Lists with This Book. This book is not yet featured on Listopia. Dec 29, Sandra Stiles rated it liked it Shelves: Logan and his dog Lucy love candy. His mom tells them the dangers of eating too much candy. She tells them that too much candy can cause them to gain weight, get cavities or make them sick. Logan asks his mom what cavities are and she describes them to Logan. Logan imagines them as monsters in his mouth that he must fight.
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He talks to his mom who explains the way to beat the cavity monster is to br Logan and his dog Lucy love candy. He talks to his mom who explains the way to beat the cavity monster is to brush your teeth and not eat so much candy. This is a cute way to express the importance of brushing and eating right. Doug Steinberg rated it it was amazing May 28, Roxanne rated it really liked it Jun 18, Kristin Decker rated it did not like it Mar 13, Traci Morris rated it it was ok May 15, Tracy marked it as to-read Feb 25, BeachLove20 marked it as to-read Jul 19, Sheila Karrington marked it as to-read Apr 16, There are no discussion topics on this book yet.
Books by Casey Crayne. Trivia About Candy Trouble. Candy making is an exact science and recipes include the use of crystalline sucrose and other sugars as its main ingredient. In all cases, each type of sugar-based candy pretty much starts out the same. Crystalline sugar a solute and sometimes corn syrup are dissolved in a liquid, usually water a solvent to make a sugar solution, which is then heated and boiled into a liquid, sugar syrup.
This is done to a certain temperature, concentration density and color depending on the recipe. Flavoring, cream, chocolate, nuts or other ingredients can be added, either before, during or after cooking, some serving as what it called interfering agents, such as lemon juice, butter, cream, etc.
Plus, the solution may be stirred at pre-determined times, cooled and shaped in a certain way, resulting in different types of candy and textures. Sugars are made up of simple molecules. Sucrose, for example, is made up of two simpler sugars stuck together: Identical molecules are stacked together in neat organized geometric patterns repeated over and over again making a unique crystalline structure. Under a microscope, you can see that sugar crystals aren?
Image courtesy of Nutrition and Food Management Dept. Sugar crystals remain solid at room temperature. When sugar crystals are dissolved in water, the first step in candymaking, the sugar goes into solution. It is then heated and boiled to certain temperatures. Here you are making chemical changes or reactions in the sugar; the heat breaks the crystals apart into molecules which at some point will come back together again as a sugar crystal as the sugar syrup cools.
The fact that it solidifies into crystals after heating, is extremely important in candy making. The picture shows Rock candy, which contains large sugar crystals attached to on another. It is made in a way similar to other candy recipes - the water and sugar are boiled first and then cooled slowly, without stirring, causing large crystals to form on a string or stick which provides a foreign object that they can cluster on.
The goal in candymaking is to control the way these individual molecules come back together again to form a new crystalline structure and size particular to the type of candy you want. Generally, recipe ingredients and procedures are specifically designed to control the reformation and size of sugar crystals. This results in two categories of candy: Here candy can range from the soft textures of caramels and fudges, where crystallization is minimized, to hard candies where crystallization results in a desired grainy or crystalline structure. This does not occur as smoothly as one hopes because of the nature of sugar crystals.
A Candy Thermometer is the most accurate way of testing the temperature of the sugar solution. I use mine all the time. Even without heat, crystallized sugar will dissolve in water. Up to a certain point, that is. The general principle with candy making is that at a particular temperature, a given solvent in this case, water can dissolve only so much of a particular solute sugar , reaching its saturation point where no more sugar can be dissolved. In other words, sugar crystals added to the solution after saturation will just sink to the bottom of the container.
That's because heat disrupts sugar's crystalline structure, breaking apart the sugar's molecules which allow more of it to dissolve in the water.
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As you have probably already found out, sugar dissolves more readily in hot liquids than in cold. As the sugar solution continues to be heated, the sugar's molecules move faster and become farther apart, enabling the solution to dissolve more and more sugar molecules, until it boils.
Here, the sugar solution turns into a clear, syrupy substance, called a sugar syrup. Sugar syrups have various other uses than in candy making, such as soaking cakes, glazing baked goods, poaching or preserving fruit, adding to frostings, etc. Also called "Simple Syrup", sugar syrup is a solution of sugar s. Sugar syrup can be made in various densities: Thin 3 parts water to 1 part sugar ; Medium 2 parts water to 1 part sugar ; and, Heavy 1 part water to 1 part sugar Depending on the thickness, sugar syrups have various uses including soaking cakes such as babas , glazing baked goods, poaching or preserving fruit, adding to frostings, etc.
Once the solution boils, many water molecules are released into the air, concentrating the solution as a sugar syrup and raising its boiling point. In general, a solid, such as sugar, dissolved in a liquid makes it harder for the liquid molecules to escape. Consequently, the solution has to be hotter for the liquid molecules to get away at the same rate, and the boiling point rises.
