicities.

Nanopharmaceuticals are a revolutionary new approach to designing drugs within ultra-small particles and enhancing their properties with the goal of creating improved therapies for fighting disease. Both continue to serve as scientific advisors to the company. Chromatin is also using this synthetic biology technology to develop scalable and competitive solutions for the North American cellulosic biofuels market.

Daphne Preuss did pioneering research into chromosomes and chromosome assembly at the University of Chicago. Working with Arabidopsis, a weed variant of mustard, she invented techniques for identifying the location of centromeres and for inserting gene plasmids. Cisco was born 25 years ago out of a need to address a simple problem: A technology had to be invented to deal with disparate local area protocols. In solving their problem the multi-protocol router was born. Since then Cisco has helped shape the Internet and transformed how people connect, communicate and collaborate. Len Bosack and Sandra Lerner both earned their graduate degrees at Stanford University and were employed by the university in the early s.

Samirkumar Patel completed his doctoral degree at Georgia Tech in the drug delivery lab of Dr. Funding from the National Institutes of Health helped support their research. After trying various resources to help students learn to code, the same problems kept surfacing. The students were getting frustrated, and so were Julie and Olga. The pair reflected back to what worked when they were learning how to code, and realized that creativity and collaboration were the biggest keys.

So, they decided to go off-book, create a custom curriculum and teach students the tools that professional web developers were using. The results were dramatic. They saw a huge leap in student success, as well as their happiness. The founders reported they have run into their students at hackathons and watched them build incredible projects for the future. The enabling technology addresses a major need in the growing market as SSDs face major issues in terms of reliability due to the growing demands for higher storage capacity at reduced cost, and increased speed and endurance for emerging storage applications.

The technology will have a major impact on consumer devices such as laptops and tablets as well as data centers and cloud-based storage systems which are all migrating to the use of SSDs over conventional hard disk drives to enable faster speeds and reduced power usage. Codelucida is developing a disruptive error-correction technology for next-generation solid-state drives SSD. Bane Vasic, a professor of electrical and computer engineering at the University of Arizona and expert in the field of error correction, was on sabbatical in France.

At one of these coffee-sessions, the idea of a new type of a decoder was born. This low-density parity check decoder corrects errors accumulated in data transmitted over a noisy medium by propagating messages in a similar manner to the neurons in a neural network exchange. During the next couple of years they developed this concept further. Cognex vision systems and sensors help companies improve their manufacturing quality and performance by eliminating defects, verifying assembly, and tracking and capturing information at every stage of production.

And the three founding academics? Cognex Corporation was founded by Dr. Shillman decided to leave academia to start Cognex, investing his life savings into the company. What began as a summer job for Marilyn and Bill turned out to be the start of a career, as they stayed on to help co-found the company.

The company continues to focus heavily on its technology. Since its founding in , ColdQuanta has been instrumental in transitioning the science of ultracold matter into a viable commercial applied technology. CollabWorx specializes in supporting both synchronous and asynchronous communications to facilitate secure collaboration within the most demanding environments.

CollabWorx is a provider of secure real-time collaboration and Conferencing over Internet Protocol CoIP solutions in the government, health care, education, and green technology markets. In the early days of the Internet, Dr. Currently, the company is developing on-line health care solutions for medical consults and for advanced home care and patient monitoring over Internet. In collaboration with grad student Giovani Bellicanta, they evaluated the potential for use of their biopesticide for bed bug control.

Department of Agriculture, they were able to conduct the research necessary to develop extensive efficacy data and begin to pursue commercialization. An estimated , deaths worldwide each year are attributed to antimicrobial-resistant infections. ContraFect's initial product candidates include new agents to treat antibiotic-resistant infections such as MRSA and influenza.

ContraFect is a clinical stage biotechnology company focused on discovering and developing therapeutic proteins and antibodies for life-threatening, drug-resistant infectious diseases, particularly those treated in hospital settings. Lysins are enzymes that digest the bacterial cell wall and kill bacteria rapidly upon contact, much faster than conventional antibiotics which typically require time for bacterial metabolism to occur before killing bacteria or stopping their growth.

ContraFect has acquired worldwide exclusive rights to nine lysins discovered by co-founder Dr. Vincent Fischetti at The Rockefeller University.

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Each lysin targets specific gram-positive bacteria, including Staph aureus, pneumococcus, group B streptococcus, enterococcus and anthrax. Core Quantum Technologies, Inc. In biomedical applications, researchers can attach the MultiDot to specific cell structures and better identify and understand disease progression. Core Quantum Technologies specializes in a type of nano-particle that emits different colors and is used to tag molecules in biomedical tests.

It was founded to bridge the gap between writing about research findings and bringing those findings to bear in a therapeutic way on patients. Winter had been diagnosed with breast cancer and wanted her work to have a greater impact. The group won the competition and launched Core Quantum Technologies. They further secured a National Science Foundation I-Corps grant, enabling them to refine their business plan and market focus. The basic research that led to the founding of Core Quantum Technologies was supported with funding from the National Science Foundation.

Cree customers range from innovative lighting fixtures makers to defense-related federal agencies. The scientific work that led to the founding of Cree, Inc. Their first work was funded by the Office of Naval Research ONR , which hoped to develop processes for the production of microwave transistors from SiC that would supply the basis for higher power electronic systems for military aircraft. The physical characteristics of silicon carbide led researchers to believe that the material possessed significant advantages over the semiconductor materials being used at the time, such as silicon.

It was thought that silicon carbide-based devices would be able to operate at much higher temperatures, much higher power and voltage levels, and much higher frequencies than those made from silicon. It was also believed that blue light emitting LEDs could be produced from silicon carbide. The NCSU team found ways around many of these barriers; it developed proprietary processes for growing bulk SiC in single crystalline form, for applying SiC films, and for dry etching the material. The company has developed a resistive random access Memory ReRAM based on the movement of silver ions through amorphous silicon to form a filamentary structure.

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