As boiling point increases, the concentration of solute continues to increase. You can use the temperature of the boiling syrup to tell when enough water has boiled away to give the syrup the right ratio of sugar to water for each candy recipe. For example, the boiling point of water is usually degrees F. However, when the liquid is around 70 percent sugar, the boiling temperature rises to degrees. At degrees, the solution will be 80 percent sugar, and a small portion of the solution will form a soft ball when dropped in cold water.
At about degrees, the solution, now about 98 percent sugar. As the solution is heated to above the boiling point, the solution becomes supersaturated. Here, more water evaporates and the concentration of sugar crystals to water increases. Now the solution has a delicate balance of just enough sugar molecules and just enough heat to keep them dissolved, but it is in an unstable state. The sugar molecules will begin to crystallize back into a solid at the least provocation and disruption of heat. Stirring or jostling of any kind or introducing a new sugar crystal from an outside source into syrup, can cause the sugar molecules to begin recrystallizing to return to their original, dry and stable crystalline state.
The magic in making candy is learning when to stir the sugar syrup and knowing when to stop it from cooking. Sometimes you can see unwanted crystallization happening before your eyes, for example when the sugar syrup becomes a stiff and crackled mess in your pot upon cooling, ruining the whole batch.
Sometimes you don't always see that unwanted crystallization has occurred until it's too late. For example, once I made homemade fudge and could hardly wait to taste it. When the moment came, and it bit into a piece, to my surprise it was sandy and gritty, rather than smooth and creamy! Into the garbage can it went. When boiling stops and the cooling process starts, if you've done everything right, the syrup continues to cool as a supersaturated solution and you get the recrystallization you want, the size of which is also influenced by stirring, kneading or beating.
At a higher temperature the rate of crystallization is slow and becomes more rapid at a lower temperature. Whether you stir the sugar syrup or not during cooking or afterwards is determined by the type of candy being made.sei2019.xtage.com.br/map18.php
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Prepare the ingredients and pans: There are different ingredient formulas used depending upon the candy recipe. Weighing ingredients is the most accurate way to measure solids, such as sugar, but it can also be measured in a dry measuring cup. Measure liquids in a liquid measuring cup. High humidity over 60 percent in the room in which you?
On rainy days, some say to cook the candy mixture a degree or two higher than indicated in the recipe to help compensate, but it doesn't always work. Prepare all equipment and tools in advance; you won't be able to once the candy making steps start. All pots and utensils must be spotless and dry.
If using a buttered pan or platter, always have the pan ready before making candy. Prevent crystals from forming by buttering the sides of the saucepan before adding ingredients so when mixture bubbles up, grains of sugar can't cling. The first step - mix together the ingredients: The sugar and water ingredients are put into a 2 to 3 qt saucepan large enough so boiled sugar does not overflow and placed over medium heat.
Stir the mixture constantly until the sugar is dissolved. Most candy recipes require that the sides of the pot be washed down early in the cooking process, either with a wet pastry brush or by putting the lid on the pan for about three minutes to remove any sugar crystals clinging to the container walls. It is also why the recipes specify that the sides and bottom of the pan should not be scraped into the bowl where the candy is to cool.
There is too much chance of scraping in a stray sugar crystal. Afterwards, place a candy thermometer on the side of the pan. Any agitation can cause unwanted crystallization that happens by accidentally bumping into the pan, moving it while cooking, stirring the contents in the pan at the wrong time or placing it on the countertop with a bang. Boil the mixture until the desired temperature has been reached: Boil sugar solution according to the recipe and measure its temperature with a candy thermometer.
Keep the temperature constant; never try to rush a candy mixture by cooking it at a higher temperature than the recipe directs, or slow it down by reducing the heat. All sweets are cooled slightly before being shaped. How the solution is cooled also affects the type of candy. If you cool quickly after you boil at a known heat, the candy forms as a crystalline or brittle type such as rock candy.
At a bit slower cooling after boiling at the same temperature, the candy forms a non-crystalline structure known as a taffy or caramel. For more crystalline candy like fudge, the mixture is set aside to cool slowly. Then it is stirred again to break crystals into smaller pieces, making the fudge smooth and creamy. Lastly, if you add a gelatin, starch, pectin, or gum to the boiling mixture the sugar will gel and make products like jelly beans, Turkish delight, and licorices. Most simply, the boiled mass is poured onto a table this should be made from metal, stone, or marble to cool the recipe uniformly.
It is important that the boiled mass is cooled sufficiently, since if it is to be formed by hand there is a danger that you may suffer burns. My pan has baked-on crystallized sugar which I am having much trouble removing when I clean the pans. Is there a good way to remove this sticky stuff? Pans with baked on crystallized sugar are unavoidable. Fill the pan water, put it on the stove, turn the burner up to high, and let the crystallized sugar dissolve as the water boils. Then clean as usual. You can also put any utensils that you used in boiling the sugar into the pan to clean at the same time.
Stir the candy at the proper stirring temperature. In the case of caramels and lollipops, no stirring is necessary; candy may be transferred directly to serving pan. For candies that must be stirred, continue until mass is thick and stirring difficult due to crystallization.
Beating is a process which controls the process of crystallization and produces crystals of a small size. For example in the production of fudge, the mass is poured onto the table, left to cool, and then beaten with a wood or metal beater. There are two main ways of forming sweets: Molds may be as simple as a greased and lined tray.
Others can be made from rubber, plastic, metal, starch, or wood. The mixture is poured into the impressions and allowed to set. Combine the brown sugar, granulated sugar, corn syrup and water in a 3-quart saucepan over medium-high heat. Heat and stir with a wooden spoon until the sugar is dissolved. You should no longer to feel any grains of sugar against the bottom of the pan when you stir Move pan off the heat, with a wet pastry brush or wet paper towel, wipe any grains of sugar from the sides of the pan above the liquid level.
Place pan back on heat. Clip on candy thermometer and bring the syrup to a boil. Read the thermometer at eye level. Do not stir or shake. When it has reached this stage, stir in the butter and the mixture will cool down. Remove from heat and stir in remaining ingredients and nuts as the recipe directs. Pour onto baking sheets when thoroughly mixed. Heat the chocolate, sugar, half-and-half and corn syrup in a heavy saucepan over medium-low heat, scraping down the sides of the pan with a wooden-handled, heat-proof spatula.
Clamp on a candy thermometer on the side of the pan. Boil the mixture gently, scraping frequently to prevent burning until the temperature is degrees F degrees C. Turn off the heat. Drop 2 tablespoons of butter on top and stir quickly. Allow to cool to degrees F 43 degrees C. Add other ingredients from the recipe and beat. Pour or knead and press into greased pan. Using the Candy Thermometer: Before you start making candy, calibrate your candy thermometer: Water should boil at degrees F. Measure the boiling point of water with your new thermometer by leaving it in boiling water for 10 minutes.
Add or subtract any difference when determining the end-point of the boil of your sugar slurry. The temperature the sugar solution boils to and its color determine whether or not the sugar solution will harden into a soft and creamy Fudge or a hard and brittle, Nut Brittle. Temperature and color are recorded on a Sugar Syrup Chart. The chart tells you how hot to boil the sugar solution to, its corresponding color and what it looks like when dropped in cold water, called the Cold Water Viscosity Test.
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The temperature and color are directly related to the type of candy you're making. Experienced candy makers can just look at the sugar syrup's color and know when it's done, but for beginners and even experienced candy makers , I recommend using a Candy Thermometer at all times.
Ranked from best to worst are: Don't double a candy recipe -- rather, make 2 separate batches instead. Increasing the amount of ingredients changes the cooking time, adversely affecting the final recipe. A Candy Thermometer makes candy-making easier and more foolproof by indicating the exact temperature, and thus the concentration of the syrup. The concentration of the syrup determines whether the finished product is a soft and creamy fudge or a hard and brittle.
Note the exact temperature to boil the sugar syrup to will differ by recipe and type of candy being made. At higher altitudes candy cooks faster. Read thermometer at eye level. Watch the sugar solution carefully and read the thermometer frequently. Look at the thermometer at eye level to read it accurately -- do not remove it from the pan until your recipe is done cooking.
Buy a thermometer with a clip that attaches to the side of your pan. Every time you place the thermometer in the pot, make sure it is spotless and dry. A speck of old sugar left on it could ruin the whole batch by crystallizing it.
Trouble in candy land
When you start to cook your candy, have the thermometer nearby, resting in a container of warm water. Be sure to dry it before using. Then it will be preheated when you lower it into the hot mixture. Clip the candy thermometer to pan after cleaning the sugar from the sides of the pan with a damp pastry brush and the right before syrup boils. The bulb of the thermometer must be covered with boiling liquid, not just foam, but it should never touch the bottom of the pan. Knowing when to stop boiling the sugar solution is crucial.
Stopping the boil at degrees F really means degrees F. Don't sit and watch the thermometer climb to degrees F 'just to be sure. When you remove the thermometer, put it back into the warm water. To remove sticky sugar, while still warm, place in hot water. Dry and let the thermometer cool before putting away. I keep mine in the drawer where it won't be disturbed. The importance of temperature in candy making: With sugar and water, you can make five kinds of candy through temperature and density!
Of course, you add other ingredients to the candy at different times depending on the recipe i. Often, you add food color to improve eye appeal but temperature remains the key to the kind of candy you make whenever you cook up a sugar mixture. Suppose you put sugar and water in a pan over heat, cover the pan and, shaking the pan, bring the mixture to a boil dissolving the sugar.